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Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020) | Viewed by 73873

Special Issue Editor


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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are inviting submissions to a Special Issue of Energies on the subject area of “Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems”. With the increasing integration of renewable energy and the development of a smart grid, the topic of microgrids has attracted a lot of attention in recent years.

Microgrids are distributed electric power systems that autonomously coordinate power generations and demands. Modern microgrids often include renewable energy generations, such as wind and solar, supported by distributed energy storage systems. The distributed nature of microgrids and the uncertain, intermittent nature of power demands and renewable energy generations pose significant challenges in the operation of microgrids. Advanced methods of modern control play an important role in achieving a reliable, robust, secure, and cost-effective functioning of microgrid systems. Researchers and engineers worldwide are working together to develop novel and efficient tools of control in microgrids. This Special Issue is focused on new developments in the field of advanced control in microgrid systems.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

Model predictive control of microgrid systems;
Robust control of microgrid systems;
Optimization of microgrids;
Control of battery energy storage systems;
Sliding mode control of microgrid systems;
Multi-agent systems approach to control of microgrids;
Advanced control systems for market-oriented energy storage dispatch;
Control of microgrid systems with high penetrations of wind power;
Control of microgrid systems with high penetrations of solar power;
Optimization and control of microgrid systems with thermostatically controlled loads;
Minimizing the energy cost for microgrid systems;
Control of microgrid systems with communication delays.

Prof. Dr. Andrey V. Savkin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Microgrids
  • Energy storage systems
  • Modern control
  • Robust control
  • Sliding mode control
  • Optimization of microgrids
  • Renewable generation
  • Wind energy
  • Solar energy
  • Nonlinear control
  • Optimal control
  • Smart grid
  • Microgrids with thermostatically controlled loads
  • Market-oriented energy storage dispatch

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 4931 KiB  
Article
Multiagent Based Distributed Control with Time-Oriented SoC Balancing Method for DC Microgrid
by Tao Wu, Yanghong Xia, Liang Wang and Wei Wei
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2793; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112793 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1927
Abstract
Based on the droop control, voltage regulation at the secondary control is required to eliminate the deviation of the average voltage across the microgrid. Meanwhile, to prevent any of energy storage (ESs) from over-charging or over-discharging, State-of-Charge (SoC) balancing should be added in [...] Read more.
Based on the droop control, voltage regulation at the secondary control is required to eliminate the deviation of the average voltage across the microgrid. Meanwhile, to prevent any of energy storage (ESs) from over-charging or over-discharging, State-of-Charge (SoC) balancing should be added in the secondary control. This paper proposes a distributed secondary control in the DC microgrid based on the multiagent system (MAS). This controller consists of voltage regulation and time-oriented SoC balancing. In voltage regulation, a PI controller adjusts the droop parameters according to the discrepancy between the average voltage and the reference voltage. In SoC balancing, controller operates in charging mode or discharging mode according to changes of the global average SoC. Being different from the conventional method, the time-oriented SoC balancing method is designed to balance charge/discharge time rather than to balance SoC directly. Thus, SoCs reach a consensus only at the last moment when all ES nodes charge or discharge completely. Furthermore, characteristics, global dynamic model, and steady-state analysis of the proposed control method are studied. Finally, MATLAB/Simulink simulations are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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21 pages, 4841 KiB  
Article
Bus Voltage Control of DC Distribution Network Based on Sliding Mode Active Disturbance Rejection Control Strategy
by Boning Wu, Xuesong Zhou and Youjie Ma
Energies 2020, 13(6), 1358; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13061358 - 14 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2395
Abstract
The DC distribution network has more advantages in power transmission, grid connection of distributed energy, and reliability of power supply when compared with AC distribution network, but there are still many problems in the development of DC distribution network. DC bus voltage control [...] Read more.
