Fermentation and Bioactive Metabolites 4.0

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2023) | Viewed by 13899

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Department of Bioscience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, 64100 Teramo, Italy
Interests: milk; dairy; food analysis; food microbiology and technology; food preservation
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Department of Bioscience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, Via R. Balzarini 1, 64100 Teramo, Italy
Interests: microbial ecology; molds; mycotoxin; biofilms; antimicrobial compounds; fermented food
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Microorganisms are known to produce secondary metabolites, being exploited as useful bioactive molecules. In addition, they are very diverse both phylogenetically and functionally, being able to carry out complex metabolic transformations. This metabolic versatility leads to a pool of biomolecules that are highly diverse in chemical structure and biological function, and which have potential applications in medicine and the pharmaceutical and food industry fields. In addition, several microorganisms have been exploited to obtain biologically active compounds like peptides, carbohydrates, polyphenols, carotenoids, phytosterols, and fatty acids, which offer health benefits like the prevention of diseases, utilizing different plant- and animal-derived products as substrates. In fact, nowadays, the use of fermented foods is considered a promising alternative to satisfy the growing consumer demands for healthy foods. To increase the production of biomolecules, many strategies, such as the use of specialized single-strain microbial origin cultures, co- cultures exhibiting high diversity allowing complementarity of functions that can modulate their physiology to produce new bioactive molecules, have been used. Accordingly, the design of bioreactor and bioprocesses are also being exploited. This Special Issue aims to publish technological developments (in the form of original research articles, short communications, reviews, that make a considerable and efficient contribution to the scientific community) used to investigate different aspects of the impact of fermentation on the production of bioactive metabolites. Topics that will be considered include the production of biomolecules in relation to foods, agriculture, industry, biotechnology, and public health.

This is the fourth version of topic “Fermentation and Bioactive Metabolites”, The success of the first three Editions can be found at:

https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fermentation/special_issues/bioactive_metabolites

https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fermentation/special_issues/bioactive_metabolites_2

https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fermentation/special_issues/bioactive_metabolites_3

Dr. Annalisa Serio
Dr. Clemencia Chaves-López
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • peptides
  • fatty acids
  • phenolic compounds
  • organic volatile compounds
  • antimicrobial compounds
  • secondary metabolites

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 2375 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Bacterial Exopolysaccharides Produced from Different Fruit-Based Solid Media
by Marie Guérin, Cyrielle Garcia, Christine Robert-Da Silva, Joël Couprie and Fabienne Remize
Fermentation 2023, 9(7), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9070657 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 852
Abstract
Bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) share their compositional and structural features with plant dietary fibers. Therefore, analysis of bacterial EPSs produced during fermentation of fruit or vegetables interferes with that of plant fibers. To get rid of this effect, bacteria were grown on a solid [...] Read more.
Bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) share their compositional and structural features with plant dietary fibers. Therefore, analysis of bacterial EPSs produced during fermentation of fruit or vegetables interferes with that of plant fibers. To get rid of this effect, bacteria were grown on a solid medium containing fruit juice or purée and EPSs were recovered in a quantitative dependent manner and were quantified with the phenol-sulfuric acid colorimetric method. The protocol was assayed both on MRS medium and fruit-based media, with three bacterial strains from two species, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides 56 and Weissella cibaria 21 and 64. With that method, differences in EPS production levels were shown according to the strain and cultivation conditions, such as sucrose content and pH. Complementary analysis with NMR indicated that glucose and sucrose were partly recovered with EPSs, pointing out the requirement for a further purification step. It also showed that EPSs’ ramified structure differed according to the strain and the fruit used in the medium. This method for EPS recovery is helpful to select strains and to pilot EPS production during lactic fermentation of fruit or vegetable foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation and Bioactive Metabolites 4.0)
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13 pages, 874 KiB  
Article
Biotechnological Features of a Functional Non-Dairy Mixed Juice Fermented with Lacticaseibacillus paracasei SP5
by Ioanna Mantzourani, Anastasios Nikolaou, Yiannis Kourkoutas, Athanasios Alexopoulos and Stavros Plessas
Fermentation 2023, 9(5), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9050489 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1097
Abstract
In the present study, a wild-type Lacticaseibacillus paracasei SP5 (L. paracasei SP5) potential probiotic strain (previously isolated from kefir grains) was applied for the 1-day fermentation of an apple–orange–carrot mixed juice. After the fermentation, the mixed juice was refrigerated in cold storage [...] Read more.
