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Biomass-Derived Fuels and Materials

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A4: Bio-Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 25095

Special Issue Editors

Laboratory of Simulation of Industrial Processes, Department of Industrial Management and Technology, School of Maritime and Industrial Studies, University of Piraeus, GR 18534 Piraeus, Greece
Interests: chemical engineering; renewable energy; biomass; bioenergy; environmental technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, C148 Luleå, Sweden
Interests: biomass pretreatment and fractionation; organosolv; bioenergy; biofuels; biomaterials; heterotrophic growth of algae; production of nutraceutical compounds; lignin valorization; enzymatic processes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Energies on “Biomass-Derived Fuels and Materials” aims to cover biomass-derived renewable fuels and materials conversion technologies, including biomass pretreatment and fractionation. In this context, we welcome submissions that deal with the development of novel lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment and fractionation processes. Moreover, we expect submissions on of microbial cultivation process development for the conversion of biomass-derived sugars to fuels and materials, as well as thermochemical processes of biomass. Furthermore, we will consider submissions within the biorefinery concepts regarding novel pretreatment techniques and their technical, environmental, and economic implications. In addition, we look forward to submissions on the conversion process particularities for biofuels and biochemicals, including chemical, biochemical, thermochemical, microbial, and combined approaches. Additionally, we expect submissions related to technoeconomic and environmental analysis, which may include supply chain assessment, byproducts, zero-waste techniques within the concept of circular economy, and process simulation and optimization. Finally, we welcome submissions on policy application and development related to the biobased economy. Consequently, this Special Issue is particularly addressed to researchers in crosscutting areas addressing any aspects of biomass-derived fuels and materials production.

Prof. Dr. Dimitrios Sidiras
Dr. Leonidas Matsakas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Acid hydrolysis
  • Algal biofuel
  • Anaerobic digestion
  • Autohydrolysis
  • Aviation biofuels
  • Biobased fuels
  • Biobased materials
  • Biodiesel
  • Biogas
  • Biomass cultivation
  • Biomass logistics
  • Biorefinery
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis
  • Ethanol
  • Fermentation
  • Fractionation
  • Gasification
  • Green chemistry
  • High added value chemicals
  • Life cycle assessment (LCA)
  • Lignocellulosic biomass
  • Microbial conversion
  • Policy
  • Pretreatments
  • Pyrolysis
  • Technoeconomic analysis
  • Torrefaction

