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Zimányi School: Hydrodynamics and Thermodynamics in High Energy Particle and Nuclear Physics

A special issue of Entropy (ISSN 1099-4300). This special issue belongs to the section "Multidisciplinary Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 19096

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Atomic Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány P. s. 1/A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary
Interests: hydrodynamics in high-energy heavy ion physics; Bose–Einstein correlations; femtoscopy; forward (small-x) processes in particle physics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
Interests: theoretical high energy nuclear physics; relativistic heavy ion collisions; relativistic statistical physics; relativistic fluid dynamics; shocks, detonations, deflagrations; methods from general relativity; field theory and neural networks; energy physics; sustainable development

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Guest Editor
1. MATE Institute of Technology, Károly Róbert Campus, Mátrai út 36, H-3200 Gyöngyös, Hungary
2. Wigner Research Center for Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary
Interests: theoretical nuclear physics; experimental nuclear physics; theoretical particle physics; experimental particle physics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
Interests: statistics in high energy heavy ion physics; multiparticle production and collective phenomena; properties of chemical and kinetic freeze-outs; electron-positron collisions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Assistant Guest Editor
Eötvös University and Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest and MATE Institute of Technology KRC, 3201 Gyöngyös, Hungary
Interests: hydrodynamics in high-energy heavy ion physics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our pleasure to invite you to this Special Issue that focuses on hydrodynamics in heavy ion physics and also celebrates and invites contributions from the broad range of topics discussed during the first 20 years of the annual Zimányi Winter Schools on Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions. In collisions of relativistic heavy ions, a new form of matter, the strongly interacting quark–gluon plasma (sQGP) or quark matter is formed due to extremely high temperature, density, and pressure. Ordinary hadrons, leptons, and photons then emerge from the sQGP, and the produced entropy can be measured after the collisions. The sQGP becomes locally thermalized early, and equations of hydro- and thermodynamics can be utilized to describe its time evolution. Perfect fluid hydrodynamics is a theory without dissipation and internal scale, and many successful predictions about the sQGP have emerged from models based on it. Analytic solutions and numerical simulations are both useful in understanding space–time evolution of the system between its initial and final state. Today, dissipative hydrodynamics is also successfully applied to describe the sQGP, and there are interesting developments about the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics at various orders of dissipation. Meanwhile, thermodynamical properties at different stages of this evolution are important for understanding the sQGP.

One of the main aims of this Special Issue is to encourage interaction between the theoretical and experimental community, so we invite experimental results written up for theorists and we invite theoretical results that have measurable consequences in the spirit of “calculating to measure and measuring to clarify”, one of the traditions of the first 20 years of the Zimányi Schools.

Finally, we also plan to introduce and test a new, donation-based funding scheme for this Special Volume. First of all, your main contribution is expected to be a high-quality paper, which will undergo rigorous and anonymous refereeing. If the paper is accepted, we will ask for a donation, to support open access publication policy. The amount of donation can be larger or smaller than the cost of publishing your paper in this journal. If you have the means, please consider donating as much as reasonably possible on your side: this will support the costs of excellent publications of students or colleagues with modest means. Our aim is to allow for excellent student contributions to be published without the required processing charges, but this will only be possible if senior professionals join this initiative and offer generous donations. We have already started this process, but its success will depend on your contributions, decisions, and generosity.

Manuscript Submission Information for our Special Issue:

The Recommended Donation (RD) for publication in this open access journai is 3400-3800 CHF, but the amount of your donation can be larger or smaller, than this RD.
If you have the means, please consider donating as much as reasonably possible on your side: this will support the costs of excellent publications of students or colleagues with modest means. Our goal is to allow for excellent student contributions to be published without the required article processing charges in this open access journal, but this will only be possible if senior professionals join this initiative and offer generous donations.   
To set the scale, please consider that the Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in regular issues of this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). If you opt to donate less than this value of the APC, then please contact the Guest Editors for the availability of matching funds and donations as the whole volume has to break even.

We look forward to receiving your valuable manuscripts. Write-ups of your contributions will be available at http://zimanyischool.kfki.hu/20/.

