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Markets and Distributed Resources for Modern Power Systems

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "C: Energy Economics and Policy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 12039

Special Issue Editors

LNEG – Nat. Lab. Energy Geol., Estr. Paço do Lumiar 22, P-1649038 Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: electricity markets; renewable energy integration; intelligent agents; computational negotiation
GECAD-Research Group on Intelligent Engineering and Computing for Advanced Innovation and Development, Polytechnic of Porto (P.PORTO), P-4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Interests: artificial intelligence; demand response; electric vehicles; electricity markets; power and energy systems; renewable and sustainable energy; smart grids
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The energy world is being challenged by the so-called “three-D’s” ¾ Decarbonisation, Decentralization and Digitalization. Specifically, the rapid expansion of renewables to reach the Paris Agreement is challenging power systems in terms of flexibility for short-term operation, and is putting increased pressure on the capacity of local and regional grids. At the same time, the rapid deployment of local resources able to offer demand-side flexibility is challenging power systems in terms of their smooth integration in a cost-effective and reliable manner. And all of this is happening in a society that is becoming increasingly digitalized, giving rise to an Internet of Things (IoT) — that is, the exchange of information between any entity and device in the power system is becoming gradually a reality.

Accordingly, future power systems will be characterized by very large penetrations of renewables (towards 100%), support the operation of central markets (e.g., day-ahead and balancing markets) and local flexibility markets, and the existence of a wide range of distributed energy resources, such as intelligent micro-grids and aggregation services, able to participate in the different market layers in a cost-effective way. Also, electric vehicles are expected to play a key role in future systems.

This Special Issue seeks to contribute to the ‘Modern Power Systems’ agenda by considering a multi-disciplinary approach. We therefore invite papers on innovative technical developments, reviews, models, analytical aspects and case studies, as well as simulation-based and assessment papers, from the various disciplines related to the main activities of power systems — that is, generation, transport, distribution and consumption of electrical energy (see also the list of keywords).

Prof. Dr. Fernando Lopes
Prof. Dr. Zita Vale
Prof. Dr. Nick Bassiliades
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • power generation 
  • renewable energy systems
  • renewable energy 
  • renewable generation and integration 
  • power system economics 
  • day-ahead, intra-day and balancing markets 
  • local flexibility markets 
  • retail markets 
  • market models and operation 
  • power grids 
  • grid operation and security 
  • smart grid technology 
  • distributed generation technologies 
  • distributed energy resources 
  • demand side flexibility 
  • island and grid-connected micro-grids 
  • aggregators 
  • aggregation services 
  • electric vehicles
  • energy storage systems 
  • energy prosumers 
  • demand response 
  • demand side management 
  • energy consumption 
  • smart devices 
  • smart meters 
  • modern Power Systems 
  • digitalization 
  • decarbonisation 
  • decentralization 
  • clean Energy Transition