The DC distribution network has more advantages in power transmission, grid connection of distributed energy, and reliability of power supply when compared with AC distribution network, but there are still many problems in the development of DC distribution network. DC bus voltage control is one of the hot issues in the research of DC distribution network. To solve this problem, in this paper, a new type of sliding mode active disturbance rejection control (SMADRC) controller for AC/DC converters is designed and applied to the voltage outer loop. The linear extended state observer (LESO) can observe the state variables and the total disturbance of the system. The SMADRC is composed of a sliding mode controller, LESO, and disturbance compensator, which can compensate the total disturbance observed by LESO properly. Therefore, it improves the dynamic. At the same time, it can also reduce the system jitter that is caused by sliding mode controller. The state variables that are observed by the LESO are used in the design of sliding mode controller, which greatly simplifies the design of sliding mode controller. Finally, the simulation results of Matlab/Simulink show that the controller has good start-up performance and strong robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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22 pages, 5118 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Use of Reinforcement Learning for Integrated Voltage/Frequency Control in AC Microgrids
by Abdollah Younesi, Hossein Shayeghi and Pierluigi Siano
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051250 - 08 Mar 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3248
Abstract
The main purpose of this paper is to present a novel algorithmic reinforcement learning (RL) method for damping the voltage and frequency oscillations in a micro-grid (MG) with penetration of wind turbine generators (WTG). First, the continuous-time environment of the system is discretized [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this paper is to present a novel algorithmic reinforcement learning (RL) method for damping the voltage and frequency oscillations in a micro-grid (MG) with penetration of wind turbine generators (WTG). First, the continuous-time environment of the system is discretized to a definite number of states to form the Markov decision process (MDP). To solve the modeled discrete RL-based problem, Q-learning method, which is a model-free and simple iterative solution mechanism is used. Therefore, the presented control strategy is adaptive and it is suitable for the realistic power systems with high nonlinearities. The proposed adaptive RL controller has a supervisory nature that can improve the performance of any kind of controllers by adding an offset signal to the output control signal of them. Here, a part of Denmark distribution system is considered and the dynamic performance of the suggested control mechanism is evaluated and compared with fuzzy-proportional integral derivative (PID) and classical PID controllers. Simulations are carried out in two realistic and challenging scenarios considering system parameters changing. Results indicate that the proposed control strategy has an excellent dynamic response compared to fuzzy-PID and traditional PID controllers for damping the voltage and frequency oscillations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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27 pages, 7672 KiB  
Article
Distributed Economic Dispatch Scheme for Droop-Based Autonomous DC Microgrid
by Zhenyu Lv, Zaijun Wu, Xiaobo Dou, Min Zhou and Wenqiang Hu
Energies 2020, 13(2), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020404 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2476
Abstract
In this paper, a distributed economic dispatch scheme considering power limit is proposed to minimize the total active power generation cost in a droop-based autonomous direct current (DC) microgrid. The economical dispatch of the microgrid is realized through a fully distributed hierarchical control. [...] Read more.
In this paper, a distributed economic dispatch scheme considering power limit is proposed to minimize the total active power generation cost in a droop-based autonomous direct current (DC) microgrid. The economical dispatch of the microgrid is realized through a fully distributed hierarchical control. In the tertiary level, an incremental cost consensus-based algorithm embedded into the economical regulator is utilized to search for the optimal solution. In the secondary level, the voltage regulator estimating the average voltage of the DC microgrid is used to generate the voltage correction item and eliminate the power and voltage oscillation caused by the deviation between different items. Then, the droop controller in the primary level receives the reference values from the upper level to ensure the output power converging to the optimum while recovering the average voltage of the system. Further, the dynamic model is established and the optimal communication network topology minimizing the impact of time delay on the voltage estimation is given in this paper. Finally, a low-voltage DC microgrid simulation platform containing different types of distributed generators is built, and the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and the performance of the optimal topology are verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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16 pages, 3572 KiB  
Article
Minimization of Power Losses through Optimal Battery Placement in a Distributed Network with High Penetration of Photovoltaics
by Ahmed Alzahrani, Hussain Alharthi and Muhammad Khalid
Energies 2020, 13(1), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010140 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 3841
Abstract
The problems associated with the deployment of intermittent, unpredictable and uncontrollable solar photovoltaics (PV) can be feasibly solved with battery energy storage systems (BESS), particularly in terms of optimizing the available capacity, increasing reliability and reducing system losses. Consequently, the degree of importance [...] Read more.