In the present study, a wild-type Lacticaseibacillus paracasei SP5 (L. paracasei SP5) potential probiotic strain (previously isolated from kefir grains) was applied for the 1-day fermentation of an apple–orange–carrot mixed juice. After the fermentation, the mixed juice was refrigerated in cold storage at 4 °C, and the microbiological stability, characterization of volatiles, physicochemical properties (pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), residual sugar content and organic acids content), the sensorial validation (aroma, taste and overall acceptability) of the juice, and the viability of the potential probiotic strain were analyzed. The stored juice exhibited zero colonies of yeasts/fungi and simultaneously the viability of L. paracasei SP5 was retained to 8.28 Log CFU/mL, even after the 4th week of cold storage. The pH values ranged from 3.80 to 3.35 and the TTA values ranged from 0.1344% to 0.1844% lactic acid for the unfermented juice up until the 4th week of cold storage. Furthermore, the organic acids content consisted mostly of lactic acid (4.6 to 9.1 g/L), while malic acid (3.7 to 1.5 g/L), acetic acid (0.6 g/L) and propionic acid (0.3 g/L) were detected only after the 4th week of cold storage. Residual sugar content ranged from the initial value of 122.2 g/L and 106.6 g/L at the end of cold storage. As far as the volatiles’ characterization is concerned: 9 esters, 2 organic acids, 12 alcohols, 3 aldehydes, 1 ketone, 6 terpenes and 4 sesquiterpenes (37 in total) were detected in the unfermented mixed juice and 33 compounds in the fermented juice after 4 weeks of cold storage. The sensorial properties (aroma, taste and overall acceptability) of the fermented mixed juice samples were positively influenced. Consequently, L. paracasei SP5 potential probiotic strain may be applied for the production of probiotic mixed juices, with satisfying viability, volatile profile and organoleptic results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation and Bioactive Metabolites 4.0)
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13 pages, 2779 KiB  
Article
Neurobehavioral Effects of Fermented Rice Bran Extract in Zebrafish Larvae Model
by Jin Sil Chae, Seong Soon Kim, Kyu-Seok Hwang, Hyemin Kan, Jung Yoon Yang, Byunghoi Lee, Dae-Seop Shin, Byounghee Park and Myung Ae Bae
Fermentation 2023, 9(5), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9050479 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Rice bran (RB) is a promising food ingredient that can improve biological function. In this study, we investigated the effects of RB, both unfermented (RB30) and fermented (RBF30), with five different microorganisms on the neurobehavioral activity in zebrafish larvae. Analytical methods such as [...] Read more.
Rice bran (RB) is a promising food ingredient that can improve biological function. In this study, we investigated the effects of RB, both unfermented (RB30) and fermented (RBF30), with five different microorganisms on the neurobehavioral activity in zebrafish larvae. Analytical methods such as LC–UV and LC–MS were performed for the analysis of RB30 and RBF30 extracts. Interestingly, niacin content, which is known to improve brain functions such as cognition and emotion, was found to be higher in RBF30 than in RB30. Furthermore, niacin content was highly increased in the RBF30-exposed fish, compared to those in the control fish. Therefore, we profiled behavioral patterns and various neurochemistry in zebrafish larvae following supplementation with RBF30 as well as performed calcium imaging on Tg (huC:GAL4-VP16); (UAS:GCaMP7a) zebrafish larvae to determine the correlation of neural activity. RBF30 revealed greater stimulation of locomotor activity without negatively affecting decision-making behavior in zebrafish larvae, as compared to RB30 or niacin. Its behavioral activation is mainly linked with the elevations of neural activity and several neurochemicals such as serotonergic and dopaminergic systems that are implicated in the control of anxiety and stress. Taken together, these results suggest that RBF30 could be a food material that improves the behavioral health by modulating neural activity and brain neurochemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation and Bioactive Metabolites 4.0)
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15 pages, 3432 KiB  
Article
Quality and Functional Characterization of Acetic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Farm-Produced Fruit Vinegars
by Sun-Hee Kim, Woo-Soo Jeong, So-Young Kim and Soo-Hwan Yeo
Fermentation 2023, 9(5), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9050447 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) form a bacterial film on the surface of alcoholic solutions and ferment ethanol to acetic acid while also producing bioactive compounds. To discover functional AAB for industrial use, we isolated and selected strains from farm-produced vinegars using a CaCO [...] Read more.
Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) form a bacterial film on the surface of alcoholic solutions and ferment ethanol to acetic acid while also producing bioactive compounds. To discover functional AAB for industrial use, we isolated and selected strains from farm-produced vinegars using a CaCO3-containing medium. The seven isolated strains belonged to Acetobacter cerevisiae and Acetobacter pasteurianus. These strains were tolerant to ethanol concentrations up to 12% (v/v). Acidification was seen for GHA 7, GYA 23, JGB 21-17, and GHA 20 strains at a growth temperature of 40 °C. The seven AAB isolates had strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Antioxidant activity, as assessed using the DPPH and ABTS assays, was two- and four-fold higher than that for the negative control (1% acetic acid), respectively. We also observed 91.3% inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme activity for the KSO 5 strain, which was higher than that for the positive control, 0.1% captopril (76.9%). All strains showed complete inhibition of α-glucosidase, except JGB 21-17 and GHA 7, which showed 98.3% inhibition. Our work suggests the usefulness of the selected strains as seed strains for the highly efficient production of functional vinegar and illustrates the identification of useful functional characteristics on a scientific basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation and Bioactive Metabolites 4.0)
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18 pages, 2856 KiB  
Article
Microbiome and Volatile Metabolic Profile of Acetic Acid Fermentation Using Multiple Starters for Traditional Grain Vinegar
by Haram Kong, Sun Hee Kim, Woo-Soo Jeong, So-Young Kim and Soo-Hwan Yeo
Fermentation 2023, 9(5), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9050423 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1477
Abstract
Traditional grain vinegar is fermented using multiple acetic acid bacteria (AAB) at various temperatures. A single AAB showed high acid-producing ability at 30 °C with a 5% alcohol concentration and an initial pH adjusted to 4.0. Multiple AAB were similar to a single [...] Read more.
Traditional grain vinegar is fermented using multiple acetic acid bacteria (AAB) at various temperatures. A single AAB showed high acid-producing ability at 30 °C with a 5% alcohol concentration and an initial pH adjusted to 4.0. Multiple AAB were similar to a single AAB; however, the optimal initial pH was 3.0. Acid production ability according to the type of AAB was higher in multiple AAB than in single AAB. That is, using multiple AAB helped increase the titratable acidity of traditional grain vinegar. In addition, increasing the titratable acidity and content of volatile flavor compounds was advantageous when two, rather than four, AAB types were mixed and used. The titratable acidity was high at medium temperatures (30 °C); however, volatile flavor compounds increased at low temperatures (20 °C) under multiple AAB. A 16S rDNA-based microbiome taxonomic profiling analysis identified differences in beta diversity due to multiple AAB and fermentation temperatures. In particular, beta diversity analysis revealed a specific pattern when a mixture of Acetobacter ascedens GV–8 and Acetobacter pasteurianus GV–22 was fermented at a low temperature (20 °C). Therefore, we propose the application of multiple AAB with acidic and flavor-producing properties in traditional grain vinegar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation and Bioactive Metabolites 4.0)
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18 pages, 3100 KiB  
Article
Impact of Spontaneous Fermentation and Inoculum with Natural Whey Starter on Peptidomic Profile and Biological Activities of Cheese Whey: A Comparative Study
by Ahmed Helal, Chiara Nasuti, Laura Sola, Giada Sassi, Davide Tagliazucchi and Lisa Solieri
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030270 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1811
Abstract
Fermentation is a promising solution to valorize cheese whey, the main by-product of the dairy industry. In Parmigiano Reggiano cheese production, natural whey starter (NWS), an undefined community of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria, is obtained from the previous day residual whey through incubation [...] Read more.
