Bioconversion of Agricultural Wastes into High-Nutrition Animal Feed

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Industrial Fermentation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 September 2024 | Viewed by 6747

Special Issue Editors

Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota at Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Interests: fermentation biotechnology; bioprocess optimization; microbial fermentation; biofuel production; anaerobic culture; media optimization; bioreactors; enzyme fermentation; ethanol fermentation; animal feed

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Guest Editor
Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota Twin Citiesdisabled, Minneapolis, MN, USA
Interests: feed; advances in conversion of biomass and waste to chemicals and fuels; state of the art of bioconversion and bioprocess

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food from animal sources contributes 25% of global protein consumption and 18% of global calorie consumption. It also provides a variety of micronutrients such as vitamins, riboflavin, calcium, iron, and zinc in sufficient amounts, which are difficult to achieve from plant-sourced foods. The demand for animal-source foods such as meat and milk is expected to increase by 57% and 48%, respectively, by 2050 due to rising incomes, growing population and urbanization in many parts of the world. Due to the continually increasing price of corn and soybean meal since 2019 caused mainly by the global pandemic and unstable international politics, the producers of swine, cattle and chicken have faced the highest level of feed cost inflation. Feed cost can account for 60–70% of the total cost of animal production, which directly affects the prices of animal-source proteins available for human consumption. Therefore, developing feed from low-cost crops or upcycling current agro-industrial by- and co-products are critical for reducing the overall cost of animal production and the price of animal-source protein, reducing food–feed competition and making animal production sustainable with a low-carbon footprint.

This Special Issue will focus on biotechnological innovations in novel feed development for monogastric animals (swine, poultry and fish) and ruminant animals (cattle, sheep and goat), including but not limited to the evaluation of different feedstocks, the evaluation of existing and new microorganisms, bioprocessing strategies such as solid-state fermentation (SSF), submerged fermentation (SmF), co-culture fermentation, sequential fermentation, the combination of physiochemical treatment with fermentation, fermented feed with in vitro and in vivo feeding test and animal performance evaluation, feed fermentation to co-produce potential high-valued bioproducts, techno-economic analysis and the life-cycle assessment of feed bioprocessing.

Therefore, I invite authors to submit original research articles, critical reviews, and short communications related to the topics of this Special Issue, “Bioconversion of Agricultural Wastes into High-Nutrition Animal Feed”.

Dr. Sun Xiao
Prof. Dr. Bo Hu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • agricultural waste
  • microorganisms
  • fermentation
  • animal feeding ingredients
  • animal nutrition
  • value-added bioproducts
  • techno-economic analysis
  • life-cycle assessment