The problems associated with the deployment of intermittent, unpredictable and uncontrollable solar photovoltaics (PV) can be feasibly solved with battery energy storage systems (BESS), particularly in terms of optimizing the available capacity, increasing reliability and reducing system losses. Consequently, the degree of importance of BESS increases in proportion to the level of PV penetration. Nevertheless, the respective high cost of BESS imposes a huge concern and the need to establish a techno-economic solution. In this paper, we investigate the system losses and power quality issues associated with the high deployment of PV in a grid network and hence formulate BESS capacity optimization and placement methodology based on a genetic algorithm. The concept of the proposed methodology has been tested and validated on a standard IEEE 33 bus system. A brief stepwise analysis is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed methodology in reducing the incremental system losses experienced with increased PV penetration. Furthermore, based on the proposed optimization objectives, a comparative study has also been performed to quantify the impact and effectiveness of aggregated and distributed placement of BESS. The results obtained exhibit a substantial reduction in system losses, particularly in the case of distributed BESS placement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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20 pages, 6145 KiB  
Article
Control Method of Parallel Inverters with Self-Synchronizing Characteristics in Distributed Microgrid
by Xiangwu Yan, Yang Cui and Sen Cui
Energies 2019, 12(20), 3871; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12203871 - 12 Oct 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2711
Abstract
The centralized control mode is no longer applicable for microgrid operation due to the high penetration rate of distributed energy, which is responsible for the widespread interest in the use of the distributed microgrid. Focusing on the issues of power coupling and uncontrollable [...] Read more.
The centralized control mode is no longer applicable for microgrid operation due to the high penetration rate of distributed energy, which is responsible for the widespread interest in the use of the distributed microgrid. Focusing on the issues of power coupling and uncontrollable droop coefficient at the terminal of the connecting line between the micro-source and AC bus, which is rarely considered, this paper proposes an improved virtual synchronous generator (VSG) control strategy based on local data considering precise control of the droop coefficient and realizing the power decoupling and the expected droop characteristics. Then, combined with the virtual rotor characteristic matching method, the reasonable active and reactive power sharing of the parallel microgrid inverters are realized in terms of static and dynamic performance without additional improvement of reactive power control. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method are verified based on the MATLAB/Simulink simulation platform. The combination of the proved strategy and matching principle endows inverters with self-synchronization characteristics, forming the self-synchronizing voltage sources, which gives the distributed microgrid a higher self-stability, autonomy and robustness to ensure the stable operation of the microgrid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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20 pages, 4309 KiB  
Article
Optimal and Decentralized Control Strategies for Inverter-Based AC Microgrids
by Michael D. Cook, Eddy H. Trinklein, Gordon G. Parker, Rush D. Robinett III and Wayne W. Weaver
Energies 2019, 12(18), 3529; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12183529 - 13 Sep 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2648
Abstract
This paper presents two control strategies: (i) An optimal exergy destruction (OXD) controller and (ii) a decentralized power apportionment (DPA) controller. The OXD controller is an analytical, closed-loop optimal feedforward controller developed utilizing exergy analysis to minimize exergy destruction in an AC inverter [...] Read more.
This paper presents two control strategies: (i) An optimal exergy destruction (OXD) controller and (ii) a decentralized power apportionment (DPA) controller. The OXD controller is an analytical, closed-loop optimal feedforward controller developed utilizing exergy analysis to minimize exergy destruction in an AC inverter microgrid. The OXD controller requires a star or fully connected topology, whereas the DPA operates with no communication among the inverters. The DPA presents a viable alternative to conventional P ω / Q V droop control, and does not suffer from fluctuations in bus frequency or steady-state voltage while taking advantage of distributed storage assets necessary for the high penetration of renewable sources. The performances of OXD-, DPA-, and P ω / Q V droop-controlled microgrids are compared by simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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15 pages, 4602 KiB  
Article
A Reactive Power-Voltage Control Strategy of an AC Microgrid Based on Adaptive Virtual Impedance
by Yao Liu, Lin Guan, Fang Guo, Jianping Zheng, Jianfu Chen, Chao Liu and Josep M. Guerrero
Energies 2019, 12(16), 3057; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163057 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3069
Abstract
As an effective carrier of distributed generation, a microgrid is an effective way to ensure that distributed power can be reasonably utilized. However, due to the property of line impedance and other factors in a microgrid, reactive power supplied by distributed generation units [...] Read more.
