The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 29192

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, via Ugo Bassi 58/b, 35131 Padova, Italy
Interests: antioxidants; bioactive peptides; bioactive compounds; anti-inflammatory
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padua, Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova, Italy
Interests: antioxidant molecules; anti cancer drugs; mitochondria; thiol redox regulation; thioredoxin reductase; glutathione
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last years, chronic and age-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and obesity are gaining increasing relevance, as an inflammatory process and an imbalance of cellular redox status characterize these pathologies. Therefore, new strategies for nutraceuticals, which are food-derived bioactive molecules promoting health benefits beyond basic nutritional, are quite attractive. As matter of fact, antioxidant bioactive peptides, polyphenols and other specific antioxidant constituents are gaining increasing interest. Together with these molecules, probiotics have shown to exert numerous health benefits, such as antimicrobial and antihypertensive effects, reduction of serum cholesterol and stimulation of the immune system. Fermentation is a process traditionally used to increase food preservation and improve the quality of the original product, such as flavour, aroma and appearance. To this purpose, specific genera of lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Leuconostoc, yeast or other microorganisms are usually utilized. Fermented foods are considered for the capacity, not only to prevent their own alterations and to extend shelf life, but especially for their potential benefits on human health. Indeed, the proteolytic action of the fermenting bacteria can improve the health promoting properties of the food matrix, increasing the bioavailability of specific compounds such as polyphenols and bioactive peptides.

The interaction between probiotics and antioxidants is noteworthy and can be a starting point to the development of new biotechnological opportunities, allowing the production of new functional foods that can improve human and/or animal health.

The goal of this Special Issue is to publish both recent innovative research advances, as well as review papers on the following topics:

  • The role of antioxidant compounds in fermented foods
  • Health benefits of the association of fermented foods and antioxidants
  • The interaction between antioxidants and fermentation products
  • The development of new fermented beverages or foods with antioxidant properties
  • Fermentation of by-products derived from food processing industries
  • Identification of antioxidant and bioactive compounds released during fermentation process
  • Evaluation of the effects of fermented food antioxidant compounds (in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo)

If you are willing to contribute with other related topics, please contact one of the editors.

Dr. Federica Tonolo
Prof. Dr. Maria Pia Rigobello
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • antioxidant compounds
  • fermentation
  • fermented foods
  • human/animal health
  • bioactive compounds
  • bioactive peptides
  • functional foods
  • nutraceuticals
  • benefits of fermented foods
  • probiotic foods

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 3428 KiB  
Article
Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation on the Polar Compounds Content with Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activity of Avocado Seed Extracts
by María del Carmen Razola-Díaz, Soumi De Montijo-Prieto, María José Aznar-Ramos, María Jiménez-Valera, Alfonso Ruiz-Bravo, Vito Verardo and Ana María Gómez-Caravaca
Fermentation 2023, 9(5), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9050420 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2091
Abstract
Avocado seeds, a common waste in the avocado processing industry, have been found to have several bioactivities, such as anticancer, antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities, among others. Nowadays, this wastage is causing an environmental problem, so the use of new technologies to [...] Read more.
Avocado seeds, a common waste in the avocado processing industry, have been found to have several bioactivities, such as anticancer, antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities, among others. Nowadays, this wastage is causing an environmental problem, so the use of new technologies to take advantage of it is a novel field of research. In this study, the submerged fermentation by lactic acid bacteria was used as a novel tool for improving the bioactive compound extraction from avocado seeds. Avocado seeds were fermented by different strains, their polar compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS, the antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, and the antidiabetic activity was analyzed by the alpha-amylase assay. A total of 32 polar compounds were identified, with 13 of them being described in avocado seeds for the first time. Avocado seeds fermented by Pentosaceus acidilactici showed the highest sum of polar compounds (6279.63 ± 67.74 µg/g d.w.), and by extension, of hydroxytyrosol glucoside (2989.76 ± 3.64 µg/g d.w.). Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CECT 9567 showed the highest antioxidant activity measured by both DPPH and FRAP assays (6294.67 ± 19.44 and 6846.91 ± 2.13 µg TE/g d.w., respectively). Furthermore, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CECT 748T had the highest antidiabetic activity (52.15% ± 0.67% inhibition of alpha-amylase activity), attributable to the polyphenols. According to the results, submerged fermentation by lactic acid bacteria led to an interesting increase of the polar compounds’ extractability of avocado seeds, consequently improving the bioactivities of the extracts, which could then be used for food nutraceutical or cosmetic purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods)
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12 pages, 1626 KiB  
Article
Fermentation of Corn By-Products: From Agrifood Waste to Higher Value Antioxidant Products
by Federica Tonolo, Alessandra Folda, Stefania Ferro, Roberta Seraglia, Angiolella Lombardi, Christian Andrighetto, Alessia Giannoni, Oriano Marin and Maria Pia Rigobello
Fermentation 2023, 9(4), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9040373 - 13 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1885
Abstract
To improve the nutri-functional quality and, in particular, the antioxidant capacity of corn by-products, fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria was carried out. To this purpose, white-1 and 2 and yellow corn by-products were fermented and then extracted. In all the samples, the [...] Read more.
