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Modern Technologies for Renewable Energy Development and Utilization

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "B: Energy and Environment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 33793

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Automation, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
Interests: renewable energy power-generation technologies; microgrid system modeling, optimization and control; economic analysis and optimization of energy/electrical systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
Interests: wind energy; wind farm design; multifield coupling and control technology of large offshore floating wind turbines
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. Electrical Power and Machines Department, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
2. Mechatronic Program, Faculty of Engineering and Technology Egyptian Chinese University, Cairo 45413122, Egypt
Interests: renewable energy integration techniques; energy conversion (solar-wind-wave energies) to electrical power generation; artificial intelligence applications in power systems, IoT, and hybrid cloud-based data processing for power system monitoring in smart and microgrids
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Guest Editor
School of Energy and Power Engineering, Changsha University of Science & Technology, Changsha 410114, China
Interests: fault diagnosis for wind turbine, machine learning for energy prediction and analysis
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Guest Editor
Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China
Interests: renewable energy; fusion power supply; high power converter control; fault diagnosis; mathematical and simulation models using computer programs
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development and use of renewable energy has been growing in importance in recent years. Conventional energy resources, such as natural gas and oil, are insufficient to satisfy the demand of the global economy. This results in economic issues and the necessity for measures to ensure energy security.

Globally, there has been a positive trend of increasing shares of renewable energy. This development is encouraged by legislation, increased social awareness of ecology and nature conservation, and the advent of new technologies in the energy industry.

This Special Issue, entitled “Modern technologies for renewable energy development and utilization”, for the international journal Energies, mainly aims at covering original research and studies related to the following (not limited to) topics:

  • Renewable energy estimation and utilization;
  • Renewable energy systems;
  • Electric vehicles role in modern power systems;
  • Power electronics in renewable energy systems;
  • Integration and control of energy storage systems;
  • Microgrids management and control.

We are writing to invite you to submit your original work to this Special Issue. We are looking forward to receiving your outstanding research.

Prof. Dr. Dongran Song
Dr. Qingan Li
Prof. Dr. Mohamed Talaat
Prof. Dr. Mingzhu Tang
Dr. Xiaojiao Chen
Prof. Dr. Junlei Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wind/solar/battery
  • power electronics
  • microgrid
  • estimation and utilization
  • integration and control

