Bioactive Products from Edible and Medicinal Fungi by Fermentation

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Microbial Metabolism, Physiology & Genetics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 10911

Special Issue Editor

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Interests: fermentation; edible and medicinal fungi; natural active compounds; chitin derivatives; biomacromolecules; structure-function relationship of polysaccharides; prebiotics; synbiotics; functional food

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioactive natural products from microbial sources and their structural relatives play important roles in the development of drugs, adjuvants, and functional foods for human health. Edible and medicinal fungi have received considerable research attention because of the various bioactivities displayed by their bioactive products. A large number of molecules, such as polysaccharides, triterpenoids, flavones, polyphenols, proteins, and polypeptides, having bioactive properties has been identified from various edible and medicinal fungi species. The practical applicability of these products depends not only on their biological properties but also on their biotechnological availability. Much effort has been made to develop fermentation techniques (including liquid fermentation and solid-state fermentation), which respond to consumer demand and provide abundant mycelia or fruiting bodies as sources of bioactive products.

The aim of this Special Issue is to publish research works and review papers related to bioactive products from edible and medicinal fungi through fermentation technology, including:

  1. screening and breeding of strains for production of bioactive products;
  2. optimization of fermentation condition for high yield of bioactive products;
  3. isolation, purification, structural characterization, bioactivities, and applications of products from fermentation;
  4. alternation of structures and functions of products due to different fermentation techniques.

Dr. Yuxia Mei
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fermentation 
  • edible and medicinal fungi 
  • bioactive products 
  • optimization of fermentation technology 
  • production 
  • yield 
  • structure 
  • function