To improve the nutri-functional quality and, in particular, the antioxidant capacity of corn by-products, fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria was carried out. To this purpose, white-1 and 2 and yellow corn by-products were fermented and then extracted. In all the samples, the fermentation process shows an improvement in antioxidant activity in comparison to non-fermented by-products. It was observed that the yellow corn by-product extracts have a higher content of total phenols, especially after fermentation with P. pentosaceus, while for white-1 corn by-product extracts, an increment of antioxidant capability was noticed when fermented with L. plantarum. The antioxidant capacity was measured with DPPH and ABTS+ assays, showing that yellow corn extracts are more active in comparison with white-1 and white-2 ones. Moreover, L. plantarum and P. pentosaceus provided the best results in increasing the antioxidant activity in all the samples. Analyzing lipid peroxidation in the presence of fermented white-2 corn by-product extracts, we observed an inhibition of the process after treatment with L. citreum compared to the non-fermented control. In all the analyzed samples, through LC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis, the antioxidant dicoumaroyl spermidine (DCS) was detected. The abundance of antioxidant molecules was higher in samples fermented with P. pentosaceus, confirming previous observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods)
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15 pages, 5079 KiB  
Article
Enhancing the Chemical Composition of Kombucha Fermentation by Adding Indian Gooseberry as a Substrate
by Tharinee Klawpiyapamornkun, Toungporn Uttarotai, Sunanta Wangkarn, Panee Sirisa-ard, Suwalee Kiatkarun, Yingmanee Tragoolpua and Sakunnee Bovonsombut
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030291 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2947
Abstract
Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage obtained by the symbiosis of yeast, acetic acid bacteria and some lactic acid bacteria, and it has many health benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of adding Indian gooseberry as a substrate [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage obtained by the symbiosis of yeast, acetic acid bacteria and some lactic acid bacteria, and it has many health benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of adding Indian gooseberry as a substrate to enhance the chemical properties of kombucha. In this study, traditional kombucha made from green tea was compared to kombucha made from green tea blended with various forms of Indian gooseberry, including whole fruit, dried fruit and juice. The fermentation was performed for 21 days and samples were collected every 3 days to enumerate the total number of yeast and bacteria. Physical and chemical properties, including total soluble solids, alcohol content, pH, acetic acid content, total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and organic acids, were analyzed. The results revealed that the dried Indian gooseberry kombucha (DIGK) demonstrated significantly high total phenolic content and total flavonoid content. In addition, DIGK had the highest D-Saccharic acid-1,4 lactone (DSL) on the 9th day of fermentation. This discovery suggests that dried Indian gooseberry can be used as an alternative substrate for kombucha fermentation to create a new type of kombucha beverage with enhanced chemical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods)
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18 pages, 4023 KiB  
Article
Sulphate Uptake Plays a Major Role in the Production of Sulphur Dioxide by Yeast Cells during Oenological Fermentations
by Sara Granuzzo, Francesca Righetto, Caterina Peggion, Matteo Bosaro, Martina Frizzarin, Paolo Antoniali, Geppo Sartori and Raffaele Lopreiato
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030280 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2147
Abstract
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is mostly used as an antioxidant additive in winemaking, but excessive levels may be harmful to both wine quality and consumers health. During fermentation, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contributes significantly to final SO2 levels, and low-producing strains become [...] Read more.