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

15 pages, 8400 KiB  
Article
A Wavelet Transform-Based Real-Time Filtering Algorithm for Fusion Magnet Power Signals and Its Implementation
by Xiaoxiao Yang, Xiaojiao Chen, Kezhong Sun, Chuanyu Xiong, Dongran Song, Yingchun Lu, Liansheng Huang, Shiying He and Xiuqing Zhang
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4091; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104091 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1287
Abstract
With high real-time performance and a good filtering effect, the wavelet transform-based real-time filter is more commonly used in the fusion magnet power supply. Considering the signal characteristics of the fusion magnet power supply, the sliding time window method is widely used to [...] Read more.
With high real-time performance and a good filtering effect, the wavelet transform-based real-time filter is more commonly used in the fusion magnet power supply. Considering the signal characteristics of the fusion magnet power supply, the sliding time window method is widely used to satisfy the requirements of filtering efficiency. In this paper, an updated half-edge extension method is proposed to improve the boundary effect of sliding window data. Moreover, the hardware-based wavelet loopback structure is proposed to avoid the double computation of long sliding window data, thereby improving real-time performance and satisfying the demands of fusion magnet power supply filtering. The proposed half-edge extension method and the wavelet loopback structure are implemented by designed FPGA and experimented on the Experimental and Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) fusion magnet power supply system to verify the filtering efficiency. According to the experiment’s results, the proposed half-edge extension method has a better filtering effect, and the proposed wavelet loopback structure decreases the time by 67.4%, which can satisfy the requirements of the power supply system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Renewable Energy Development and Utilization)
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22 pages, 1266 KiB  
Article
Method of Qualitative–Environmental Choice of Devices Converting Green Energy
by Tadeusz Olejarz, Dominika Siwiec and Andrzej Pacana
Energies 2022, 15(23), 8845; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15238845 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1224
Abstract
In the plan of the European Green Deal, the European Union assumed that by 2050 Europe will become the first climate-neutral continent in the world. This will be supported by alternative (renewable) energy sources (RESs), also termed green energy (GE). Their use should [...] Read more.
In the plan of the European Green Deal, the European Union assumed that by 2050 Europe will become the first climate-neutral continent in the world. This will be supported by alternative (renewable) energy sources (RESs), also termed green energy (GE). Their use should have long-term environmental benefits. To do this, it is necessary to skillfully select RES products. Therefore, the purpose is to develop a method for selecting devices that convert to GE, including not only qualitative criteria, but also environmental criteria and their price. The method is based on customer requirements and expert knowledge. The general concept of the method allows for the assessment of selected qualitative and environmental criteria of products and determining the price of purchase of these products. In a hybrid way, the following techniques were used: SMARTER method, brainstorming (BM), MAP method (alternative-punctual Czechowski’ method), ACJ method (price–qualitative analysis). Based on the results of qualitative criteria assessments or qualitative and environmental criteria assessments, the customer can select the best product. The customer can also select products, including the price of purchase, based on results from ACJ. A test of the method was carried out for solar collectors. The results testify to the possibility of controlling the selection control. The originality of this study is the creation of an uncomplicated sequence of techniques that provide the customer with the choice of RESs. The novelty of the method is the possibility of evaluating any products. In this study, the method is dedicated to devices converting GE, e.g., solar collectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Renewable Energy Development and Utilization)
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30 pages, 2261 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of a Floating Photovoltaic System for Offshore Installation: The Case Study of Lampedusa
by Alberto Ghigo, Emilio Faraggiana, Massimo Sirigu, Giuliana Mattiazzo and Giovanni Bracco
Energies 2022, 15(23), 8804; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15238804 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 10065
Abstract
In recent years, numerous projects for floating PV systems have been developed. These plants of various sizes have mainly been installed on enclosed lakes or basins characterised by the absence of external forcing related to waves and currents. However, offshore installation would allow [...] Read more.
In recent years, numerous projects for floating PV systems have been developed. These plants of various sizes have mainly been installed on enclosed lakes or basins characterised by the absence of external forcing related to waves and currents. However, offshore installation would allow the development of such plants in areas where land is not available, such as islands. This paper analyses the state of the art of floating PV, describes the design of a floating PV platform and the development of a numerical model to evaluate the system performance in an offshore environment. The case study of the island of Lampedusa is then analyzed: starting from a single floating foundation with its mooring system, a floating PV system is designed to meet the island’s electricity needs. In order to provide the competitiveness of the system, a techno-economic analysis is carried out, evaluating the main cost items of Capex, Opex and LCOE. Although the LCOE obtained is significantly higher than a traditional solar plant installed on land, this technology is competitive compared to other offshore marine technologies such as offshore wind and wave energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Renewable Energy Development and Utilization)
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23 pages, 7729 KiB  
Article
Wind Energy Potential in Pakistan: A Feasibility Study in Sindh Province
by Rafiq Asghar, Zahid Ullah, Babar Azeem, Sheraz Aslam, Muhammad Harris Hashmi, Ehtsham Rasool, Bilawal Shaker, Muhammad Junaid Anwar and Kainat Mustafa
Energies 2022, 15(22), 8333; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228333 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3114
Abstract