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 2660 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigations of Diesel Engine Performance Using Blends of Distilled Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel with Diesel and Economic Feasibility of the Distilled Biodiesel
Energies 2022, 15(24), 9534; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15249534 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
This paper elaborates on the production of distilled biodiesel of standard EN14214 from waste cooking oil (WCO). Its economic viability is assessed and experimental investigations of a single-cylinder, four-stroke engine using a mixture of distilled biodiesel and diesel of Euro 5 standard are [...] Read more.
This paper elaborates on the production of distilled biodiesel of standard EN14214 from waste cooking oil (WCO). Its economic viability is assessed and experimental investigations of a single-cylinder, four-stroke engine using a mixture of distilled biodiesel and diesel of Euro 5 standard are described. The physical and chemical characteristics of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil were determined. Fuel samples prepared with different percentages of biodiesel and diesel were used to run the engine. We observed the effects of increasing the percentage of biodiesel in the mixture on brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, and the exhaust emission from the engine. The emission species included O2, CO, CO2, NOx, and SO2. Improved engine performance and reduced emissions from the engine were noticed with blended fuels with 10% and 20% distilled WCO biodiesel mixed with 90% and 80% mineral diesel by volume, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the distilled biodiesel blends with mineral diesel can be used as an alternative fuel to run diesel engines without changing the engine design, thereby providing an alternative energy resource with reduced costs for power generation by using engine fuel. An economic assessment and sensitivity analysis were used to determine the feasibility of distilled WCO biodiesel as an alternative fuel to diesel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass-Derived Fuels and Materials)
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20 pages, 3663 KiB  
Article
Fusion of Vermicompost and Sewage Sludge as Dark Fermentative Biocatalyst for Biohydrogen Production: A Kinetic Study
Energies 2022, 15(19), 6917; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15196917 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
The present study explores the synergy between vermicompost and the anaerobic sewage sludge as inoculum for biohydrogen production using food waste as a substrate. Experiments were designed and performed in two phases of operation. In the first phase, the vermicompost (VC) was used [...] Read more.
The present study explores the synergy between vermicompost and the anaerobic sewage sludge as inoculum for biohydrogen production using food waste as a substrate. Experiments were designed and performed in two phases of operation. In the first phase, the vermicompost (VC) was used as inoculum and food waste as substrate at three different organic loading rates of 10 gVS/L (VC1), 20 gVS/L (VC2), and 30 gVS/L (VC3). In the second phase of operation, the inoculums were combined with a proportion of 50% (VC+AS). The study showed an effective biohydrogen production of 20 gVS/L when the mixing ratio of vermicompost and anaerobic sludge was 50:50. The results inferred that effective synergy was observed between the combined consortia of the inoculum, which induces a more effective metabolic pathway for enhanced hydrogen production. H2 production was 33 mL/gVS (VC1), 48 mL/gVS (VC2), 35 mL/gVS (VC3), 46 mL/gVS (AS), and 50 mL/gVS (VC+AS). Heat pretreatment (100–120 °C) of the inoculum suppresses the methane-producing microorganisms and increases the hydrogen-producing microbes. In addition to hydrogen production, different metabolites are formed in the liquid phase, such as acetic acid, butyric acid, and propionic acid of 2.957 g/L, 4.286 g/L, and 2.123 g/L, respectively, with an energy content of 257 J/day with VC+AS. In addition, a kinetic model was studied for the cumulative hydrogen production curves using the modified Gompertz model, and the fit infers that the experimental data fitted well, with high coefficients of determination for VC+AS (R2 (G) > 0.99). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass-Derived Fuels and Materials)
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28 pages, 6765 KiB  
Article
Life Cycle Based Climate Emissions of Charcoal Conditioning Routes for the Use in the Ferro-Alloy Production
Energies 2022, 15(11), 3933; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15113933 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1885
Abstract
Renewable reductants are intended to significantly reduce CO2 emissions from ferro-alloy production, e.g., by up to 80% in 2050 in Norway. However, charcoals provide inferior properties compared to fossil fuel-based reductants, which can hamper large replacement ratios. Therefore, conditioning routes from coal [...] Read more.
Renewable reductants are intended to significantly reduce CO2 emissions from ferro-alloy production, e.g., by up to 80% in 2050 in Norway. However, charcoals provide inferior properties compared to fossil fuel-based reductants, which can hamper large replacement ratios. Therefore, conditioning routes from coal beneficiation was investigated to improve the inferior properties of charcoal, such as mechanical strength, volatile matter, CO2 reactivity and mineral matter content. To evaluate the global warming potential of renewable reductants, the CO2 emissions of upgraded charcoal were estimated by using a simplified life cycle assessment, focusing on the additional emissions by the energy demand, required chemicals and mass loss for each process stage. The combination of ash removal, briquetting and high-temperature treatment can provide a renewable coke with superior properties compared to charcoal, but concomitantly decrease the available biomass potential by up to 40%, increasing the CO2-based global warming potential of industrial produced charcoal to ≈500 kg CO2-eq. t1 FC. Based on our assumptions, CO2 emissions from fossil fuel-based reductants can be reduced by up to 85%. A key to minimizing energy or material losses is to combine the pyrolysis and post-treatment processes of renewable reductants to upgrade industrial charcoal on-site at the metallurgical plant. Briquetting showed the largest additional global warming potential from the investigated process routes, whereas the high temperature treatment requires a renewable energy source to be sustainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass-Derived Fuels and Materials)
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16 pages, 2329 KiB  
Article
Biodiesel and Bioplastic Production from Waste-Cooking-Oil Transesterification: An Environmentally Friendly Approach
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031073 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4842
Abstract
Alternative sources of fuel have been a concern in the last few decades. The growth of urbanization and industrialization will lead to the exhaustion of fossil fuels, attracting studies on alternative routes. The main aim of this study was to produce biodiesel from [...] Read more.
Alternative sources of fuel have been a concern in the last few decades. The growth of urbanization and industrialization will lead to the exhaustion of fossil fuels, attracting studies on alternative routes. The main aim of this study was to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO) by methyl transesterification using sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. For this, the physicochemical parameters of biodiesel were studied in triplicate (density, acidity, saponification, viscosity, corrosiveness to copper, visual appearance, and cloud point). An analysis by thin layer chromatography and infrared spectrometry was also performed. The increase in yield (83.3%) was directly proportional to the increase in the catalyst (0.22 g of NaOH). The infrared absorption spectra of WCO and biodiesel showed the presence of common and singular bands of each material. Furthermore, a simple and low-cost mechanism was proposed for purifying glycerol. The spectra of glycerol versus purified glycerin showed that the glycerin produced was pure, being used in the formulation of bioplastic. The product was checked for biodegradation and photodegradation, with incredible soil-degradation times of 180 days and photodegradation of only 60 days. In this way, biodiesel production from WCO showed environmentally friendly proposals and applicability. As the next steps, it is necessary to test the biodiesel produced in combustion engines and improve the bioplastic production, including a spectroscopic characterization and extensive biodegradation testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass-Derived Fuels and Materials)
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17 pages, 4880 KiB  
Article
Single-Cell Oils from Oleaginous Microorganisms as Green Bio-Lubricants: Studies on Their Tribological Performance
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6685; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206685 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
Biolubricants refer to eco-friendly, biodegradable, and non-toxic lubricants. Their applications are still limited compared to mineral oils; however, their sustainable credentials are making them increasingly attractive. Vegetable oils are frequently used for this purpose. However, vegetable oils have issues of low lipid productivity, [...] Read more.
Biolubricants refer to eco-friendly, biodegradable, and non-toxic lubricants. Their applications are still limited compared to mineral oils; however, their sustainable credentials are making them increasingly attractive. Vegetable oils are frequently used for this purpose. However, vegetable oils have issues of low lipid productivity, dependence on climatic conditions, and need for agricultural land. Microbial oils represent a more sustainable alternative. To ensure their widespread applicability, the suitability of microbial oils from a physicochemical point of view needs to be determined first. In this study, oils obtained from various oleagenic microbes—such as microalgae, thraustochytrids, and yeasts—were characterized in terms of their fatty acid profile, viscosity, friction coefficient, wear, and thermal stability. Oleaginous microalgal strains (Auxenochlorella protothecoides and Chlorella sorokiniana), thraustochytrids strains (Aurantiochytrium limacinum SR21 and Aurantiochytrium sp. T66), and yeast strains (Rhodosporidium toruloides and Cryptococcus curvatus) synthesized 64.5%, 35.15%, 47.89%, 47.93%, 56.42%, and 52.66% of lipid content, respectively. Oils from oleaginous microalgae (A. protothecoides and C. sorokiniana) and yeasts (R. toruloides and C. curvatus) possess excellent physicochemical and tribological qualities due to high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid C18:1 content, 56.38%, 58.82%, 46.67%, 38.81%) than those from oleaginous thraustochytrids (A. limacinum SR21 and Aurantiochytrium sp. T66; 0.96%, 0.08%, respectively) supporting their use as renewable and biodegradable alternatives to traditional mineral oil-based lubricants. Oil obtained from microalgae showed a lower friction coefficient than oils obtained from yeasts and thraustochytrids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass-Derived Fuels and Materials)
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Review