Prof. Dr. Máté Csanád
Prof. Dr. László P. Csernai
Prof. T. Csörgő, MAE
Prof. Dr. Fu-Hu Liu
Mr. Gábor Kasza
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Entropy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Hydrodynamics in high energy heavy ion, proton-ion and proton-proton collisions
  • Bose–Einstein correlations
  • Femtoscopy
  • Forward (small-x) processes in particle physics
  • Statistics in high energy heavy ion physics
  • Multiparticle production and collective phenomena
  • Properties of chemical and kinetic freeze-outs
  • Recent news and results from EIC, FAIR, J-PARC, LHC, NICA and RHIC

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

10 pages, 406 KiB  
Article
Feasibility Studies of Charge Exchange Measurements in pp Collisions at the LHC
by Anna Fehérkuti, Gábor I. Veres, Ralf Ulrich and Tanguy Pierog
Entropy 2022, 24(9), 1188; https://doi.org/10.3390/e24091188 - 25 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1064
Abstract
(1) Pions produced in the development of extended atmospheric cosmic ray air showers subsequently decay to muons. The measured yield of those muons is generally underestimated by current phenomenological models and event generators optimized for cosmic ray physics. The importance of those disagreements [...] Read more.
(1) Pions produced in the development of extended atmospheric cosmic ray air showers subsequently decay to muons. The measured yield of those muons is generally underestimated by current phenomenological models and event generators optimized for cosmic ray physics. The importance of those disagreements motivates the feasibility studies for testing these models at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies, at the highest center-of-mass energies achievable in a laboratory. The interaction of a nucleus and a virtual pion created in a charge exchange reaction at the LHC is a similar process to those contributing to the development of air showers in case of cosmic rays. The crucial problem of such an analysis is the selection of charge exchange events with the highest possible efficiency and high purity from proton–proton collisions at the LHC. (2) For this we consider distributions of various measurable quantities given by event generators commonly used in cosmic ray physics. (3) We examine the expected distributions of energy deposited in different calorimeters of an LHC experiment. We consider the geometrical acceptance and energy resolution of the detectors at the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, as an example. We determine a working point cut from the various options for event selection, and compare signal and background predictions using different models for a representative simple observable, such as average transverse momentum or charge particle yield. (4) A set of event selection cuts along these considerations is proposed, with the aim of achieving optimal efficiency and purity. Full article
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11 pages, 1136 KiB  
Article
Regge Models of Proton Diffractive Dissociation Based on Factorisation and Structure Functions
by László Jenkovszky, Rainer Schicker and István Szanyi
Entropy 2022, 24(7), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/e24071001 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
Recent results by the authors on proton diffractive dissociation (single, double and central) in the low-mass resonance region with emphasis on the LHC kinematics are reviewed and updated. Based on the previous ideas that the contribution of the inelastic proton–Pomeron vertex can be [...] Read more.
Recent results by the authors on proton diffractive dissociation (single, double and central) in the low-mass resonance region with emphasis on the LHC kinematics are reviewed and updated. Based on the previous ideas that the contribution of the inelastic proton–Pomeron vertex can be described by the proton structure function, the contribution of the inelastic Pomeron–Pomeron vertex appearing in central diffraction is now described by a Pomeron structure function. Full article
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16 pages, 1337 KiB  
Article
New, Spherical Solutions of Non-Relativistic, Dissipative Hydrodynamics
by Gábor Kasza, László P. Csernai and Tamás Csörgő
Entropy 2022, 24(4), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/e24040514 - 6 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1453 | Correction
Abstract
We present a new family of exact solutions of dissipative fireball hydrodynamics for arbitrary bulk and shear viscosities. The main property of these solutions is a spherically symmetric, Hubble flow field. The motivation of this paper is mostly academic: we apply non-relativistic kinematics [...] Read more.
We present a new family of exact solutions of dissipative fireball hydrodynamics for arbitrary bulk and shear viscosities. The main property of these solutions is a spherically symmetric, Hubble flow field. The motivation of this paper is mostly academic: we apply non-relativistic kinematics for simplicity and clarity. In this limiting case, the theory is particularly clear: the non-relativistic Navier–Stokes equations describe the dissipation in a well-understood manner. From the asymptotic analysis of our new exact solutions of dissipative fireball hydrodynamics, we can draw a surprising conclusion: this new class of exact solutions of non-relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics is asymptotically perfect. Full article