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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30 pages, 976 KiB  
Article
Examining the Impact of Substrate Composition on the Biochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Pleurotus and Agaricus Mushrooms
by Panagiota Diamantopoulou, Katerina Fourtaka, Eirini Maria Melanouri, Marianna Dedousi, Ilias Diamantis, Chrysavgi Gardeli and Seraphim Papanikolaou
Fermentation 2023, 9(7), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9070689 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1950
Abstract
The composition of the substrate is one of the most critical factors influencing the quality as well as the nutritional value and bioactive content of mushrooms. Therefore, the effects of various substrates, such as barley and oat straw (BOS), beech wood shavings (BWS), [...] Read more.
The composition of the substrate is one of the most critical factors influencing the quality as well as the nutritional value and bioactive content of mushrooms. Therefore, the effects of various substrates, such as barley and oat straw (BOS), beech wood shavings (BWS), coffee residue (CR), rice bark (RB) and wheat straw (WS, control substrate), on the biochemical properties (lipid, protein, polysaccharide, glucan, ash, and mineral content, fatty acids and tocopherols composition), total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Pleurotus mushrooms, P. ostreatus (strains AMRL 144, 150) and P. eryngii (strains AMRL 166, 173-6), cultivated in ‘bag-logs’, was examined. Proximate analysis of A. bisporus and A. subrufescens grown on two different composts (C/N ratios of 10 and 13) was conducted, too. The whole carposomes, pilei and stipes were analyzed. Results showed that BOS, RB, BWS and CR improved the antioxidant activity of Pleurotus species and their nutritional characteristics. Both pilei and stipes were rich in polysaccharides (27.51–67.37 and 22.46–39.08%, w/w, for Pleurotus and Agaricus spp., respectively), lipids (0.74–8.70 and 5.80–9.92%, w/w), proteins (6.52–37.04 and 25.40–44.26, w/w, for Pleurotus and Agaricus spp., respectively) and total phenolic compounds (10.41–70.67 and 7.85–16.89 mg gallic acid equivalent/g for Pleurotus and Agaricus spp., respectively), while they contained important quantities of unsaturated FAs of nutritional and medicinal importance. Pilei were richer in proteins, total phenolic compounds and enhanced antioxidant activity and reducing power than stipes, whereas stipes were richer in IPSs and glucans compared to the corresponding pilei. Thus, mushroom cultivation could upgrade rejected agro-industrial residues and wastes to new uses as substrates for the production of mushrooms with specific nutritional and medicinal attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Products from Edible and Medicinal Fungi by Fermentation)
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14 pages, 2025 KiB  
Article
Biotransformation of Chinese Jujube with Cordyceps militaris to Enhance the Antioxidant Activity In Vitro and the Protective Effect against Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Stress in Zebrafish
by Manman Wang, Mengqian Dun, Xinyuan Liu, Guoying Zhang and Jianya Ling
Fermentation 2023, 9(7), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9070656 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Chinese jujube with Cordyceps militaris was performed in the present study. The results revealed that the contents of total phenolic and flavonoid in rice medium with 50% jujube content increased to 1.59 mg GAE/g d.w. and 0.46 mg RE/g, [...] Read more.
Solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Chinese jujube with Cordyceps militaris was performed in the present study. The results revealed that the contents of total phenolic and flavonoid in rice medium with 50% jujube content increased to 1.59 mg GAE/g d.w. and 0.46 mg RE/g, respectively. The changes of phenolic acid composition showed a similar tendency, and three forms of individual phenolic compounds, namely free phenol, free/conjugated phenol, and bound phenol increased with the extension of the fermentation time. The determination of DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and the ferrous ion chelating capacity showed that the fermentation significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity in vitro, and the protective functions against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in zebrafish were also then investigated. SSF co-treatment with EtOH reduced MDA elevation and enhanced the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, along with the T-AOC levels in a dose-dependent manner in adult and larval zebrafish. Moreover, the qRT-PCR findings demonstrated that SSF-jujube was capable of upregulating the mRNA expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 and downregulated the levels of NF-κB in zebrafish larvae. In conclusion, solid-state fermented Chinese jujube with C. militaris was an effective process, exhibited a good antioxidant activity, and demonstrated a better protective effect against ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Products from Edible and Medicinal Fungi by Fermentation)
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13 pages, 2550 KiB  
Article
Improved Extraction Yield, Water Solubility, and Antioxidant Activity of Lentinan from Lentinula edodes via Bacillus subtilis natto Fermentation
by Mengyue Xu, Yaning Qu, Hui Li, Shuangqing Tang, Chanyou Chen, Yazhen Wang and Hongbo Wang
Fermentation 2023, 9(4), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9040333 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1656
Abstract
Lentinan has important applications in the food and medicine fields. Fermenting Lentinula edodes with Bacillus subtilis natto increased the lentinan extraction yield by 87.13% and greatly altered the molecular structure and antioxidant activity of lentinan. The uronic acid content in the lentinan molecular [...] Read more.
Lentinan has important applications in the food and medicine fields. Fermenting Lentinula edodes with Bacillus subtilis natto increased the lentinan extraction yield by 87.13% and greatly altered the molecular structure and antioxidant activity of lentinan. The uronic acid content in the lentinan molecular structure increased from 2.08% to 4.33%. The fermentation process did not affect the monosaccharide composition of lentinan, comprised of more than 90% glucose residues. Fermentation significantly reduced the molecular weight of lentinan and altered its apparent structure. The water solubility of fermented lentinan was increased by 165.07%, and the antioxidant activity was significantly improved. Fermentation using soybean as a substrate may be beneficial for enhancing the activity of Bacillus subtilis natto and producing lentinan with different molecular weights. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Products from Edible and Medicinal Fungi by Fermentation)
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13 pages, 4728 KiB  
Article
Structural Properties of a Heteropolysaccharide Released from Isaria cicadae Miq. Solid-State Fermented Wheat Bran
by Rui Liu, Ruixin Liu, Xuebing Yan, Ningjie Li, Ming Li, Zijian Zhi, Boli Guo and Min Zhang
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030309 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
The work aimed to improve the extraction efficiency of wheat bran polysaccharide by solid-state fermentation using the bioactive fungus Isaria cicadae Miq. and identify the structural properties of fermented wheat bran polysaccharide (IC-FWBP). The polysaccharide fraction of IC-FWBP was isolated with an [...] Read more.
The work aimed to improve the extraction efficiency of wheat bran polysaccharide by solid-state fermentation using the bioactive fungus Isaria cicadae Miq. and identify the structural properties of fermented wheat bran polysaccharide (IC-FWBP). The polysaccharide fraction of IC-FWBP was isolated with an extraction yield of 2.88% and an average molecular weight of 3.31 × 106 Da. The IC-FWBP was comprised of mannose, glucose, and galactose. The methylation, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Congo red analysis results suggested that IC-FWBP contained glycosidic linkages of T-β-D-Glcf, 1→2-α-D-Manp, 1→5,6-β-D-Galf, 1→2,3,4-α-D-Galp and 1→2,3,4-β-D-Manp, with triple-helix conformations. The morphological observation showed that IC-FWBP was composed of rod-like and spherical particles. These investigations on the structural properties of IC-FWBP will be beneficial to further research on the functional properties of wheat bran polysaccharides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Products from Edible and Medicinal Fungi by Fermentation)
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11 pages, 1485 KiB  
Article
Isolation, Purification, and Antitumor Activity of a Novel Active Protein from Antrodia cinnamomea Liquid Fermentation Mycelia
by Yingying Li, Jiaxin Ge, Yanbin Li, Siqi Zheng, Yangyang Liu, Yunxiang Liang and Yuxia Mei
Fermentation 2023, 9(2), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9020185 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
Antrodia cinnamomea, a rare medicinal fungus endemic to Taiwan, contains numerous active components and displays strong antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects. We isolated and purified a novel A. cinnamomea active protein (termed ACAP) from liquid fermentation mycelia and evaluated its antitumor activity. A [...] Read more.
Antrodia cinnamomea, a rare medicinal fungus endemic to Taiwan, contains numerous active components and displays strong antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects. We isolated and purified a novel A. cinnamomea active protein (termed ACAP) from liquid fermentation mycelia and evaluated its antitumor activity. A homogeneous protein-eluted fraction was obtained by anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography, and ACAP was identified based on the antitumor activity screening of this fraction. An in vitro assay of three tumor cell lines (HeLa, Hep G2, and Hepa 1-6) revealed significant antiproliferative effects of ACAP at low concentrations, with IC50 values of 13.10, 10.70, and 18.69 µg/mL, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis showed that ACAP induced late apoptosis of Hep G2 cells. The apoptosis rate of 50 µg/mL ACAP-treated cells (60%) was significantly (p < 0.01) more than that of the control. A Western blotting assay of apoptotic pathway proteins showed that ACAP significantly upregulated p53 and downregulated caspase-3 expression levels. Our findings indicate that ACAP has strong antitumor activity and the potential for development as a therapeutic agent and/or functional food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Products from Edible and Medicinal Fungi by Fermentation)
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Review