As an effective carrier of distributed generation, a microgrid is an effective way to ensure that distributed power can be reasonably utilized. However, due to the property of line impedance and other factors in a microgrid, reactive power supplied by distributed generation units cannot be shared rationally. To efficiently improve reactive power sharing, this paper proposes a reactive power-voltage control strategy based on adaptive virtual impedance. This method changes the voltage reference value by adding an adaptive term based on the traditional virtual impedance. Meanwhile, a voltage recovery mechanism was used to compensate the decline of distributed generation (DG) output voltage in the process. MATLAB/Simulink simulations and experimental results show that the proposed controller can effectively improve the steady state performance of the active and reactive power sharing. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy were verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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17 pages, 512 KiB  
Article
Profit Maximizing Control of a Microgrid with Renewable Generation and BESS Based on a Battery Cycle Life Model and Energy Price Forecasting
by Wenhao Zhuo and Andrey V. Savkin
Energies 2019, 12(15), 2904; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12152904 - 28 Jul 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3264
Abstract
In this paper, an optimal control strategy is presented for grid-connected microgrids with renewable generation and battery energy storage systems (BESSs). In order to optimize the energy cost, the proposed approach utilizes predicted data on renewable power, electricity price, and load demand within [...] Read more.
In this paper, an optimal control strategy is presented for grid-connected microgrids with renewable generation and battery energy storage systems (BESSs). In order to optimize the energy cost, the proposed approach utilizes predicted data on renewable power, electricity price, and load demand within a future period, and determines the appropriate actions of BESSs to control the actual power dispatched to the utility grid. We formulate the optimization problem as a Markov decision process and solve it with a dynamic programming algorithm under the receding horizon approach. The main contribution in this paper is a novel cost model of batteries derived from their life cycle model, which correlates the charge/discharge actions of batteries with the cost of battery life loss. Most cost models of batteries are constructed based on identifying charge–discharge cycles of batteries on different operating conditions, and the cycle counting methods used are analytical, so cannot be expressed mathematically and used in an optimization problem. As a result, the cost model proposed in this paper is a recursive and additive function over control steps that will be compatible with dynamic programming and can be included in the objective function. We test the proposed approach with actual data from a wind farm and an energy market operator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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29 pages, 1292 KiB  
Article
Optimal Sizing of Battery Energy Storage for a Grid-Connected Microgrid Subjected to Wind Uncertainties
by Mohammed Atta Abdulgalil, Muhammad Khalid and Fahad Alismail
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2412; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122412 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 5978
Abstract
In this paper, based on stochastic optimization methods, a technique for optimal sizing of battery energy storage systems (BESSs) under wind uncertainties is provided. Due to considerably greater penetration of renewable energy sources, BESSs are becoming vital elements in microgrids. Integrating renewable energy [...] Read more.
In this paper, based on stochastic optimization methods, a technique for optimal sizing of battery energy storage systems (BESSs) under wind uncertainties is provided. Due to considerably greater penetration of renewable energy sources, BESSs are becoming vital elements in microgrids. Integrating renewable energy sources in a power system together with a BESS enhances the efficiency of the power system by enhancing its accessibility and decreasing its operating and maintenance costs. Furthermore, the microgrid-connected BESS should be optimally sized to provide the required energy and minimize total investment and operation expenses. A constrained optimization problem is solved using an optimization technique to optimize a storage system. This problem of optimization may be deterministic or probabilistic. In case of optimizing the size of a BESS connected to a system containing renewable energy sources, solving a probabilistic optimization problem is more effective because it is not possible to accurately determine the forecast of their output power. In this paper, using the stochastic programming technique to discover the optimum size of a BESS to connect to a grid-connected microgrid comprising wind power generation, a probabilistic optimization problem is solved. A comparison is then produced to demonstrate that solving the problem using stochastic programming provides better outcomes and to demonstrate that the reliability of the microgrid improves after it is connected to a storage system. The simulation findings demonstrate the efficacy of the optimum sizing methodology proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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15 pages, 958 KiB  
Article
Secure Load Frequency Control of Smart Grids under Deception Attack: A Piecewise Delay Approach
by Fei Zhao, Jinsha Yuan, Ning Wang, Zhang Zhang and Helong Wen
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2266; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122266 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3034
Abstract
The problem of secure load frequency control of smart grids is investigated in this paper. The networked data transmission within the smart grid is corrupted by stochastic deception attacks. First, a unified Load frequency control model is constructed to account for both network-induced [...] Read more.
