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Experimental Analysis and Numerical Modelling of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flows in Energy Systems

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "J: Thermal Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2021) | Viewed by 13765

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Energy, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
Interests: computational fluid dynamics; component interaction; gas turbine cooling; pumps and compressors; uncertainty quantification
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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
Interests: turbomachinery; flow control; secondary air systems; uncertainty quantification
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In order to meet the goals set by the European Commission in terms of reduction of pollutants emission by 2050, the energy systems designers have increased their efforts to adopt greener technologies and to develop innovative solutions. That is especially true in the energy generation and in the propulsion fields that highly contribute to CO2 emissions. It is also evident that newly designed experimental equipment and high-fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics represent fundamental tools to deal with such demanding outcomes.

For those reasons, the Guest Editor is inviting submissions to a Special Issue of Energies on the subject area of “Experimental Analysis and Numerical Modelling of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flows in Energy Systems”. Topics of interest for publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Experimental Analysis
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics
  • Uncertainty Quantification
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Turbomachinery
  • Pressure Gain Combustion
  • Internal Combustion Engines
  • Hybrid Engines
  • Heat Transfer

Dr. Simone Salvadori
Prof. Daniela Anna Misul
Dr. Mauro Carnevale
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Experimental analysis
  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Turbulence modelling
  • Combustion modelling
  • Uncertainty quantification
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Turbomachinery
  • Aircraft engines
  • Pressure gain combustion
  • Internal combustion engines
  • Hybrid engines
  • Fuel pumps
  • Sustainable fuels (i.e., pyrolysis oil, hydrogen)