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is mostly used as an antioxidant additive in winemaking, but excessive levels may be harmful to both wine quality and consumers health. During fermentation, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contributes significantly to final SO2 levels, and low-producing strains become especially interesting for the wine industry. Recent evidence implicating the impairment of sulphate transport in the SO2 decrease prompted us to further investigate the sulphate/sulphite metabolic connection in multiple winery yeast strains. Here, we inactivated by CRISPR/Cas9 the high-affinity sulphate permeases (Sul1p and Sul2p) in four strains normally used in winemaking, selected by their different abilities to produce SO2. Mutant strains were then used to perform fermentation assays in different types of natural must, and the final levels of SO2 and other secondary metabolites, crucial for wine organoleptic properties, were further determined for all fermentation products. Overall, data demonstrated the double ΔSUL1/ΔSUL2 inactivation in winery strains significantly decreases the levels of SO2 produced by mutant cells, without however altering both yeast fermentative properties and the ability to release relevant metabolites. Since similar effects were observed in diverse must types for strains with different features, the data strongly support that sulphate assimilation is the determining factor in SO2 production during oenological fermentations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods)
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10 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
Screening of Antioxidant Effect of Spontaneous and Bioinoculated with Gluconobacter oxydans Fermented Papaya: A Comparative Study
by Mariana Leitão, Beatriz Ferreira, Beatriz Guedes, Daniela Moreira, Pablo A. García, Luisa Barreiros and Patrícia Correia
Fermentation 2023, 9(2), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9020124 - 27 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1320
Abstract
Fermented papaya is recognized as a nutraceutical with a diverse and rich composition. Fermentation of fruit with desirable microorganisms could be a strategy to improve the nutritional quality and profile of the fruit. Despite the popularity of fermented papaya, there is still a [...] Read more.
Fermented papaya is recognized as a nutraceutical with a diverse and rich composition. Fermentation of fruit with desirable microorganisms could be a strategy to improve the nutritional quality and profile of the fruit. Despite the popularity of fermented papaya, there is still a lack of knowledge on the effects of various fermentation parameters. The goal of this study was to screen the antioxidant and other properties of the products obtained through a variety of fermentation experiments, as well as the impact of adding Gluconobacter oxydans on their physicochemical properties. The strategies used to produce the fermented papaya extracts were spontaneous fermentation and bioinoculation with G. oxydans. Different fermentation tests were performed to measure pH, total soluble solids, reducing sugars, sodium pyruvate content, total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). There was a decrease in TPC during spontaneous fermentations (five assays). However, it can be observed that in the fermentation assays with G. oxydans, there was an increase in TPC and antioxidant properties. The highest content of TPC was observed on the eighth day of P7 (260.18 ± 0.02 µg gallic acid equivalents mL−1) which was fermented with the bacteria and supplemented with glucose. Therefore, phenolic compounds in fermented papaya were found to increase antioxidant capacity as a result of bioinoculation with G. oxydans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods)
23 pages, 1484 KiB  
Article
The Potential of Traditional ‘Gaja’ and New Breed Lines of Waxy, Blue and Purple Wheat in Wholemeal Flour Fermentation
by Ernestas Mockus, Vytaute Starkute, Egle Zokaityte, Dovile Klupsaite, Vadims Bartkevics, Anastasija Borisova, João Miguel Rocha, Romas Ruibys, Zilvinas Liatukas, Vytautas Ruzgas and Elena Bartkiene
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100563 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1725