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12 pages, 697 KiB  
Article
Event-by-Event Investigation of the Two-Particle Source Function in Heavy-Ion Collisions with EPOS
by Dániel Kincses, Maria Stefaniak and Máté Csanád
Entropy 2022, 24(3), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/e24030308 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2532
Abstract
Exploring the shape of the pair-source function for particles such as pions or kaons has been an important goal of heavy-ion physics, and substantial effort has been made in order to understand the underlying physics behind the experimental observations of non-Gaussian behavior. In [...] Read more.
Exploring the shape of the pair-source function for particles such as pions or kaons has been an important goal of heavy-ion physics, and substantial effort has been made in order to understand the underlying physics behind the experimental observations of non-Gaussian behavior. In experiments, since no direct measurement of the source function is possible, quantum-statistical momentum correlations are utilized to gain information about the space-time geometry of the particle emitting source. Event generators, such as EPOS, however, provide direct access to the freeze-out coordinates of final state particles, and thus the source function can be constructed and investigated. The EPOS model is a sophisticated hybrid model where the initial stage evolution of the system is governed by Parton-Based Gribov–Regge theory, and subsequently a hydrodynamic evolution is utilized, followed by hadronization and hadron dynamics. EPOS has already proven to be successful in describing several different experimental observations for systems characterized by baryon chemical potential close to zero, but so far the source shape has not been explored in detail. In this paper we discuss an event-by-event analysis of the two-particle source function in sNN = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions generated by the EPOS model. We find that when utilizing all stages of the model, Lévy-shaped distributions (unlike Gaussian distributions) provide a good description of the source shape in the individual events. Hence it is clear that it is not the event averaging that creates the non-Gaussian features in the pair distributions. Based on this observation, we determine Lévy-parameters of the source as a function of event centrality and particle momentum. Full article
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18 pages, 1513 KiB  
Article
Study of Kinetic Freeze-Out Parameters as a Function of Rapidity in pp Collisions at CERN SPS Energies
by Muhammad Waqas, Huai-Min Chen, Guang-Xiong Peng, Abd Al Karim Haj Ismail, Muhammad Ajaz, Zafar Wazir, Ramoona Shehzadi, Sabiha Jamal and Atef AbdelKader
Entropy 2021, 23(10), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/e23101363 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1678
Abstract
We used the blast wave model with the Boltzmann–Gibbs statistics and analyzed the experimental data measured by the NA61/SHINE Collaboration in inelastic (INEL) proton–proton collisions at different rapidity slices at different center-of-mass energies. The particles used in this study were π+, [...] Read more.
We used the blast wave model with the Boltzmann–Gibbs statistics and analyzed the experimental data measured by the NA61/SHINE Collaboration in inelastic (INEL) proton–proton collisions at different rapidity slices at different center-of-mass energies. The particles used in this study were π+, π, K+, K, and p¯. We extracted the kinetic freeze-out temperature, transverse flow velocity, and kinetic freeze-out volume from the transverse momentum spectra of the particles. We observed that the kinetic freeze-out temperature is rapidity and energy dependent, while the transverse flow velocity does not depend on them. Furthermore, we observed that the kinetic freeze-out volume is energy dependent, but it remains constant with changing the rapidity. We also observed that all three parameters are mass dependent. In addition, with the increase of mass, the kinetic freeze-out temperature increases, and the transverse flow velocity, as well as kinetic freeze-out volume decrease. Full article
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22 pages, 1003 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Transverse Momentum Spectra of Pions, Kaons and Protons in pp, p–A and A–A Collisions via the Blast-Wave Model with Fluctuations
by Hai-Ling Lao, Fu-Hu Liu and Bo-Qiang Ma
Entropy 2021, 23(7), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/e23070803 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
The transverse momentum spectra of different types of particles, π±, K±, p and p¯, produced at mid-(pseudo)rapidity in different centrality lead–lead (Pb–Pb) collisions at 2.76 TeV; proton–lead (p–Pb) collisions at 5.02 TeV; xenon–xenon (Xe–Xe) collisions [...] Read more.
The transverse momentum spectra of different types of particles, π±, K±, p and p¯, produced at mid-(pseudo)rapidity in different centrality lead–lead (Pb–Pb) collisions at 2.76 TeV; proton–lead (p–Pb) collisions at 5.02 TeV; xenon–xenon (Xe–Xe) collisions at 5.44 TeV; and proton–proton (pp) collisions at 0.9, 2.76, 5.02, 7 and 13 TeV, were analyzed by the blast-wave model with fluctuations. With the experimental data measured by the ALICE and CMS Collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the kinetic freeze-out temperature, transverse flow velocity and proper time were extracted from fitting the transverse momentum spectra. In nucleus–nucleus (A–A) and proton–nucleus (p–A) collisions, the three parameters decrease with the decrease of event centrality from central to peripheral, indicating higher degrees of excitation, quicker expansion velocities and longer evolution times for central collisions. In pp collisions, the kinetic freeze-out temperature is nearly invariant with the increase of energy, though the transverse flow velocity and proper time increase slightly, in the considered energy range. Full article