The problem of secure load frequency control of smart grids is investigated in this paper. The networked data transmission within the smart grid is corrupted by stochastic deception attacks. First, a unified Load frequency control model is constructed to account for both network-induced effects and deception attacks. Second, with the Lyapunov functional method, a piecewise delay analysis is conducted to study the stability of the established model, which is of less conservativeness. Third, based on the stability analysis, a controller design method is provided in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, a case study is carried out to demonstrate the derived results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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21 pages, 10684 KiB  
Article
An Intelligent Battery Energy Storage-Based Controller for Power Quality Improvement in Microgrids
by Jaber Alshehri, Muhammad Khalid and Ahmed Alzahrani
Energies 2019, 12(11), 2112; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12112112 - 02 Jun 2019
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3770
Abstract
Modern power systems rely on renewable energy sources and distributed generation systems more than ever before; the combination of those two along with advanced energy storage systems contributed widely to the development of microgrids (MGs). One of the significant technical challenges in MG [...] Read more.
Modern power systems rely on renewable energy sources and distributed generation systems more than ever before; the combination of those two along with advanced energy storage systems contributed widely to the development of microgrids (MGs). One of the significant technical challenges in MG applications is to improve the power quality of the system subjected to unknown disturbances. Hence innovative control strategies are vital to cope with the problem. In this paper, an innovative online intelligent energy storage-based controller is proposed to improve the power quality of a MG system; in particular, voltage and frequency regulation at steady state conditions are targeted. The MG system under consideration in this paper consists of two distributed generators, a diesel synchronous generator, and a photovoltaic power system integrated with a battery energy storage system. The proposed control approach is based on hybrid differential evolution optimization (DEO) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The controller parameters have been optimized under several operating conditions. The obtained input and output patterns are consequently used to train the ANNs in order to perform an online tuning for the controller parameters. Finally, the proposed DEO-ANN methodology has been evaluated under random disturbances, and its performance is compared with a benchmark controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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15 pages, 600 KiB  
Article
Decentralized Optimal Control of a Microgrid with Solar PV, BESS and Thermostatically Controlled Loads
by Wenhao Zhuo, Andrey V. Savkin and Ke Meng
Energies 2019, 12(11), 2111; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12112111 - 02 Jun 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3814
Abstract
Constructing microgrids with renewable energy systems could be one feasible solution to increase the penetration of renewable energy. With proper control of the battery energy storage system (BESS) and thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) in such microgrids, the variable and intermittent energy can be [...] Read more.
Constructing microgrids with renewable energy systems could be one feasible solution to increase the penetration of renewable energy. With proper control of the battery energy storage system (BESS) and thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) in such microgrids, the variable and intermittent energy can be smoothed and utilized without the interference of the main power grid. In this paper, a decentralized control strategy for a microgrid consisting of a distributed generator (DG), a battery energy storage system, a solar photovoltaic (PV) system and thermostatically controlled loads is proposed. The control objective is to maintain the desired temperature in local buildings at a minimum cost. Decentralized control algorithm involving variable structure controller and dynamic programming is used to determine suitable control inputs of the distributed generator and the battery energy storage system. The model predictive control approach is utilized for long-term operation with predicted data on solar power and outdoor temperature updated at each control step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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17 pages, 2640 KiB  
Article
Robust Control Method for DC Microgrids and Energy Routers to Improve Voltage Stability in Energy Internet
by Haochen Hua, Yuchao Qin, Hanxuan Xu, Chuantong Hao and Junwei Cao
Energies 2019, 12(9), 1622; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091622 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3066
Abstract
The energy internet (EI) is a wide area power network that efficiently combines new energy technology and information technology, resulting in bidirectional on-demand power transmission and rational utilization of distributed energy resources (DERs). Since the stability of local network is a prerequisite for [...] Read more.