Fermentation is a promising solution to valorize cheese whey, the main by-product of the dairy industry. In Parmigiano Reggiano cheese production, natural whey starter (NWS), an undefined community of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria, is obtained from the previous day residual whey through incubation at gradually decreasing temperature after curd cooking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fermentation regime (spontaneous (S) and NWS-inoculated (I-NWS)) on biofunctionalities and release of bioactive peptides during whey fermentation. In S and I-NWS trials proteolysis reached a peak after 24 h, which corresponded to the drop out in pH and the maximum increase in lactic acid. Biological activities increased as a function of fermentation time. NWS inoculum positively affected antioxidant activity, whilst S overcame I-NWS in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and DPP-IV (dipeptidyl peptidase IV) inhibitory activities. Peptidomics revealed more than 400 peptides, mainly derived from β-casein, κ-casein, and α-lactalbumin. Among them, 49 were bioactive and 21 were ACE-inhibitors. Semi-quantitative analysis strongly correlated ACE-inhibitory activity with the sum of the peptide abundance of ACE-inhibitory peptides. In both samples, lactotripeptide isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) was higher than valine-proline-proline (VPP), with the highest content in S after 24 h of fermentation. In conclusion, we demonstrated the ability of whey endogenous microbiota and NWS to extensively hydrolyze whey proteins, promoting the release of bioactive peptides and improving protein digestibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation and Bioactive Metabolites 4.0)
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15 pages, 1737 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Characterization of Limosilactobacillus reuteri Lac Ib01 (OL468126.1) Isolated from Traditional Sheep Dry Sausage and Evaluation of the Activity of Arthrospira platensis or Phycocyanin on Its Growth-Promoting Ability
by Ibtissem Chakroun, Najla Haddaji, Kais Fedhila, Makaoui Maatallah, Ridha Mzoughi, Yassine Chaabouni, Youssef Krichen and Amina Bakhrouf
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030248 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
The positive impact of probiotic strains on human health is more evident than ever. To achieve the beneficial health effects and desirable functional properties of probiotics, sufficient numbers of these microorganisms must reach the intestinal tract with high survival rates. The purpose of [...] Read more.
The positive impact of probiotic strains on human health is more evident than ever. To achieve the beneficial health effects and desirable functional properties of probiotics, sufficient numbers of these microorganisms must reach the intestinal tract with high survival rates. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a novel strain of Limosilactobacillus reuteri isolated from traditional sheep dry sausage and evaluate its growth-promoting ability with the addition of Arthrospira platensis or phycocyanin extract. In vitro experimental approaches were conducted to determine the physiological features of the candidate probiotic isolate, including biochemical identification, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, tolerance assays to acid and bile salts, antimicrobial activities, adherence ability, and antiproliferative assays. The effects of A. platensis or phycocyanin (0, 1, 5, and 8 mg/mL) on the growth of probiotic cultures were studied after 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Our results showed that the isolated Limosilactobacillus reuteri (OL468126.1) possesses desirable characteristics as a probiotic candidate and can, therefore, be used as an ingredient in functional foods. Furthermore, A. platensis and phycocyanin extract have great potential for enhancing the growth and prolonging the stationary phase of isolated probiotics. Our findings showed that phycocyanin extract not only plays the role of a natural pigment but also acts as a growth promoter of probiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation and Bioactive Metabolites 4.0)
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16 pages, 1532 KiB  
Article
Ultrasound-Assisted Lactic Acid Fermentation of Bakraei (Citrus reticulata cv. Bakraei) Juice: Physicochemical and Bioactive Properties
by Seyed Mohammad Bagher Hashemi, Dornoush Jafarpour, Elena Roselló Soto and Francisco J. Barba
Fermentation 2023, 9(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9010037 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
In this study, ultrasonication (US) (50 W, 30 kHz, 1–6 min) was used to increase the efficiency of Limosilactobacillus reuteri PTCC 1655 fermentation process (37 °C; 30 h) of Bakraei juice. Total sugars, pH, Brix, organic acids, vitamin C, polyphenols, antioxidant activity, α-amylase [...] Read more.