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

25 pages, 9450 KiB  
Article
Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of the Aero-Thermal Impact of Different Feeding Geometries for Internal Cooling in Lifetime Extension Processes for Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines
by Lorenzo Laveneziana, Nicola Rosafio, Simone Salvadori, Daniela Anna Misul, Mirko Baratta, Luca Forno, Massimo Valsania and Marco Toppino
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3022; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093022 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2487
Abstract
Regulations from the European Union move towards a constant reduction of pollutant emissions to match the single-digit goal by 2050. Original equipment manufacturers propose newly designed components for the lifetime extension ofgGas turbines that both reduce emissions and allow for increasing thermodynamic performance [...] Read more.
Regulations from the European Union move towards a constant reduction of pollutant emissions to match the single-digit goal by 2050. Original equipment manufacturers propose newly designed components for the lifetime extension ofgGas turbines that both reduce emissions and allow for increasing thermodynamic performance by redesigning turbine cooling geometries and optimizing secondary air systems. The optimal design of internal cooling geometries allows for reducing both blade metal temperature and coolant mass-flow rates. In the present study, four different geometries of the region upstream from the blade’s internal cooling channels are investigated by using computational fluid dynamics with a conjugate heat transfer approach. The baseline configuration is compared to solutions that include turbulators, vanes, and a diffuser-like shapes. The impact of each solution on the blade metal temperature is thoroughly analysed. The diffuser-like solution allows for a more uniform distribution of the coolant and may reduce the metal temperature by 30% in the central part of the blade. There are also regions where the metal temperature increases up to 15%, thus requiring a specific thermal fatigue analysis. Eventually, the non-negligible impact of the coolant flow purged in the tip clearance region on the generation of the tip leakage vortex is described. Full article
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21 pages, 6755 KiB  
Article
Implementation of a Multi-Zone Numerical Blow-by Model and Its Integration with CFD Simulations for Estimating Collateral Mass and Heat Fluxes in Optical Engines
by Edoardo De Renzis, Valerio Mariani, Gian Marco Bianchi, Giulio Cazzoli, Stefania Falfari, Christian Antetomaso and Adrian Irimescu
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8566; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248566 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2665
Abstract
Nowadays reducing green-house gas emissions and pushing the fossil fuel savings in the field of light-duty vehicles is compulsory to slow down climate change. To this aim, the use of new combustion modes and dilution strategies to increase the stability of operations rich [...] Read more.
Nowadays reducing green-house gas emissions and pushing the fossil fuel savings in the field of light-duty vehicles is compulsory to slow down climate change. To this aim, the use of new combustion modes and dilution strategies to increase the stability of operations rich in diluent is an effective technique to reduce combustion temperatures and heat losses in throttled operations. Since the combustion behavior in those solutions highly differs from that of typical market systems, fundamental analyses in optical engines are mandatory in order to gain a deep understanding of those and to tune new models for improving the mutual support between experiments and simulations. However, it is known that optical accessible engines suffer from significant blow-by collateral flow due to the installation of the optical measure line. Thus, a reliable custom blow-by model capable of being integrated with both mono-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations was developed and validated against experimental data. The model can work for two different configurations: (a) stand-alone, aiming at providing macroscopic data on the ignitable mixture mass loss/recover through the piston rings; (b) combined, in which it is integrated in CFD engine simulations for the local analysis of likely collateral heat release induced by blow-by. Furthermore, once the model was validated, the effect of the engine speed and charge dilution on the blow-by phenomenon in the optical engine were simulated and discussed in the stand-alone mode. Full article
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11 pages, 26187 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Water-Cooled Intercooler Thermal Characteristics
by Chao Yu, Wenbao Zhang, Xiangyao Xue, Jiarun Lou and Guochao Lao
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8332; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248332 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3742
Abstract
With the incremental power of construction machinery diesel engines, the power performance of diesel engines and the pollutant emissions from the exhaust gas have imposed increasingly stringent requirements on the intake cooling system of diesel engines. This paper compared the j/f [...] Read more.
With the incremental power of construction machinery diesel engines, the power performance of diesel engines and the pollutant emissions from the exhaust gas have imposed increasingly stringent requirements on the intake cooling system of diesel engines. This paper compared the j/f evaluation factors for fin unit bodies of water-cooled intercooler (including straight fins and rectangular misaligned fins) by means of CFD simulation, and found that the rectangular misaligned fins had an 8% advantage in comprehensive performance. With the rectangular staggered fin intercooler, it was found that under the same conditions, the cooling efficiency of the dual-pass water-cooled intercooler is higher than that of the single-pass water-cooled intercooler, and the uniformity factor of the temperature difference field of the dual-pass water-cooled intercooler is 1.5% higher than that of the latter. The accuracy of the overall simulation of the intercooler is verified by the field test. The dual-pass and single-pass water-cooled intercooler both can maintain heat balance under working conditions, and its average air inlet temperature is 10 °C lower than that of the original air-cooled intercooler, which provides support for further reducing the engine air inlet temperature. The results provide a theoretical basis for the performance improvement of water-cooled intercoolers. Full article
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15 pages, 6227 KiB  
Article
Study on the Convective Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow of Mini-Channel with High Aspect Ratio of Neutron Production Target
by Peng Sun, Yiping Lu, Jianfei Tong, Youlian Lu, Tianjiao Liang and Lingbo Zhu
Energies 2021, 14(13), 4020; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14134020 - 3 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1761
Abstract
In order to provide a theoretical basis for the thermal design of the neutron production target, flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied by using numerical simulations and experiments. A rectangular mini-channel experimental model consistent with the geometric shape of the heat dissipation [...] Read more.
In order to provide a theoretical basis for the thermal design of the neutron production target, flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied by using numerical simulations and experiments. A rectangular mini-channel experimental model consistent with the geometric shape of the heat dissipation structure of neutron production target was established, in which the aspect ratio and gap thickness of the test channel were 53.8:1 and 1.3 mm, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the critical Re of the mini-channel is between 3500 and 4000, and when Re reaches 21,000, Nu can reach 160. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data, and the numerical simulation method can be used for the variable structure optimization design of the target in the later stage. The relationship between the flow pressure drop of the target mini-channel and the aspect ratio and Re is obtained by numerical simulation. The maximum deviation between the correlation and the experimental value is 6%. Full article
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11 pages, 4609 KiB  
Article
Numerical Modeling of Sublimation of Ammonium Carbamate Applied to Supply System of NOx Reductant
by Sang-Hee Woo, Jung-Hun Noh, Hassan Raza and Hongsuk Kim
Energies 2021, 14(13), 3795; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133795 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
Recently, ammonium carbamate (AC) has attracted attention as a substitute for urea, which is a commonly used reductant for NOx emitted from combustion engines. The AC exists as a solid at room temperature, and it is decomposed to NH3 and CO [...] Read more.
Recently, ammonium carbamate (AC) has attracted attention as a substitute for urea, which is a commonly used reductant for NOx emitted from combustion engines. The AC exists as a solid at room temperature, and it is decomposed to NH3 and CO2 gases by heating. Therefore, adequate heat transfer is an essential issue in the design of AC pyrolysis reactor. In this study, a numerical model that describes the sublimation of AC was developed. For modeling, this study considered the three different calculation zones: solid-phase zone, gas-phase zone, and sublimation zone. Additionally, during the sublimation process, collapse of upper solid AC into the hollow space below by the effect of gravity is considered. As a result, it is presented that the modeling shows reasonable information about the AC sublimation in a reactor, such as temperatures in a reactor, pressure of reactor, and flow rate of sublimated gas. However, it is also found that accurate prediction of spatial temperature distribution is challenging because it is related to the accurate prediction of the internal shape of AC and its collapse in a reactor. Full article
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