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Algae Fuel 2017

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2017) | Viewed by 17726

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Center for Biorefining, Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
Interests: pyrolysis; hydrothermal liquefaction; microalgae; food processing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The desire to increase biofuel production has renewed interest in algal biomass. In recent years, algae-related research has been expanded, far beyond biofuels, and is going in new directions. The interest in using algae as a vehicle for the production of chemicals, nutraceuticals, medicine, foods, feeds, pigments, etc., and as a means of waste utilization and management, is growing rapidly. This Special Issue aims to solicit high quality and original research contributions and critical reviews on all aspects of algae-based technologies, including strain selection and development, cultivation techniques and facilities, harvest, downstream processing, biorefining approach to product development, techno-economic analysis, life cycle analysis, energy policy, etc.

Dr. Paul L. Chen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • algae

  • microalgae

  • macroalgae

  • biorefining

  • biofuels

  • chemicals

  • nutraceuticals

  • medicine

  • foods

  • feeds

  • pigments

  • waste treatment

  • waste management

  • carbon sequestration

  • cultivation

  • harvest

  • downstream processing

  • techno-economic analysis

  • life cycle analysis

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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2052 KiB  
Article
Functional Expression of the Arachis hypogaea L. Acyl-ACP Thioesterases AhFatA and AhFatB Enhances Fatty Acid Production in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803
by Gao Chen, Jun Chen, Qingfang He, Yan Zhang, Zhenying Peng, Zhongxue Fan, Fei Bian, Jinhui Yu and Song Qin
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2093; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122093 - 09 Dec 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4810
Abstract
Palmitoleic acid (C16:1) and stearic acid (C18:0) are precursors of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are the focus of intensive global research due to their nutritional value, medicinal applications, and potential use as biofuel. Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are intraplastidial enzymes that determine [...] Read more.
Palmitoleic acid (C16:1) and stearic acid (C18:0) are precursors of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are the focus of intensive global research due to their nutritional value, medicinal applications, and potential use as biofuel. Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are intraplastidial enzymes that determine the types and amounts of fatty acids produced in plants and release fatty acids into the cytosol to be incorporated into glycerolipids. Based on amino acid sequence identity and substrate specificity, these enzymes are classified into two families, FatA and FatB. In this study, we cloned FatA and FatB thioesterases from Arachis hypogaea L. seeds and functionally expressed these genes, both individually and in tandem, in a blue-green alga Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The heterologous expression of these genes in Synechocystis altered the fatty acid composition of lipids, resulting in a 29.5–31.6% increase in palmitoleic acid production and a 22.5–35.5% increase in stearic acid production. Moreover, the transgenic Synechocystis cells also showed significant increases in levels of oleic acid (C18:1, OA), linoleic acid (C18:2, LA), and α-linolenic acid (C18:3n3, ALA). These results suggest that the fatty acid profile of algae can be significantly improved by the heterologous expression of exogenous genes. This study not only provides insight into fatty acid biosynthesis, but also lays the foundation for manipulating the fatty acid content of cyanobacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2017)
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7882 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Cell Growth, Protein, Carotenoid, PUFAs and Lipid Production of Chlorella pyrenoidosa ZF Strain
by Huanmin Du, Faruq Ahmed, Bin Lin, Zhe Li, Yuhan Huang, Guang Sun, Huan Ding, Chang Wang, Chunxiao Meng and Zhengquan Gao
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1696; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111696 - 25 Oct 2017
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 5547
Abstract
In the present study, eight kinds plant growth regulators—salicylic acid (SA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), 2, 4-epi-brassinolide (EBR), abscisic acid (ABA), ethephon (ETH), and spermidine (SPD)—were used to investigate the impact on microalgal biomass, lipid, total soluble [...] Read more.
In the present study, eight kinds plant growth regulators—salicylic acid (SA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), 2, 4-epi-brassinolide (EBR), abscisic acid (ABA), ethephon (ETH), and spermidine (SPD)—were used to investigate the impact on microalgal biomass, lipid, total soluble protein, carotenoids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS) production of Chlorella pyrenoidosa ZF strain. The results showed the quickest biomass enhancement was induced by 50 mg·L−1 NAA, with a 6.3-fold increase over the control; the highest protein content was increased by 0.005 mg·L−1 ETH, which produced 3.5-fold over the control; total carotenoids content was induced most effectively by 1 mg·L−1 NAA with 3.6-fold higher production than the control; the most efficient elicitor for lipid production was 5 mg·L−1 GA3 at 1.9-fold of the control; 0.2 mg·L−1 ETH induced the abundant production of 1.82 ± 0.23% linoleic acid; 0.65 ± 0.01% linolenic acid was induced by 1 mg·L−1 NAA; 2.53 ± 0.15% arachidonic acid and 0.44 ± 0.05% docosahexaenoic acid were induced by 5 mg·L−1 GA3. Transcriptional expression levels of seven lipid-related genes, including ACP, BC, FAD, FATA, KAS, MCTK, and SAD, were studied by real-time RT-q-PCR. 5 mg·L−1 GA3 was the most effective regulator for transcriptional expressions of these seven genes, producing 23-fold ACP, 31-fold BC, 25-fold FAD, 6-fold KAS, 12-fold MCTK compared with the controls, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2017)
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Review

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3495 KiB  
Review
Life Cycle Analysis of Endosymbiotic Algae in an Endosymbiotic Situation with Paramecium bursaria Using Capillary Flow Cytometry
by Toshiyuki Takahashi
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091413 - 15 Sep 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6602
Abstract
Along with algae as producers in ecosystems and industrial applications, some microalgae existing in special ecological niches through endosymbiosis with other organisms represent fascinating examples of biological evolution. Although reproducing endosymbiosis experimentally is difficult in many situations, endosymbiosis of several ongoing types is [...] Read more.
Along with algae as producers in ecosystems and industrial applications, some microalgae existing in special ecological niches through endosymbiosis with other organisms represent fascinating examples of biological evolution. Although reproducing endosymbiosis experimentally is difficult in many situations, endosymbiosis of several ongoing types is possible. Endosymbiosis in Paramecium bursaria is a particularly excellent model. Although many studies of P. bursaria have specifically examined infection processes such as the host recognition of symbionts, coordination of host-symbiont division, which has been explored for eukaryotic organelles, is worth pursuing. Evaluating the cell (life) cycle of algae is crucially important for algal applications. Flow cytometry (FCM) has been used to study cell cycles of several eukaryotic cells including microalgae. Microscopy, however, has been used mainly to study endosymbiosis, as with P. bursaria, because of their larger size than suitable cells for FCM with hydrodynamic focusing. Vast amounts of time have been expended for microscopic analysis. This review presents an approach using capillary FCM to elucidate the endosymbiosis of P. bursaria. Results reveal that endosymbiotic algae of P. bursaria finely adjust their cell cycle schedule with their comfortable host and show that a coincident endosymbiont–host life cycle is virtually assured in their endosymbiosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2017)
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