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 1403 KiB  
Article
Production and Characterization of Downgraded Maple Syrup-Based Synbiotic Containing Bacillus velezensis FZB42 for Animal Nutrition
by Gautier Decabooter, Mariem Theiri, Denis Groleau, Marie Filteau and Ismail Fliss
Fermentation 2024, 10(4), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation10040221 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 326
Abstract
The use of antibiotics to promote growth and prevent diarrhea in livestock production has raised concerns about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Probiotics, live microorganisms that confer health benefits, have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, we produced and characterized [...] Read more.
The use of antibiotics to promote growth and prevent diarrhea in livestock production has raised concerns about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Probiotics, live microorganisms that confer health benefits, have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, we produced and characterized a downgraded maple syrup-based feed supplement containing Bacillus velezensis FZB42 as a potential synbiotic for animal nutrition. An optimized fermentation medium was developed through a central composite design to produce B. velezensis FZB42 at both the laboratory and pilot scale, reaching a concentration of 6.15 ± 0.46 × 109 CFU/mL. Subsequently, B. velezensis FZB42 was incorporated into a protective whey permeate matrix and spray-dried, resulting in a 31.4% yield with a moisture content of 4.38%. The survival of B. velezensis FZB42 in a simulated gastrointestinal tract was evaluated using the TIM-1 system, revealing a survival rate of 16.05% after passage through the gastric, duodenal, jejunal, and ileal compartments. These findings highlight the possibility of B. velezensis FZB42 being an economically viable and possibly functional synbiotic supplement and effective alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in livestock production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioconversion of Agricultural Wastes into High-Nutrition Animal Feed)
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11 pages, 278 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Impact of Coffee Waste as an Alternative Feed Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Methane Emissions in an In Vitro Study
by Belgutei Batbekh, Eslam Ahmed, Masaaki Hanada, Naoki Fukuma and Takehiro Nishida
Fermentation 2023, 9(9), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9090858 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1232
Abstract
Spent coffee waste is the most common by-product of coffee processing, and it has the potential to be used as a source of organic compounds for ruminant diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the optimal inclusion level and method for [...] Read more.
Spent coffee waste is the most common by-product of coffee processing, and it has the potential to be used as a source of organic compounds for ruminant diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the optimal inclusion level and method for using spent coffee waste (SCW) as a ruminant feed and investigate its effects on rumen fermentation characteristics and methane (CH4) production. The present in vitro batch culture study was conducted using two different experimental designs. The first experimental design (TRIAL. 1) was performed using a control diet of 500 mg of fresh matter basal diet (60% hay/40% concentrate), with SCW being used as a feed additive at 1%, 10% and 20% of the substrate. The second experimental design was performed using the same control diet, with spent coffee waste replacing either part of the hay (TRIAL. 2) or some of the concentrate mixture (TRIAL. 3) at four different dosages (30:70, 50:50, 70:30 and 100). When SCW was supplemented as a feed additive, there were increases in the production of volatile fatty acids and gas; however, it did not show any suppressive effects on CH4 production. In contrast, when SCW was included as a replacement for hay or concentrate, there were significant reductions in CH4 production with increasing levels of SCW inclusion. These reductions in CH4 production were accompanied by negative effects on nutrient digestibility and total volatile fatty acid production. These findings demonstrate that SCW could potentially be used as a prebiotic feed additive. Additionally, when SCW is used as a replacement for silage at 70:30 and 50:50 dosages appear to be feasible as a substitute for animal feed (hay and concentrate). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioconversion of Agricultural Wastes into High-Nutrition Animal Feed)
14 pages, 903 KiB  
Article
Fungal Bioprocessing to Improve Quality of Pennycress Meal as a Potential Feeding Ingredient for Monogastric Animals
by Xiao Sun, Kristin Boardman, David Marks, Donald L. Wyse and Bo Hu
Fermentation 2023, 9(8), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9080732 - 05 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
Pennycress, as an annual cover crop in North America, has around 30–36% of oil and 20–25% of crude protein. Pennycress oil can be converted into biodiesel, while pennycress meal (PM) has limited use in animal nutrition, mainly due to the high content of [...] Read more.
Pennycress, as an annual cover crop in North America, has around 30–36% of oil and 20–25% of crude protein. Pennycress oil can be converted into biodiesel, while pennycress meal (PM) has limited use in animal nutrition, mainly due to the high content of glucosinolates and indigestible fiber. The nutrition of PM can be improved by processing with edible fungi. This study used Pleurotus ostreatus (PO), Rhizopus oryzae (RO), Aspergillus oryzae (AO), and Mucor circinelloides (MC) to ferment PM (60% moisture content) at 28 °C for 6 to 12 days. Compared to non-fermented PM, essential amino acids such as threonine (Thr) in PO and AO and tryptophan (Trp) and lysine (Lys) in all fungal treatments were enriched. PM fermented by all fungi resulted in concentrated digestible fiber (cellulose) at 12–46%. RO, AO, and MC-fermented PM had degraded sinigrin by 81, 33, and 12% and phytate by 47%, 37%, and 33%, with a corresponding increase in free P by 44%, 1.17-fold, and 89%, respectively. In addition, zearalenone was reduced by 97%, 50%, 39.3%, and 32% in PO, RO, AO, and MC-fermented PM, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of fungi to improve the feeding value of PM, potentially promoting the economic return of pennycress plantations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioconversion of Agricultural Wastes into High-Nutrition Animal Feed)
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15 pages, 1502 KiB  
Article
Corn Stover Silage Inoculated with Ferulic Acid Esterase Producing L. johnsonii, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and L. brevis Strains: Fermentative and Nutritional Parameters
by Estefania Andrada, Antonela Marquez, Elsa Patricia Chagra Dib, Paola Gauffin-Cano and Roxana Beatriz Medina
Fermentation 2023, 9(4), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9040331 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
Corn stover (CS) is an abundant lignocellulosic by-product of the grain industry. Ferulic acid esterase producing (FAE+)-lactobacilli can potentially improve ensiled forages’ nutritive value through the hydrolysis of ferulic acid ester bonds present in cell walls during the fermentation process, but this has [...] Read more.
Corn stover (CS) is an abundant lignocellulosic by-product of the grain industry. Ferulic acid esterase producing (FAE+)-lactobacilli can potentially improve ensiled forages’ nutritive value through the hydrolysis of ferulic acid ester bonds present in cell walls during the fermentation process, but this has not been addressed in CS silage. In this study, we characterized 8 FAE+ lactobacilli regarding their FAE activity and inoculant aptitude: Lactobacillus (L.) johnsonii (CRL2237, CRL2238, CRL2240), L. plantarum (ETC182, CRL046, CRL2241), L. fermentum CRL1446 and L. brevis CRL2239. Next, 25% dry matter (DM) CS mini silos were prepared and either not inoculated (UN) or inoculated with each strain (105 CFU g fresh matter−1). Compared to UN, DM loss was significantly reduced in CRL046 and CRL2239, and organic matter increased in CRL2241-inoculated silages. Although the rest of the digestibility measures were not improved, in situ acid detergent fiber degradability (ADFD) was increased by the CRL2238 strain when compared to UN. Results in inoculated silages were not correlated with FAE activity quantification or growth/acidification studies in a CS-derived culture broth. This study demonstrates the potential of several FAE+ lactobacilli strains as CS inoculants and encourages further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioconversion of Agricultural Wastes into High-Nutrition Animal Feed)
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Review

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15 pages, 894 KiB  
Review
Progress in Fermented Unconventional Feed Application in Monogastric Animal Production in China
by Haoxuan Sun, Xinyue Kang, Huize Tan, Huiyi Cai and Dan Chen
Fermentation 2023, 9(11), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9110947 - 01 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1687
Abstract
Unconventional animal feeds present distinct features and considerable variations. However, their efficacy in monogastric animals is hindered by high levels of anti-nutritional elements and subpar palatability. Feed fermentation could offer a solution to these issues. Moreover, fermented unconventional feeds deliver notable economic advantages [...] Read more.
Unconventional animal feeds present distinct features and considerable variations. However, their efficacy in monogastric animals is hindered by high levels of anti-nutritional elements and subpar palatability. Feed fermentation could offer a solution to these issues. Moreover, fermented unconventional feeds deliver notable economic advantages and represent a viable alternative to antibiotic growth promoters, particularly in the context of antibiotic restrictions, promising considerable potential. This review provides an in-depth exploration of the types, characteristics, fermentation processes, application outcomes, associated challenges, and prospects of fermented unconventional feeds in monogastric animals. We anticipate that this comprehensive overview will serve as a valuable reference for developing and utilizing unconventional feed resources in the feed industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioconversion of Agricultural Wastes into High-Nutrition Animal Feed)
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