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the acidity, microbiological and colour characteristics, fatty (FA) and amino (AA) acid profiles, biogenic amine (BA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations, and macro- and microelement contents in non-treated (non-fermented) and fermented wholemeal cereal [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the acidity, microbiological and colour characteristics, fatty (FA) and amino (AA) acid profiles, biogenic amine (BA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations, and macro- and microelement contents in non-treated (non-fermented) and fermented wholemeal cereal flours of ‘Gaja’ (traditional wheat) and new breed lines DS8888-3-6 (waxy wheat), DS8548-7 (blue wheat) and DS8535-2 (purple wheat). Independent fermentations were undertaken with selected strains of Pediococcus acidilactici, Liquorilactobacillus uvarum and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum. The results revealed that all the wholemeal cereal flours of the analysed wheat varieties are suitable for fermentation with the selected strains because all the fermented samples showed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viable counts higher than 8.00 log10 CFU/g and desirable low pH values. In most of the cases, fermentation increased the concentration of essential amino acids in the wholemeal cereal samples, and the LAB strain used for fermentation proved to be a significant factor in all the essential amino acid content of wholemeal wheat (p ≤ 0.0001). When comparing the non-fermented samples, the highest GABA content was found in ‘Gaja’ and waxy wheat samples (2.47 µmol/g, on average), and, in all the cases, fermentation significantly increased GABA concentration in the wholemeal cereals. On the other hand, total levels of biogenic amines in wholemeal samples ranged from 22.7 to 416 mg/kg. The wheat variety was a significant factor in all the analysed macro- and microelement contents (p ≤ 0.0001) in the wholemeal cereals. Furthermore, fermentation showed to be a significant factor in most of the FA content of the wholemeal cereal samples. Finally, fermentation can also contribute to improving the biological and functional value of wholemeal wheat flours (by increasing essential amino acids and GABA concentrations); however, safety parameters (e.g., biogenic amines) also should be taken into consideration when optimizing the most appropriate technological parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods)
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9 pages, 1293 KiB  
Communication
Cecal Reduction of Brachyspira and Lesion Severity in Laying Hens Supplemented with Fermented Defatted ‘Alperujo’
by Agustín Rebollada-Merino, María Ugarte-Ruiz, Alberto Gómez-Buendía, Carmen Bárcena, Nerea García, Lucas Domínguez and Antonio Rodríguez-Bertos
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100550 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1354
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance demands the development of therapeutic alternatives such as prebiotics, probiotics, and nutraceuticals. The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial proprieties of the nutraceutical fermented defatted “alperujo”, derived from olive oil production, in a laying hen farm (n [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance demands the development of therapeutic alternatives such as prebiotics, probiotics, and nutraceuticals. The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial proprieties of the nutraceutical fermented defatted “alperujo”, derived from olive oil production, in a laying hen farm (n = 122,250) endemic with avian intestinal spirochetosis (Brachyspira spp.). Part of the batch (n = 1440) was divided into six groups of 240 hens each that included 80 or 108-week-old laying hens, supplemented with 0%, 2%, or 6% fermented defatted ‘alperujo’ for a month. At the end of the experiment, eight hens from each group were autopsied and cecal content was subjected to (i) Brachyspira culture and species identification by PCRs, and (ii) direct DNA extraction and Brachyspira qPCR. Furthermore, the ceca were processed for histopathology. Microbiological isolation revealed B. pilosicoli and B. hyodysenteriae co-infection in all groups. The 80-week-old hen group 2% supplemented showed a reduction in the cecal Brachyspira content (qPCR) compared with non-supplemented hens. Cecal histopathology showed a diffuse mild infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and heterophils; and hyperplasia of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue hyperplasia which decreased in severity in 80-week-old supplemented hens. The reduction in Brachyspira colonization and the severity of the lesions observed in supplemented hens highlights a potential protective function against avian intestinal spirochetosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods)
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11 pages, 2010 KiB  
Article
Ergothioneine Production by Submerged Fermentation of a Medicinal Mushroom Panus conchatus
by Min Zhu, Yiwen Han, Xuechao Hu, Changbin Gong and Lujing Ren
Fermentation 2022, 8(9), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8090431 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2838
Abstract
Ergothioneine is a natural and safe antioxidant that plays an important role in anti-aging and the prevention of various diseases. This study aimed to report on a kind of medicinal mushroom of Panus conchatus with great potential for the bioproduction of ergothioneine. The [...] Read more.
