Innovative Processes and Technologies for the Management of Hazardous Waste

A special issue of Environments (ISSN 2076-3298).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018) | Viewed by 51571

Special Issue Editors

Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7JD, UK
Interests: solid waste management and public health; sustainability; environmental behavior change; circular economy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Civil, Environmental, Architectural Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy
Interests: biomass; biofuel; drinking water and wastewater treatment; industrial healthcare and municipal solid waste treatment; disposal; contaminated sites; remediation and energy from waste; appropriate technologies for developing countries
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Given the potential risks posed by the ineffective management of hazardous wastes to public health and the environment, and an increasing desire to adopt more circular approaches, there has been a growing focus on how best to effectively manage and recover value from the wastes. This Special Issue focuses on novel and emerging processes and technologies for the effective management of hazardous waste. The case studies cover a range of approaches including policy, technology and process redesign as a means of reducing the risks and recovering value.

Dr. Terry Tudor
Prof. Dr. Mentore Vaccari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Environments is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Hazardous waste management
  • Innovative and novel hazardous waste treatment technologies
  • Hazardous waste policy development and implementation
  • Energy and material recovery from waste
  • Public health engineering
  • Risk management and mitigation

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
Preface: Special Issue on Innovative Processes and Technologies for the Management of Hazardous Waste
Environments 2018, 5(10), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5100106 - 22 Sep 2018
Viewed by 3046
Abstract
As economies grow in developing countries, waste generation rates are increasing steadily [1]. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