In this study, ultrasonication (US) (50 W, 30 kHz, 1–6 min) was used to increase the efficiency of Limosilactobacillus reuteri PTCC 1655 fermentation process (37 °C; 30 h) of Bakraei juice. Total sugars, pH, Brix, organic acids, vitamin C, polyphenols, antioxidant activity, α-amylase inhibition and anti-inflammatory properties were measured during the fermentation period. The results showed that by increasing the ultrasound time up to 5 min, pH, vitamin C, citric acid, and polyphenolic compounds decreased, while lactic acid, antioxidant capacity, α-amylase inhibition and anti-inflammatory properties were increased. When the ultrasound time was increased up to 6 min, compared to the non-ultrasound-treated sample, the efficiency of the fermentation process decreased and promoted a decrease in the microbial population, lactic acid levels, antioxidant activity, α-amylase inhibition, and anti-inflammatory properties of the juices. The initial anti-inflammatory activity (11.3%) of juice reached values of 33.4% and 19.5%, after US treatments of 5 and 6 min, respectively, compared to the non-sonicated juice (21.7%), after 30 h of fermentation. As a result, the use of ultrasound in the controlled fermentation process can increase the efficiency of fermentation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation and Bioactive Metabolites 4.0)
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21 pages, 8567 KiB  
Article
The Contribution of New Breed Purple Wheat (8526-2 and 8529-1) Varieties Wholemeal Flour and Sourdough to Quality Parameters and Acrylamide Formation in Wheat Bread
by Dovilė Klupsaite, Aura Kaminskaite, Arnoldas Rimsa, Agne Gerybaite, Agne Stankaityte, Ausra Sileikaite, Elzbieta Svetlauskaite, Emilija Cesonyte, Giedre Urbone, Karolis Pilipavicius, Konstancija Vaiginyte, Marija Vaisvilaite, Vilte Prokopenko, Giedre Stukonyte, Vytaute Starkute, Egle Zokaityte, Vita Lele, Darius Cernauskas, Ernestas Mockus, Zilvinas Liatukas, Vytautas Ruzgas, João Miguel Rocha and Elena Bartkieneadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Fermentation 2022, 8(12), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8120724 - 11 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of purple wheat (varieties 8526-2 and 8529-1) wholemeal flour (PWWF) left untreated or fermented with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum No. 135 on the quality parameters of and acrylamide formation in wheat bread. Different quantities (5, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of purple wheat (varieties 8526-2 and 8529-1) wholemeal flour (PWWF) left untreated or fermented with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum No. 135 on the quality parameters of and acrylamide formation in wheat bread. Different quantities (5, 10, 15, and 20%) of PWWF were tested for bread preparation. Acidity, colour characteristics, hardness, enzyme activities, and antioxidant activity of PWWF, as well as bread quality and acrylamide concentration, were analysed. Differences in LAB count and amylolytic and proteolytic enzyme activities between two varieties of non-treated and fermented PWWF were not found. Fermentation increased DPPH-scavenging activity and reduced hardness of both PWWF varieties. A very strong positive correlation was found between total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity in PWWF (r = 0.816, p = 0.001). In most cases, PWWF addition lowered bread specific volume and mass loss after baking. After 72 h of storage, bread with 5% PWWF showed the lowest hardness. Addition of 15% PWWF to bread increased overall acceptability. Fermentation and wheat variety significantly affected bread crumb a* colour coordinates. Addition of fermented PWWF significantly decreased acrylamide formation in bread (p ≤ 0.0001), and bread with 5% PWWF variety 8526-1 had the lowest acrylamide content. In conclusion, the addition of new-breed PWWF to wheat bread improved certain quality parameters, while PWWF fermented with L. plantarum possessed DPPH-scavenging activity and can be recommended for acrylamide reduction in wheat bread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation and Bioactive Metabolites 4.0)
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