The energy internet (EI) is a wide area power network that efficiently combines new energy technology and information technology, resulting in bidirectional on-demand power transmission and rational utilization of distributed energy resources (DERs). Since the stability of local network is a prerequisite for the normal operation of the entire EI, the direct current (DC) bus voltage stabilization for each individual DC microgrid (MG) is a core issue. In this paper, the dynamics of the EI system is modeled with a continuous stochastic system, which simultaneously considers related time-varying delays and norm-bounded modeling uncertainty. Meanwhile, the voltage stabilization issue is converted into a robust H control problem solved via a linear matrix inequality approach. To avoid the situation of over-control, constraints are set in controllers. The problem of finding a balance between voltage regulation performance and constraints for the controllers was also extensively investigated. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed methods is evaluated with numerical simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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25 pages, 9138 KiB  
Article
An Energy Management System for Residential Autonomous DC Microgrid Using Optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller Considering Economic Dispatch
by Shehab Al-Sakkaf, Mahmoud Kassas, Muhammad Khalid and Mohammad A. Abido
Energies 2019, 12(8), 1457; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12081457 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 8121
Abstract
This work presents the operation of an autonomous direct current (DC) DC microgrid for residential house controlled by an energy management system based on low complexity fuzzy logic controller of only 25-rules to manage the power flow that supply house load demand. The [...] Read more.
This work presents the operation of an autonomous direct current (DC) DC microgrid for residential house controlled by an energy management system based on low complexity fuzzy logic controller of only 25-rules to manage the power flow that supply house load demand. The microgrid consists of photovoltaic (PV), wind turbine, fuel cell, battery energy storage and diesel generator. The size of the battery energy storage is determined based on the battery sizing algorithm depending on the generation of renewables during all seasons of the year in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Two scenarios are considered in this work. In the first scenario: the microgrid consists of solar PV, wind turbine, battery energy storage and fuel cell. The fuzzy logic controller is optimized using an artificial bee colony technique in order to increase the system energy saving efficiency and to reduce the cost. In the second scenario: wind turbine is replaced by a diesel generator, also the rated power of the fuel cell is reduced. In this scenario, a new method is proposed to reduce the generation cost of the dispatchable sources in the microgrid by considering economic dispatch within the optimized fuzzy logic energy management system. To obtain the most suitable technique for solving the economic dispatch problem, three optimization techniques were used which are particle swarm optimization, genetic algorithm and artificial bee colony based on real environmental data and real house load demand. A comparison in terms of energy saving between the two scenarios and a comparison in terms of cost reduction between conventional economic dispatch method and the proposed method are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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13 pages, 3348 KiB  
Article
Economic Load Dispatch of a Grid-Tied DC Microgrid Using the Interior Search Algorithm
by Kamil Khan, Ahmad Kamal, Abdul Basit, Tanvir Ahmad, Haider Ali and Anwar Ali
Energies 2019, 12(4), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12040634 - 16 Feb 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3535
Abstract
This paper presents the effectiveness of the interior search algorithm in economic power scheduling of a grid-tied DC microgrid with renewable generation (wind and photovoltaic) and battery energy storage. The study presents the modelling and simulation of various DC/DC converters for tracking maximum [...] Read more.