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17 pages, 1971 KiB  
Review
UDP-Glycosyltransferases in Edible Fungi: Function, Structure, and Catalytic Mechanism
by Yumeng Yang, Yingying Liang, Fengjie Cui, Yongli Wang, Lei Sun, Xinyi Zan and Wenjing Sun
Fermentation 2023, 9(2), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9020164 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2746
Abstract
UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are the most studied glycosyltransferases, and belong to large GT1 family performing the key roles in antibiotic synthesis, the development of bacterial glycosyltransferase inhibitors, and in animal inflammation. They transfer the glycosyl groups from nucleotide UDP-sugars (UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose, UDP-xylose, and UDP-rhamnose) [...] Read more.
UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are the most studied glycosyltransferases, and belong to large GT1 family performing the key roles in antibiotic synthesis, the development of bacterial glycosyltransferase inhibitors, and in animal inflammation. They transfer the glycosyl groups from nucleotide UDP-sugars (UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose, UDP-xylose, and UDP-rhamnose) to the acceptors including saccharides, proteins, lipids, and secondary metabolites. The present review summarized the recent of UDP-glycosyltransferases, including their structures, functions, and catalytic mechanism, especially in edible fungi. The future perspectives and new challenges were also summarized to understand of their structure–function relationships in the future. The outputs in this field could provide a reference to recognize function, structure, and catalytic mechanism of UDP-glycosyltransferases for understanding the biosynthesis pathways of secondary metabolites, such as hydrocarbons, monoterpenes, sesquiterpene, and polysaccharides in edible fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Products from Edible and Medicinal Fungi by Fermentation)
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