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Energy-Saving Opportunities in Liquefied Methane Value Chains

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "H: Geo-Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2021) | Viewed by 17396

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Korea
Interests: LNG supply chain; bio-energy; integrated energy systems; process systems engineering; process design and control; process optimization
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Guest Editor
Process Systems Design & Control Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea
Interests: natural gas liquefaction; LNG supply chain; bio-energy; liquefied biomethane value chain; integrated energy systems; process systems engineering; liquid air energy storage systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Methane has been recognized as a relatively clean energy resource. The major sources of methane gas are conventional natural gas, biogas (biomethane), and coal gasification (synthetic natural gas). The major issue associated with the value chains of all types of methane gas is high operating costs, mainly due to low energy efficiency. Considering the transportation over long distances (i.e., >2000 km), liquefaction is currently one of the most promising approaches. However, the liquefaction and refrigeration units associated with methane value chains are considered more energy intensive. There are many open issues associated with liquefied methane value chains. For instance, the safe and economical removal of mercury from conventional natural gas, natural gas sweetening, natural gas liquids recovery with high purity, and the low energy efficiency of natural gas liquefaction processes. Similarly, the low energy efficiency of liquefied biomethane, coalbed methane, and synthetic natural gas value chains is another major issue that needs to be addressed.    

Authors are invited to submit original research and review articles that will present strategies, investigations, and analysis for finding the energy-saving opportunities in liquefied methane value chains.

The scope of this Special Issue covers, but is not limited to, the following topics:

  • Natural gas value chain enhancements;
  • Analysis and investigations relating to natural gas value chain;
  • Process design and optimization of methane-based energy systems;
  • Methane-based gases purification and separation;
  • Biogas value chain;
  • Biogas production systems;
  • Biogas cleaning and upgrading;
  • Optimization of biomethane liquefaction processes;
  • Integrated energy systems;
  • Synthetic natural gas production;
  • Synthetic natural gas purification process enhancements ;
  • Synthetic natural gas liquefaction processes;
  • Power-to-methane gas systems;
  • Energy efficiency enhancements and analysis of LNG processes;
  • Techno-economic analysis and sustainability analysis;
  • Process modeling, simulation, and optimization.

Prof. Dr. Moonyong Lee
Dr. Muhammad Abdul Qyyum
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Natural gas
  • Acid gases removal
  • Natural gas liquids
  • Natural gas liquefaction
  • LNG processes
  • Biogas production and upgrading
  • Biomethane liquefaction
  • Synthetic natural gas liquefaction
  • Coalbed methane
  • Substitute natural gas