Ergothioneine is a natural and safe antioxidant that plays an important role in anti-aging and the prevention of various diseases. This study aimed to report on a kind of medicinal mushroom of Panus conchatus with great potential for the bioproduction of ergothioneine. The effect of different nutritional and environmental conditions on the growth of Panus conchatus and ergothioneine production were investigated. Molasses and soy peptone were found to promote cell growth of Panus conchatus and enhance ergothioneine accumulation. Adding precursors of histidine, methionine and cysteine could increase ergothioneine production and the highest ergothioneine concentration of 148.79 mg/L was obtained. Finally, the extraction and purification processes were also established to obtain the crude ergothioneine extract for further antioxidant property evaluation. The ergothioneine from Panus conchatus showed high antioxidant activity with good stability in a lower pH environment. This study provided a new strain and process for the bioproduction of ergothioneine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods)
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17 pages, 3897 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study on the Debittering of Kinnow (Citrus reticulate L.) Peels: Microbial, Chemical, and Ultrasound-Assisted Microbial Treatment
by Shweta Suri, Anupama Singh, Prabhat K. Nema and Neetu Kumra Taneja
Fermentation 2022, 8(8), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8080389 - 14 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1976
Abstract
Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulate L.) peels are a storehouse of well-known bioactive compounds, viz., polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, limonoids, and tocopherol, which exhibit an effective antioxidant capacity. However, naringin is the most predominant bitter flavanone compound found in Kinnow peels that causes their [...] Read more.
Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulate L.) peels are a storehouse of well-known bioactive compounds, viz., polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, limonoids, and tocopherol, which exhibit an effective antioxidant capacity. However, naringin is the most predominant bitter flavanone compound found in Kinnow peels that causes their bitterness. It prohibits the effective utilization of peels in food-based products. In the present study, a novel approach for the debittering of Kinnow peels has been established to tackle this problem. A comparative evaluation of the different debittering methods (chemical, microbial, and ultrasound-assisted microbial treatments) used on Kinnow peel naringin and bioactive compounds was conducted. Among the chemical and microbial method; solid-state fermentation with A. niger led to greater extraction of naringin content (7.08 mg/g) from kinnow peels. Moreover, the numerical process optimization of ultrasound-assisted microbial debittering was performed by the Box–Behnken design (BBD) of a response surface methodology to maximize naringin hydrolysis. Among all three debittering methods, ultrasound-assisted microbial debittering led to a greater hydrolysis of naringin content and reduced processing time. The optimum conditions were ultrasound temperature (40 °C), time (30 min), and A. niger koji extract (1.45%) for the maximum extraction rate of naringin (11.91 mg/g). These debittered Kinnow peels can be utilized as raw material to develop therapeutic food products having a high phytochemical composition without any off-flavors or bitterness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods)
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13 pages, 2511 KiB  
Article
Effect of Fermentation on the Biochemical Parameters Antioxidant Capacity and Dispersed Composition of Plant Beverages Based on Barley and Hemp Seeds
by Svetlana Merenkova, Rinat Fatkullin and Irina Kalinina
Fermentation 2022, 8(8), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8080384 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2651
Abstract
Enzymatic processes play a key role in the production of grain-containing food due to their effect on the nutritional properties, rheological characteristics, and contribution to improving the functional and antioxidant proprieties. Eight samples of beverages based on barley grain and hemp seeds were [...] Read more.
Enzymatic processes play a key role in the production of grain-containing food due to their effect on the nutritional properties, rheological characteristics, and contribution to improving the functional and antioxidant proprieties. Eight samples of beverages based on barley grain and hemp seeds were produced (control beverages and beverages fermented by bifidobacteria and propionic acid bacteria). It was found that lactic acid accumulated during fermentation alongside a gradual shift in the pH level in the acidic direction. A comparative analysis of the DPPH activity revealed the highest values for barley-based beverages, ranging from 71.0 to 100.7%, while for the hemp seed-based beverages, the DPPH activity was 64.1–97.9%. The maximum values of DPPH activity were observed during fermentation with a combination of bifidobacteria and propionic acid bacteria concentrates. The highest concentration of polyphenolic compounds and flavonoids was found in barley-based beverages fermented with Propionibacterium freudenreichii (1.26 mg GAE/g and 0.11 mg EQ/g) and a combination of Propionibacterium freudenreichii and Bifidobacterium longum (1.24 mg GAE/g and 0.14 mg EQ/g). Studies have shown an increase in the nutrient content for fermented beverages compared to the control samples. The barley-based beverages exhibited the largest average dynamic particle diameter, and all beverage samples showed a more uniform particle size distribution after microbial fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods)
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15 pages, 3783 KiB  
Article
Textural and Functional Properties of Skimmed and Whole Milk Fermented by Novel Lactiplantibacillus plantarum AG10 Strain Isolated from Silage
by Elena Nikitina, Tatyana Petrova, Adel Vafina, Asya Ezhkova, Monyr Nait Yahia and Airat Kayumov
Fermentation 2022, 8(6), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8060290 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
Milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria both enhances its nutritional value and provides probiotic strains to correct the intestinal microflora. Here, we show the comparative analysis of milk fermented with the new strain, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum AG10, isolated from silage and the industrial strain [...] Read more.
Milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria both enhances its nutritional value and provides probiotic strains to correct the intestinal microflora. Here, we show the comparative analysis of milk fermented with the new strain, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum AG10, isolated from silage and the industrial strain Lactobacillus delbrukii subs. bulgaricus. While the milk acidification during fermentation with L. plantarum AG10 was lower compared with L. bulgaricus, milk fermented with L. plantarum AG10 after a 14-day storage period retained a high level of viable cells and was characterized by an increased content of exopolysaccharides and higher viscosity. The increased EPS production led to clot formation with higher density on microphotographs and increased firmness and cohesiveness of the product compared with L. bulgaricus-fermented milk. Furthermore, the L. plantarum AG10-fermented milk exhibited increased radical-scavenging activity assuming lower fat oxidation during storage. Taken together, these data suggest that L. plantarum AG10 seems to be a promising starter culture for dairy products with lowered levels of lactic acid, which is important for people with increased gastric acid formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods)
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Review

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16 pages, 365 KiB  
Review
Probiotics as Potential Therapy in the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)
by Margalida Monserrat-Mesquida, Cristina Bouzas, Catalina M. Mascaró, Silvia Tejada and Antoni Sureda
Fermentation 2023, 9(4), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9040395 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease, the prevalence of which has increased over the years. The management of this pathology is not clear, and a specific pharmacological drug that can treat NAFLD is not available. In this [...] Read more.
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease, the prevalence of which has increased over the years. The management of this pathology is not clear, and a specific pharmacological drug that can treat NAFLD is not available. In this sense, efforts are focused on the potential use of compounds with a natural origin that can contribute to reversing hepatic steatosis. Supplementation with probiotics, live microorganisms, is a potential strategy for the management of NAFLD. Methods: In the present review, the available information on the potential therapeutic effects of probiotics in NAFLD, mainly in animal models and in some clinical trials, is summarized. Results: Studies carried out using animal models of NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet have shown the beneficial effects of probiotic supplementation in reducing liver steatosis and normalizing the blood lipid profile and liver enzyme activities. In addition, a decrease in lipogenesis and an increase in lipolysis have been observed, together with a reduction in the pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory state and a normalization of intestinal dysbiosis. Clinical trials have reported a decrease in the serum transaminases and an improved lipid profile, as well as a reduction in inflammatory markers. Conclusions: In conclusion, probiotic supplementation can be used as a potential therapy for the management of NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods)
15 pages, 1507 KiB  
Review
The Role of Gut Microbiota Modulation Strategies in Obesity: The Applications and Mechanisms
by Lingyue Shan, Akanksha Tyagi, Umair Shabbir, Xiuqin Chen, Selvakumar Vijayalakshmi, Pianpian Yan and Deog-Hwan Oh
Fermentation 2022, 8(8), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8080376 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2214
Abstract
Nowadays, obesity is a leading public health problem worldwide. The growing prevalence of obesity significantly accounts for other cardio-metabolic diseases, including hypertension and diabetes. Several studies have shown that obesity is strongly associated with genetic, environmental, lifestyle, and dietary factors, especially the disordered [...] Read more.
Nowadays, obesity is a leading public health problem worldwide. The growing prevalence of obesity significantly accounts for other cardio-metabolic diseases, including hypertension and diabetes. Several studies have shown that obesity is strongly associated with genetic, environmental, lifestyle, and dietary factors, especially the disordered profiles of gut microbiota (GM). The present review concluded mechanistic studies and potential correspondent treatments for obesity. Specifically, the anti-obesity effects of food-derived compounds manipulating GM were highlighted. The potential limitations of bioactive compounds on absorption in the intestinal tract were also discussed. Thus, the future direction of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as an approach to support modulating host GM (considered to be a potential therapeutic target for obesity) was discussed. This review shed light on the role of GM modulation strategies for the prevention/treatment of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods)
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