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 4624 KiB  
Article
Non-Iterative, Unique, and Logical Formula-Based Technique to Determine Maximum Load Multiplier and Practical Load Multiplier for Both Transmission and Distribution Systems
Energies 2023, 16(12), 4724; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16124724 - 15 Jun 2023
Viewed by 763
Abstract
In recent days, due to the increasing number of electric vehicle charging stations (EVCSs) and additional power consumption by domestic, commercial, and industrial consumers, the overall power system performance suffers, which further degrades voltage profile, reduces stability, increases losses, and may also create [...] Read more.
In recent days, due to the increasing number of electric vehicle charging stations (EVCSs) and additional power consumption by domestic, commercial, and industrial consumers, the overall power system performance suffers, which further degrades voltage profile, reduces stability, increases losses, and may also create a voltage collapse problem. Therefore, it is crucial to predetermine a maximum loadability limit for voltage collapse analysis and a practical allowable extra load for safe and secure operation, keeping the bus voltage within the security limits. To mitigate the problems, unique and innovative formulae such as the maximum load multiplier (MLM) and practical load multiplier (PLM) have been developed to consider line resistance. The determination of actual permissible extra load for a bus enables quick assessment of bus-wise suitable capacities and the number of EVs that can be charged simultaneously in the charging station. The planning engineers can easily settle on the extra load demand by domestic, commercial, and industrial consumers, while maintaining the voltage security constraint. The proposed technique is simple, non-iterative, computationally inexpensive, and applicable to both transmission and distribution systems. The proposed work is tested on a 57-bus transmission system and 69-bus radial distribution system, and the obtained results from the developed formulae are verified by comparing with conventional iterative methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Markets and Distributed Resources for Modern Power Systems)
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26 pages, 2735 KiB  
Article
Advanced Flexibility Support through DSO-Coordinated Participation of DER Aggregators in the Balancing Market
Energies 2023, 16(8), 3440; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16083440 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1617
Abstract
Future power systems with a high share of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy portfolio will have an increasing need for active power balancing. The integration of controllable and more flexible distributed energy resources (DERs) at the distribution-grid level represents a [...] Read more.
Future power systems with a high share of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy portfolio will have an increasing need for active power balancing. The integration of controllable and more flexible distributed energy resources (DERs) at the distribution-grid level represents a new solution and a sustainable alternative to conventional generation units for providing balancing services to the transmission system operator (TSO). Considering that the extensive participation of DERs in ancillary services may lead to the violation of limits in the distribution network, the distribution system operator (DSO) needs to have a more active role in this process. In this paper, a framework is presented that allows the DSO, as the central coordinator of the aggregators, to participate in the balancing market (BM) as a balancing service provider (BSP). The developed mathematical model is based on the mixed-integer second-order cone programming (MISOCP) approach and allows for determination of the limits of active power flexibility at the point of the TSO–DSO connection, formation of the dependence of the price/quantity curve, and achievement of the optimal dispatch of each DER after clearing the balancing market. The simulation results are presented and verified on modified IEEE distribution networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Markets and Distributed Resources for Modern Power Systems)
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17 pages, 1175 KiB  
Article
Combined Heat and Power Economic Dispatching within Energy Network using Hybrid Metaheuristic Technique
Energies 2023, 16(3), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031221 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Combined heat and power (CHP) plants have opportunities to work as distributed power generation for providing heat and power demand. Furthermore, CHP plants contribute effectively to overcoming the intermittence of renewable energy sources as well as load dynamics. CHP plants need optimal solution(s) [...] Read more.
Combined heat and power (CHP) plants have opportunities to work as distributed power generation for providing heat and power demand. Furthermore, CHP plants contribute effectively to overcoming the intermittence of renewable energy sources as well as load dynamics. CHP plants need optimal solution(s) for providing electrical and heat energy demand simultaneously within the smart network environment. CHP or cogeneration plant operations need appropriate techno-economic dispatching of combined heat and power with minimising produced energy cost. The interrelationship between heat and power development in a CHP unit, the valve point loading effect, and forbidden working regions of a thermal power plant make the CHP economic dispatch’s (CHPED) objective function discontinuous. It adds complexity in the CHPED optimisation process. The key objective of the CHPED is operating cost minimisation while meeting the desired power and heat demand. To optimise the dispatch operation, three different algorithms, like Jaya algorithm, Rao 3 algorithm, and hybrid CHPED algorithm (based on first two) are adopted containing different equality and inequality restrictions of generating units. The hybrid CHPED algorithm is developed by the authors, and it can handle all of the constraints. The success of the suggested algorithms is assessed on two test systems; 5-units and 24-unit power plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Markets and Distributed Resources for Modern Power Systems)
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21 pages, 512 KiB  
Article
Mechanism Design for Efficient Offline and Online Allocation of Electric Vehicles to Charging Stations
Energies 2022, 15(5), 1660; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15051660 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
The industry related to electric vehicles (EVs) has seen a substantial increase in recent years, as such vehicles have the ability to significantly reduce total CO2 emissions and the related global warming effect. In this paper, we focus on the problem of [...] Read more.
The industry related to electric vehicles (EVs) has seen a substantial increase in recent years, as such vehicles have the ability to significantly reduce total CO2 emissions and the related global warming effect. In this paper, we focus on the problem of allocating EVs to charging stations, scheduling and pricing their charging. Specifically, we developed a Mixed Integer Program (MIP) which executes offline and optimally allocates EVs to charging stations. On top, we propose two alternative mechanisms to price the electricity the EVs charge. The first mechanism is a typical fixed-price one, while the second is a variation of the Vickrey–Clark–Groves (VCG) mechanism. We also developed online solutions that incrementally call the MIP-based algorithm and solve it for branches of EVs. In all cases, the EVs’ aim is to minimize the price to pay and the impact on their driving schedule, acting as self-interested agents. We conducted a thorough empirical evaluation of our mechanisms and we observed that they had satisfactory scalability. Additionally, the VCG mechanism achieved an up to 2.2% improvement in terms of the number of vehicles that were charged compared to the fixed-price one and, in cases where the stations were congested, it calculated higher prices for the EVs and provided a higher profit for the stations, but lower utility to the EVs. However, in a theoretical evaluation, we proved that the variant of the VCG mechanism being proposed in this paper still guaranteed truthful reporting of the EVs’ preferences. In contrast, the fixed-price one was found to be vulnerable to agents’ strategic behavior as non-truthful EVs can charge instead of truthful ones. Finally, we observed the online algorithms to be, on average, at 95.6% of the offline ones in terms of the average number of serviced EVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Markets and Distributed Resources for Modern Power Systems)