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36 pages, 4471 KiB  
Review
Reactivity Effects of Inorganic Content in Biomass Gasification: A Review
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3137; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093137 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2322
Abstract
This review article discusses the effects of inorganic content and mechanisms on raw biomass and char during gasification. The impacts of the inherent inorganics and externally added inorganic compounds are summarized based on a literature search from the most recent 40 years. The [...] Read more.
This review article discusses the effects of inorganic content and mechanisms on raw biomass and char during gasification. The impacts of the inherent inorganics and externally added inorganic compounds are summarized based on a literature search from the most recent 40 years. The TGA and larger-scale studies involving K-, Ca-, and Si-related mechanisms are critically reviewed with the aim of understanding the reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Differences between the reaction pathways of inorganic matter, and subsequent effects on the reactivity during gasification, are discussed. The present results illustrate the complexity of ash transformation phenomena, which have a strong impact on the design of gasifiers as well as further operation and process control. The impregnation and mixing of catalytic compounds into raw biomass are emphasized as a potential solution to avoid reactivity-related operational challenges during steam and CO2 gasification. This review clearly identifies a gap in experimental knowledge at the micro and macro levels in the advanced modelling of inorganics transformation with respect to gasification reactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass-Derived Fuels and Materials)
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30 pages, 9211 KiB  
Review
Medical Waste Treatment Technologies for Energy, Fuels, and Materials Production: A Review
Energies 2021, 14(23), 8065; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14238065 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 9943
Abstract
The importance of medical waste management has grown during the COVID-19 pandemic because of the increase in medical waste quantity and the significant dangers of these highly infected wastes for human health and the environment. This innovative review focuses on the possibility of [...] Read more.
The importance of medical waste management has grown during the COVID-19 pandemic because of the increase in medical waste quantity and the significant dangers of these highly infected wastes for human health and the environment. This innovative review focuses on the possibility of materials, gas/liquid/solid fuels, thermal energy, and electric power production from medical waste fractions. Appropriate and promising treatment/disposal technologies, such as (i) acid hydrolysis, (ii) acid/enzymatic hydrolysis, (iii) anaerobic digestion, (vi) autoclaving, (v) enzymatic oxidation, (vi) hydrothermal carbonization/treatment, (vii) incineration/steam heat recovery system, (viii) pyrolysis/Rankine cycle, (ix) rotary kiln treatment, (x) microwave/steam sterilization, (xi) plasma gasification/melting, (xii) sulfonation, (xiii) batch reactor thermal cracking, and (xiv) torrefaction, were investigated. The medical waste generation data were collected according to numerous researchers from various countries, and divided into gross medical waste and hazardous medical waste. Moreover, the medical wastes were separated into categories and types according to the international literature and the medical waste fractions’ percentages were estimated. The capability of the examined medical waste treatment technologies to produce energy, fuels, and materials, and eliminate the medical waste management problem, was very promising with regard to the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass-Derived Fuels and Materials)
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