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A section of Entropy (ISSN 1099-4300).

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Thermodynamics, a cornerstone of physics, explores energy and its transformations, particularly concerning heat, mechanical work, and the interplay of various energy forms. Its historical journey traces a path from empirical observations to systematic laws, shaping our understanding of physical systems. Notable figures like Galileo, Boyle, and Newton initiated investigations into heat and temperature concepts in the 17th century. The 18th century introduced the caloric theory, proposing heat as a fluid-like substance termed "caloric." In the 19th century, the formulation of the first law of thermodynamics, emphasizing energy conservation, and the second law, introducing entropy and process directionality, marked significant milestones. Due to Boltzmann’s pioneering work, statistical mechanics emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, bridging macroscopic laws with microscopic particle behavior. The evolution of thermodynamics continued into the 20th and 21st centuries, with advancements in quantum mechanics, relativity, and information theory refining its principles and applications across diverse fields such as cosmology and condensed matter physics.

Nonequilibrium thermodynamics arose from recognizing the need to extend thermodynamics beyond equilibrium systems. Pioneering contributions by Onsager and Prigogine established nonequilibrium thermodynamics as a distinct field, addressing dynamic processes driven by temperature, pressure, and other gradients. Recent decades have seen further expansion, with computational methods and complex systems theory enriching our understanding and applications of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Rational thermodynamics provides a rigorous framework for investigating material and system properties, encompassing equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena. Finite-time thermodynamics offers insights into system performance, aiding in energy conversion and refrigeration process design. Extended irreversible thermodynamics aids in modelling and predicting nonequilibrium system behavior. Mesoscopic nonequilibrium thermodynamics explores emergent behaviors across various scales, contributing to innovative materials and technologies. Stochastic thermodynamics extends thermodynamic principles to systems influenced by randomness and fluctuations, offering valuable insights into their behavior.

This section invites submissions exploring both fundamental principles and practical applications of thermodynamics. We seek contributions that push the boundaries of thermodynamics knowledge, stimulating thought and engagement with the laws of thermodynamics, which underpin our understanding of the natural world.

Prof. Dr. Miguel Rubi
Section Editor-in-Chief


  • fundamental laws and application of thermodynamics
  • thermodynamic processes and properties
  • classical thermodynamics
  • engineering thermodynamics
  • environmental thermodynamics
  • biological thermodynamics
  • second law and exergy analysis
  • energy degradation and entropy generation
  • energetic and exergetic analysis and optimization
  • nature of entropy and its physical meaning
  • irreversibility and reversible limits
  • extrema principles of entropy production and optimization
  • non-equilibrium thermodynamics
  • theoretical and applied thermodynamics for engineers
  • energy conversion and energy efficiency
  • thermodynamics of energy conversion processes
  • entropy generation analysis
  • exergy analysis
  • minimizing the entropy production
  • principle of maximum entropy production rate
  • relativistic thermodynamics
  • revisiting the second law
  • stochastic thermodynamics
  • the nature of entropy and its physical meaning
  • theoretical and applied thermodynamics for chemical engineers
  • thermal energy storage
  • energy conversion
  • thermodynamics of small systems
  • thermoeconomics
  • quantum thermodynamics

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