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25 pages, 371 KiB  
Article
Economic Effects of Micro- and Mini-Distributed Photovoltaic Generation for the Brazilian Distribution System
Energies 2022, 15(3), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030737 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
The micro- and mini-distributed generation (MMDG) has significantly increased after the normative resolution No. 482/2012 in Brazil; the installed capacity surpassed 7 GW in 2021. In the international context, a similar event was observed, whose process generated a cross-subsidy for other consumers, in [...] Read more.
The micro- and mini-distributed generation (MMDG) has significantly increased after the normative resolution No. 482/2012 in Brazil; the installed capacity surpassed 7 GW in 2021. In the international context, a similar event was observed, whose process generated a cross-subsidy for other consumers, in addition to other problems that affect the economic balance of concessionaires. To mitigate this issue, the National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL) is in the process of revising current rules. Thus, this study estimates the weight of this decision, through a methodology adapted from international assessment models, based on information from the Brazilian regulatory system. In order to achieve it, this paper presents metrics to define the potential market MMDG, based on the consumption patterns of consumers. Then, through time series analysis, the MMDG demand curve is estimated under two scenarios up to 2030. Finally, the economic impact on tariff adjustments and revisions, and their effect on the electric power concessionaires are evaluated. In the distribution companies of the Enel Group alone, economic losses are estimated at USD 1.2 billion by 2030; 53% of this will be passed on to consumers’ tariffs. Thus, based on international experiences, it can be concluded that the best model is the adequate grid remuneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Markets and Distributed Resources for Modern Power Systems)
26 pages, 1242 KiB  
Article
Impact of Network Charge Design in an Energy System with Large Penetration of Renewables and High Prosumer Shares
Energies 2021, 14(21), 6872; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14216872 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1561
Abstract
The transformation of our energy system toward zero net CO2 emissions correlates with a stronger use of low energy density renewable energy sources (RES), such as photovoltaic (PV) energy. As a source of flexibility, distributed PV systems, in particular, are oftentimes installed [...] Read more.
The transformation of our energy system toward zero net CO2 emissions correlates with a stronger use of low energy density renewable energy sources (RES), such as photovoltaic (PV) energy. As a source of flexibility, distributed PV systems, in particular, are oftentimes installed in combination with battery storage systems. These storage systems are dispatchable, i.e., controllable by the operating owners, who can thereby take over an active market role as energy prosumers. The particular battery operation modes are based on the individual prosumer decisions, which, in turn, are strongly affected by the regulatory framework in place. Regulatory frameworks differ from country to country, but almost all regulatory frameworks feature a network charge mechanism, which allocates network infrastructure and operating costs to the end customers. This raises the question of the extent to which different network charges lead to different prosumer decisions, i.e., battery operation modes, and thus different energy system configurations (system costs). In order to evaluate this question we apply (a) a fundamental linear optimization model of the energy wholesale market, which we stringently link to (b) an analysis of peak-coincident network capacity utilization as well as (c) an evaluation of the complete costs of energy for prosumers and consumers. This stringent cycle of analysis is applied to two prototypical network allocation schemes. We demonstrate that network allocation schemes that are orientated to peak-coincident network capacity utilization could both better incentivize a distribution network-oriented behaviour and better share financial burdens between prosuming and purely consuming households than would be the case for volumetric network charge designs. This paper further demonstrates that network-oriented battery operation does not, per se, result in optimal RES integration at the wholesale market level and CO2 emissions reduction. To identify effects from increasing sector integration, an analysis is both performed for a setting without and with consideration of widespread e-mobility. As a broader conclusion, our results demonstrate that future regulatory frameworks should have a stronger focus on prosumer integration by means, among other things, of an adequate network charge design reflecting the increasingly distributed nature of our future energy system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Markets and Distributed Resources for Modern Power Systems)
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20 pages, 14257 KiB  
Article
Prosumer Community Portfolio Optimization via Aggregator: The Case of the Iberian Electricity Market and Portuguese Retail Market
Energies 2021, 14(13), 3747; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133747 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1983
Abstract
The participation of household prosumers in wholesale electricity markets is very limited, considering the minimum participation limit imposed by most market participation rules. The generation capacity of households has been increasing since the installation of distributed generation from renewable sources in their facilities [...] Read more.
The participation of household prosumers in wholesale electricity markets is very limited, considering the minimum participation limit imposed by most market participation rules. The generation capacity of households has been increasing since the installation of distributed generation from renewable sources in their facilities brings advantages for themselves and the system. Due to the growth of self-consumption, network operators have been putting aside the purchase of electricity from households, and there has been a reduction in the price of these transactions. This paper proposes an innovative model that uses the aggregation of households to reach the minimum limits of electricity volume needed to participate in the wholesale market. In this way, the Aggregator represents the community of households in market sales and purchases. An electricity transactions portfolio optimization model is proposed to enable the Aggregator reaching the decisions on which markets to participate to maximize the market negotiation outcomes, considering the day-ahead market, intra-day market, and retail market. A case study is presented, considering the Iberian wholesale electricity market and the Portuguese retail market. A community of 50 prosumers equipped with photovoltaic generators and individual storage systems is used to carry out the experiments. A cost reduction of 6–11% is achieved when the community of households buys and sells electricity in the wholesale market through the Aggregator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Markets and Distributed Resources for Modern Power Systems)
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