This paper presents the effectiveness of the interior search algorithm in economic power scheduling of a grid-tied DC microgrid with renewable generation (wind and photovoltaic) and battery energy storage. The study presents the modelling and simulation of various DC/DC converters for tracking maximum power from wind and photovoltaic sources and the bidirectional power flow of battery energy storage. The DC microgrid and its controllers were modelled and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink. The generating units were dispatched economically using the interior search algorithm with the objective to minimize the operating cost of the microgrid. The simulated results verify the effectiveness of the interior search algorithm as the daily cost of microgrid operation was reduced by 11.25%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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23 pages, 6509 KiB  
Article
Control Design, Stability Analysis and Experimental Validation of New Application of an Interleaved Converter Operating as a Power Interface in Hybrid Microgrids
by Thiago Tricarico, Gustavo Gontijo, Marcello Neves, Matheus Soares, Mauricio Aredes and Josep M. Guerrero
Energies 2019, 12(3), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030437 - 30 Jan 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4310
Abstract
This paper presents a new and specific use of a bidirectional interleaved converter to perform a power interface in hybrid microgrids. The converter is responsible for regulating the power flow between the direct-current (DC) microgrid and the rest of the hybrid microgrid by [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new and specific use of a bidirectional interleaved converter to perform a power interface in hybrid microgrids. The converter is responsible for regulating the power flow between the direct-current (DC) microgrid and the rest of the hybrid microgrid by controlling the DC microgrid voltage. The authors present a detailed modeling of the mentioned system in order to develop the system control design and a stability analysis. In addition, the authors propose a new control design strategy aiming at improving the voltage control disturbance rejection characteristic, while maintaining a good dynamic behavior regarding the reference tracking functionality. In this hybrid microgrid topology, a back-to-back converter connects the main grid to the AC microgrid. The main objective of this converter is to provide a high-power-quality voltage to critical and sensitive loads connected to the microgrid. The interleaved converter adjusts the DC microgrid voltage according to the operational voltage of the back-to-back converter DC link. In the DC microgrid case, the variation of load and generation connection could lead to serious voltage sag and oscillations that could be harmful to the sensitive loads. The voltage controller must be capable of rejecting these disturbances in order to maintain a high-power-quality voltage. Furthermore, experimental results are provided in order to validate this specific application of the interleaved converter and the presented control design strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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Review

Jump to: Research

32 pages, 7109 KiB  
Review
Predictive Control for Microgrid Applications: A Review Study
by Ariel Villalón, Marco Rivera, Yamisleydi Salgueiro, Javier Muñoz, Tomislav Dragičević and Frede Blaabjerg
Energies 2020, 13(10), 2454; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13102454 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 4702
Abstract
Microgrids need control and management at different levels to allow the inclusion of renewable energy sources. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review is presented to analyse the latest trends in research and development referring to the applications of predictive control in microgrids. [...] Read more.
Microgrids need control and management at different levels to allow the inclusion of renewable energy sources. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review is presented to analyse the latest trends in research and development referring to the applications of predictive control in microgrids. As a result of this review, it was found that the application of predictive control techniques on microgrids is performed for the three control levels and with adaptations of the models in order to include uncertainties to improve their performance and dynamics response. In addition, to ensure system stability, but also, at higher control levels, coordinated operation among the microgrid’s components and synchronised and optimised operation with utility grids and electric power markets. Predictive control appears as a very promising control scheme with several advantages for microgrid applications of different control levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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34 pages, 556 KiB  
Review
A Review on the Selected Applications of Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Microgrids
by Muhammad Khalid
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4559; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234559 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 77 | Viewed by 6625
Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive categorical review of the recent advances and past research development of the hybrid storage paradigm over the last two decades. The main intent of the study is to provide an application-focused survey where every category and sub-category herein [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comprehensive categorical review of the recent advances and past research development of the hybrid storage paradigm over the last two decades. The main intent of the study is to provide an application-focused survey where every category and sub-category herein is thoroughly and independently investigated. Implementation of energy storage systems is one of the most interestingly effective options for further progression in the field of alternative energy technology. Apart from a meticulous garnering of the energy resources regulated by the energy storage, the main concern is to optimize the characteristic integrity of the storage devices to achieve a practically techno-economic size and operation. In this paper, hybrid energy storage consisting of batteries and supercapacitors is studied. The fact that the characteristic of batteries is mostly complementary to that of supercapacitors, hybridizing these storage systems enhances their scope of application in various fields. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present an inclusive review of these applications. Specifically, the application domain includes: (1) regulation of renewable energy sources, (2) contributions to grid regulation (voltage and frequency compensation, contribution to power system inertia), (3) energy storage enhancements (life cycle improvement, and size reduction), (4) regenerative braking in electric vehicles, (5) improvement in wireless power transfer technology. Further, this review also descriptively highlights the control strategies implemented in these domains of applications. The application-oriented review explicates the principle advantages with the hybridization of battery and supercapacitor energy storage systems that can be used as an insight for further development in the field of energy storage technology and its applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control in Microgrid Systems)
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