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15 pages, 946 KiB  
Article
Study of Dependence of Kinetic Freezeout Temperature on the Production Cross-Section of Particles in Various Centrality Intervals in Au–Au and Pb–Pb Collisions at High Energies
by Muhammad Waqas and Guang-Xiong Peng
Entropy 2021, 23(4), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/e23040488 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2044
Abstract
Transverse momentum spectra of π+, p, Λ, Ξ or Ξ¯+, Ω or Ω¯+ and deuteron (d) in different centrality intervals in nucleus–nucleus collisions at the center of mass energy are analyzed by [...] Read more.
Transverse momentum spectra of π+, p, Λ, Ξ or Ξ¯+, Ω or Ω¯+ and deuteron (d) in different centrality intervals in nucleus–nucleus collisions at the center of mass energy are analyzed by the blast wave model with Boltzmann Gibbs statistics. We extracted the kinetic freezeout temperature, transverse flow velocity and kinetic freezeout volume from the transverse momentum spectra of the particles. It is observed that the non-strange and strange (multi-strange) particles freezeout separately due to different reaction cross-sections. While the freezeout volume and transverse flow velocity are mass dependent, they decrease with the resting mass of the particles. The present work reveals the scenario of a double kinetic freezeout in nucleus–nucleus collisions. Furthermore, the kinetic freezeout temperature and freezeout volume are larger in central collisions than peripheral collisions. However, the transverse flow velocity remains almost unchanged from central to peripheral collisions. Full article
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23 pages, 650 KiB  
Article
Excitation Functions of Tsallis-Like Parameters in High-Energy Nucleus–Nucleus Collisions
by Li-Li Li, Fu-Hu Liu and Khusniddin K. Olimov
Entropy 2021, 23(4), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/e23040478 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2293
Abstract
The transverse momentum spectra of charged pions, kaons, and protons produced at mid-rapidity in central nucleus–nucleus (AA) collisions at high energies are analyzed by considering particles to be created from two participant partons, which are assumed to be contributors from the collision system. [...] Read more.
The transverse momentum spectra of charged pions, kaons, and protons produced at mid-rapidity in central nucleus–nucleus (AA) collisions at high energies are analyzed by considering particles to be created from two participant partons, which are assumed to be contributors from the collision system. Each participant (contributor) parton is assumed to contribute to the transverse momentum by a Tsallis-like function. The contributions of the two participant partons are regarded as the two components of transverse momentum of the identified particle. The experimental data measured in high-energy AA collisions by international collaborations are studied. The excitation functions of kinetic freeze-out temperature and transverse flow velocity are extracted. The two parameters increase quickly from ≈3 to ≈10 GeV (exactly from 2.7 to 7.7 GeV) and then slowly at above 10 GeV with the increase of collision energy. In particular, there is a plateau from near 10 GeV to 200 GeV in the excitation function of kinetic freeze-out temperature. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 19338 KiB  
Review
Heavy-Ion Collisions toward High-Density Nuclear Matter
by Shoji Nagamiya
Entropy 2022, 24(4), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/e24040482 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2045
Abstract
In the present paper, the current efforts in heavy-ion collisions toward high-density nuclear matter will be discussed. First, the essential points learned from RHIC and LHC will be reviewed. Then, the present data from the STAR Beam Energy Scan are discussed. Finally, the [...] Read more.
In the present paper, the current efforts in heavy-ion collisions toward high-density nuclear matter will be discussed. First, the essential points learned from RHIC and LHC will be reviewed. Then, the present data from the STAR Beam Energy Scan are discussed. Finally, the current efforts, NICA, FAIR, HIAF, and J-PARC-HI (heavy ion) are described. In particular, the efforts of the J-PARC-HI project are described in detail. Full article
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Other

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2 pages, 993 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Kasza et al. New, Spherical Solutions of Non-Relativistic, Dissipative Hydrodynamics. Entropy 2022, 24, 514
by Gábor Kasza, László P. Csernai and Tamás Csörgő
Entropy 2022, 24(6), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/e24060821 - 13 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1039
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
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