10 pages, 347 KiB  
Article
The Management of Hazardous Solid Waste in India: An Overview
Environments 2018, 5(9), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5090103 - 07 Sep 2018
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 13295
Abstract
Due largely to economic development, industrialization, and changing lifestyles, quantity of hazardous waste in India is rising significantly. This is particularly true in mega cities, where populations are large and growing. Due to a range of factors including limitations in governance systems, inadequate [...] Read more.
Due largely to economic development, industrialization, and changing lifestyles, quantity of hazardous waste in India is rising significantly. This is particularly true in mega cities, where populations are large and growing. Due to a range of factors including limitations in governance systems, inadequate treatment facilities, limitations in compliance and regulation, and limited trained and skilled stakeholders, the management of hazardous solid waste in the country is largely ineffective. One exception to this is the State of Gujarat, which has sought to implement a number of strategies to better manage the rising quantities of hazardous solid waste being produced. This article highlights the management of solid waste in the country for an effective mitigation of various hazards. Further, this article focused on adaptive technologies for the hazardous waste management all over the country more specifically in the state of Gujarat. Full article
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15 pages, 4359 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Spacer Length for Positioning Functional Groups in Bio-Waste
Environments 2018, 5(9), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5090100 - 02 Sep 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4203
Abstract
The goal of this study was to determine the optimal chain length needed for tethering functional groups on bio-wastes. The purpose of modifying the surface of bio-waste is to improve their affinity for phenols. To this end, four different aminated green tea leaves, [...] Read more.
The goal of this study was to determine the optimal chain length needed for tethering functional groups on bio-wastes. The purpose of modifying the surface of bio-waste is to improve their affinity for phenols. To this end, four different aminated green tea leaves, with the amine group located at the end of 6, 8, 10, and 12 carbons were synthesized. Green approaches to functionalization lead to fewer reactive sites. Optimizing spacer length is one way to ameliorate this. The aminated tea leaves were prepared by a tosylation reaction followed by displacement with a diamine used in excess. The tea leaves with the amine at the end of six carbons proved to have the best ability to remove 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) from its aqueous solution. It was at least 3–4 times better than native spent tea leaves. The mechanism by which the phenol was removed proved to be primarily an acid–base reaction followed by H-bonding and dipole–dipole interactions. Because of the acid–base interactions, the relatively low-boiling 2-CP did not volatilize off the aminated tea leaves enabling recycling. On the other hand, with activated charcoal, the adsorbed 2-CP volatilized almost completely under ambient conditions. Full article
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17 pages, 738 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of the Risk Posed by Leachate from Dumpsites in Developing Countries
Environments 2018, 5(9), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5090099 - 01 Sep 2018
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 6259
Abstract
The disposal of municipal solid waste into primarily dumpsites in developing countries causes a number of potential public and environmental health risks. While there have been various studies that have evaluated the contaminants that cause the risks, these studies have generally not examined [...] Read more.
The disposal of municipal solid waste into primarily dumpsites in developing countries causes a number of potential public and environmental health risks. While there have been various studies that have evaluated the contaminants that cause the risks, these studies have generally not examined in a holistic way the manner in which these contaminants move. This study therefore sought to model the flow of a range of contaminants in dumpsites (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn), and potential health risks as a means of enabling the more effective siting of facilities to reduce the risks posed. The study proposes a conservative model, using well consolidated equations and assumption, taking into account the path the pollutant makes to reach the water table and the point of exposure. The modelling may be useful to easily identify the boundaries of the area of risk related to the presence of a dumpsite in a Developing Country, beyond which a local community may use or build a safe well for drinking water. The results show as the area of risk is large and varies significantly with changes in input parameters, suggesting that without site-specific information it is better to follow conservative assumptions. Full article
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16 pages, 1456 KiB  
Article
Healthcare Waste Management: A Case Study from Sudan
Environments 2018, 5(8), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5080089 - 05 Aug 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 13053
Abstract
Healthcare waste (HCW) represents a major public health issue, especially in developing countries. Among HCW categories, sharps waste is one of the most hazardous. Exposure to needle-stick injuries can lead to blood-borne pathogens, therefore HCW should be managed in an effective manner. The [...] Read more.
Healthcare waste (HCW) represents a major public health issue, especially in developing countries. Among HCW categories, sharps waste is one of the most hazardous. Exposure to needle-stick injuries can lead to blood-borne pathogens, therefore HCW should be managed in an effective manner. The main aims of this study were to assess the current management of used needles and to suggest suitable recommendations for an improved and safer system for needle management in Khartoum, Sudan. The study showed that the management of both healthcare and home-generated HCW in Sudan is inefficient, as all wastes are mixed together and disposed of improperly, especially used needles. The study attributes this to many reasons, including lack of waste segregation at the source, lack of policies, failure of planning, inadequate training, lack of awareness of the hazardous nature of such kinds of waste, weak infrastructure, and a lack of suitable treatment technologies. The estimated average generated rate of HCW ranged from 0.38 to 0.87 kg/bed/day in 2009 and 2012, respectively. Such ineffective healthcare waste management HCWM, especially used needles, can put public health as well as the environment at risk, particularly waste workers, thus urgent action needs to be taken by all involved parties and at all levels. Full article
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16 pages, 4209 KiB  
Article
Application of GIS-Based Multi-Criteria Decision Technique in Exploration of Suitable Site Options for Anaerobic Digestion of Food and Biodegradable Waste in Oita City, Japan
Environments 2018, 5(7), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5070077 - 04 Jul 2018
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 6652
Abstract
Recently, the popularity of anaerobic digestion (AD) has been increasing, and selecting a site for AD is a complex process for both individuals and decision-makers. This process requires the selected site to fulfill all regulation requirements, simultaneously reducing environmental, sociocultural, technical, political, economic, [...] Read more.
Recently, the popularity of anaerobic digestion (AD) has been increasing, and selecting a site for AD is a complex process for both individuals and decision-makers. This process requires the selected site to fulfill all regulation requirements, simultaneously reducing environmental, sociocultural, technical, political, economic, and public health costs. A geographic-information-system-based multi-criteria decision analysis (GIS-MCDA) is presented in this study to evaluate and examine the suitability of the study area in order to propose a suitable site for an AD facility in Oita City, Japan. Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) was used to standardize the map layers into fuzzy membership functions. The proximity variables were classified into seven factors and three constraint groups, specifically, environmental, sociocultural, and technical/economic criteria. The proximity and criteria maps were combined using weighted linear combination (WLC) techniques, and the resulting suitability map was evaluated on a grading scale of 0–255 B. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) ranking analysis indicated that an area of about 13.36 km2 from the entire study area is the most suitable and that the remaining two options are still suitable for the intended purpose, but the entire decision will be entrusted to the decision-makers’ judgment. Full article
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13 pages, 1611 KiB  
Article
Wet Oxidation of Fine Soil Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons: A Way towards a Remediation Cycle
Environments 2018, 5(6), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5060069 - 08 Jun 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4308
Abstract
The aim of this experimental study was to assess the feasibility of using a wet oxidation (WO) process for treating fine soil with a high level of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). Two samples of soil were spiked with two different contaminants (motor oil, [...] Read more.
The aim of this experimental study was to assess the feasibility of using a wet oxidation (WO) process for treating fine soil with a high level of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). Two samples of soil were spiked with two different contaminants (motor oil, and motor oil + diesel). The samples were subjected to a WO bench plant test, where the effect of the main process parameters (i.e., temperature and reaction time) on the removal of TPHs was investigated. Results show that the WO process is effective for the decontamination of hydrocarbons, and a strong reduction (>85%) can be obtained with the typical working conditions of a full-scale plant (temperature = 250 °C, reaction time = 30 min). The solid residue resulting from the WO process was characterized in order to evaluate the recovery options. In terms of chemical characterization, the contents of the pollutants comply with the Italian regulations for commercial and industrial site use. Moreover, the results of the leaching test suggested that these residues could be reused for ceramic and brick manufacturing processes. Full article
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