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1254 KiB  
Article
Optimal Process Design of Small Scale SMR Process for LNG Vessel
by Chulmin Hwang, Taejong Yu and Youngsub Lim
Energies 2021, 14(12), 3677; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123677 - 20 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2407
Abstract
Recently, due to regulations on emissions of vessels, fuel is changing to liquefied natural gas (LNG). When using LNG as fuel, it is advantageous in terms of fuel saving and boil-off gas control if a small-scale liquefaction process is installed on the ship. [...] Read more.
Recently, due to regulations on emissions of vessels, fuel is changing to liquefied natural gas (LNG). When using LNG as fuel, it is advantageous in terms of fuel saving and boil-off gas control if a small-scale liquefaction process is installed on the ship. However, due to the limited space, the small-scale liquefaction process for ships has to consider not only efficiency but also simplicity and compactness. In this respect, it is different from the process in onshore liquefaction plants, and research on this is insufficient. Therefore, this paper performs a comparative analysis in terms of efficiency by simplifying the composition of the mixed refrigerant in the liquefaction process. Additionally, a single mixed refrigerant process is used to pursue the compactness of the process. For comparative analysis, the liquefaction process is designed and simulated, and the specific power consumption calculated as the power required to liquefy the unit LNG is used as the objective function to optimize. As a result, it is confirmed that when the number of refrigerants is reduced from 5 to 4, the efficiency is only about a 1% difference, but when it is reduced to 3, the efficiency decreases by 23%, resulting in a decrease in performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Saving Opportunities in Liquefied Methane Value Chains)
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17 pages, 5181 KiB  
Article
Biomass to Syngas: Modified Non-Stoichiometric Thermodynamic Models for the Downdraft Biomass Gasification
by Hafiz Muhammad Uzair Ayub, Sang Jin Park and Michael Binns
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5668; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215668 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3008
Abstract
Biomass gasification is the most reliable thermochemical conversion technology for the conversion of biomass into gaseous fuels such as H2, CO, and CH4. The performance of a gasification process can be estimated using thermodynamic equilibrium models. This type of [...] Read more.
Biomass gasification is the most reliable thermochemical conversion technology for the conversion of biomass into gaseous fuels such as H2, CO, and CH4. The performance of a gasification process can be estimated using thermodynamic equilibrium models. This type of model generally assumes the system reaches equilibrium, while in reality the system may only approach equilibrium leading to some errors between experimental and model results. In this study non-stoichiometric equilibrium models are modified and improved with correction factors inserted into the design equations so that when the Gibbs free energy is minimized model predictions will more closely match experimental values. The equilibrium models are implemented in MatLab and optimized based on experimental values from the literature using the optimization toolbox. The modified non-stoichiometric models are shown to be more accurate than unmodified models based on the calculated root mean square error values. These models can be applied for various types of solid biomass for the production of syngas through biomass gasification processes such as wood, agricultural, and crop residues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Saving Opportunities in Liquefied Methane Value Chains)
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14 pages, 2813 KiB  
Article
Energy Saving through Efficient BOG Prediction and Impact of Static Boil-off-Rate in Full Containment-Type LNG Storage Tank
by Mohd Shariq Khan, Muhammad Abdul Qyyum, Wahid Ali, Aref Wazwaz, Khursheed B. Ansari and Moonyong Lee
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5578; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215578 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5033
Abstract
Boil-off gas (BOG) from a liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tank depends on the amount of heat leakage however, its assessment often relies on the static value of the boil-off rate (BOR) suggested by the LNG tank vendors that over/under predicts BOG generation. [...] Read more.
Boil-off gas (BOG) from a liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tank depends on the amount of heat leakage however, its assessment often relies on the static value of the boil-off rate (BOR) suggested by the LNG tank vendors that over/under predicts BOG generation. Thus, the impact of static BOR on BOG predictions is investigated and the results suggest that BOR is a strong function of liquid level in a tank. Total heat leakage in a tank practically remains constant, nonetheless the unequal distribution of heat in vapor and liquid gives variation in BOR. Assigning the total tank heat leak to the liquid is inappropriate since a part of heat increases vapor temperature. At the lower liquid level, BOG is under-predicted and at a higher level, it is over-predicted using static BOR. Simulation results show that BOR varies from 0.012 wt% per day for an 80% tank fill to 0.12 wt% per day at 10% tank fill. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Saving Opportunities in Liquefied Methane Value Chains)
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0 pages, 1676 KiB  
Article
Biomass to Syngas: Modified Stoichiometric Thermodynamic Models for Downdraft Biomass Gasification
by Hafiz Muhammad Uzair Ayub, Sang Jin Park and Michael Binns
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5383; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205383 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2897
Abstract
To help meet the global demand for energy and reduce the use of fossil fuels, alternatives such as the production of syngas from renewable biomass can be considered. This conversion of biomass to syngas is possible through a thermochemical gasification process. To design [...] Read more.
To help meet the global demand for energy and reduce the use of fossil fuels, alternatives such as the production of syngas from renewable biomass can be considered. This conversion of biomass to syngas is possible through a thermochemical gasification process. To design such gasification systems, model equations can be formulated and solved to predict the quantity and quality of the syngas produced with different operating conditions (temperature, the flow rate of an oxidizing agent, etc.) and with different types of biomass (wood, grass, seeds, food waste, etc.). For the comparison of multiple different types of biomass and optimization to find optimal conditions, simpler models are preferred which can be solved very quickly using modern desktop computers. In this study, a number of different stoichiometric thermodynamic models are compared to determine which are the most appropriate. To correct some of the errors associated with thermodynamic models, correction factors are utilized to modify the equilibrium constants of the methanation and water gas shift reactions, which allows them to better predict the real output composition of the gasification reactors. A number of different models can be obtained using different correction factors, model parameters, and assumptions, and these models are compared and validated against experimental data and modelling studies from the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Saving Opportunities in Liquefied Methane Value Chains)
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18 pages, 2418 KiB  
Article
Membrane-Assisted Removal of Hydrogen and Nitrogen from Synthetic Natural Gas for Energy-Efficient Liquefaction
by Muhammad Abdul Qyyum, Yus Donald Chaniago, Wahid Ali, Hammad Saulat and Moonyong Lee
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5023; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195023 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3197
Abstract
Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from coal is one of the well-matured options to make clean utilization of coal a reality. For the ease of transportation and supply, liquefaction of SNG is highly desirable. In the liquefaction of SNG, efficient removal of low [...] Read more.
Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from coal is one of the well-matured options to make clean utilization of coal a reality. For the ease of transportation and supply, liquefaction of SNG is highly desirable. In the liquefaction of SNG, efficient removal of low boiling point impurities such as hydrogen (H2) and nitrogen (N2) is highly desirable to lower the power of the liquefaction process. Among several separation processes, membrane-based separation exhibits the potential for the separation of low boiling point impurities at low power consumption as compared to the existing separation processes. In this study, the membrane unit was used to simulate the membrane module by using Aspen HYSYS V10 (Version 10, AspenTech, Bedford, MA, United States). The two-stage and two-step system designs of the N2-selective membrane are utilized for SNG separation. The two-stage membrane process feasibly recovers methane (CH4) at more than 95% (by mol) recovery with a H2 composition of ≤0.05% by mol, but requires a larger membrane area than a two-stage system. While maintaining the minimum internal temperature approach value of 3 °C inside a cryogenic heat exchanger, the optimization of the SNG liquefaction process shows a large reduction in power consumption. Membrane-assisted removal of H2 and N2 for the liquefaction process exhibits the beneficial removal of H2 before liquefaction by achieving low net specific power at 0.4010 kW·h/kg·CH4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Saving Opportunities in Liquefied Methane Value Chains)
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