The environment and the economy are negatively impacted by conventional energy sources, such as coal, gasoline, and other fossil fuels. Pakistan’s reliance on these resources has resulted in a catastrophic energy crisis. This has driven the government to make critical decisions such as [...] Read more.
The environment and the economy are negatively impacted by conventional energy sources, such as coal, gasoline, and other fossil fuels. Pakistan’s reliance on these resources has resulted in a catastrophic energy crisis. This has driven the government to make critical decisions such as early retail closures, power outages for the industrial sector, and an increase to two days a week vacations. Wind energy, accessible and affordable, will become a viable option for meeting Pakistan’s present and future energy demands. Approximately 3% of Pakistan’s land can produce nearly 132 GW of power with an installed capacity of 5 MW per km2. In this study, four zones (Karachi, Thatta, Badin, and Jamshoro) in Sindh province are assessed for the feasibility of wind energy generation. The installed capacity, generator types, and detailed specifications are provided for each zone. Moreover, the wind mapping of Pakistan is presented considering the four potential zones. The zones are analyzed using annual wind speed and power output considering wind data measured at 50 m height over one year. The higher mean speed is recorded at Jamshoro compared to other zones. The analysis indicates that all four sites are suitable for large-scale wind power generation due to their energy potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Renewable Energy Development and Utilization)
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18 pages, 1170 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Energy Development—A Systematic Literature Review
by Katarzyna Łukasiewicz, Piotr Pietrzak, Jakub Kraciuk, Elżbieta Kacperska and Małgorzata Cieciora
Energies 2022, 15(21), 8284; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15218284 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2809
Abstract
The main aim of this study is to present a systematic literature review (SLR) of the sustainable energy development (SED) and emphasize important activities relevant to this concept. The following set of research tasks was adopted to achieve the main aim: (1) presentation [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study is to present a systematic literature review (SLR) of the sustainable energy development (SED) and emphasize important activities relevant to this concept. The following set of research tasks was adopted to achieve the main aim: (1) presentation of the distribution of articles by year (both journal and conference papers) on the SED concept; (2) identification of the most frequently cited articles on the SED concept; (3) identification of the countries that have contributed most to the development of the SED concept through publication activities; (4) demonstration of the subject areas most frequently associated with the SED concept; (5) presentation of the various definitions of the SED; (6) identification of the most important activities carried out under the SED; and (7) presentation of future research directions for the SED. It is worth noting that the research tasks undertaken will be both quantitative and qualitative. The data search was conducted on 31 August 2022, and the selected peer-reviewed database was Scopus. The exclusion process resulted in a total of 607 journal and conference papers. The most important conclusion to be derived from this study is that there is no one unified definition of the SED. Moreover, three activities must be undertaken to realize the SED concept: (1) increasing the use of renewable energy sources in the energy mix, (2) enhancing energy efficiency, and (3) reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. The article also presents the authors’ conceptual model that can serve as a starting point for further analyses in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Renewable Energy Development and Utilization)
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14 pages, 1667 KiB  
Article
Most Searched Topics in the Scientific Literature on Failures in Photovoltaic Installations
by Paweł Kut and Katarzyna Pietrucha-Urbanik
Energies 2022, 15(21), 8108; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15218108 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
Photovoltaic installations (PVs) are currently one of the fastest-growing sources of renewable energy. Expanded forms of financial support and higher electricity prices have resulted in a large increase in its installed capacity. PV installations are increasingly being ordered by industry and privates, often [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic installations (PVs) are currently one of the fastest-growing sources of renewable energy. Expanded forms of financial support and higher electricity prices have resulted in a large increase in its installed capacity. PV installations are increasingly being ordered by industry and privates, often for installations capacity of several hundred kilowatts. In addition to the advantages, photovoltaic installations also have drawbacks. One of these is that the increase in the voltage in the power grid leads to the exclusion of individual installations from the grid. An important issue in the operation of photovoltaic installations is also their reliability during their lifetime. The reliability of photovoltaic installations depends on the random nature of the cloud cover as well as the material’s mechanical degradations. This paper presents a literature analysis using Citespace software in terms of reliability. A detailed bibliometric analysis has been performed to outline the main drawbacks of the PV installations cited by researchers. This literature review forms the basis for further analysis. The paper also presents a new approach to implementing the Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) method for assessing the risk of failure of PV panels. The obtained results showed the main interests of scientists in the field of failure analysis of photovoltaic installations and countries having the largest share in research on this issue. The applied Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) analysis enables supporting the process of managing photovoltaic installations by analyzing installation operations in terms of reliability as reliability impacts the profitability of investments and operating costs. The proposed method can be used by the operators of photovoltaic installations or farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Renewable Energy Development and Utilization)
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17 pages, 2199 KiB  
Article
Fault Detection of UHV Converter Valve Based on Optimized Cost-Sensitive Extreme Random Forest
by Fuqiang Xiong, Chenhuan Cao, Mingzhu Tang, Zhihong Wang, Jun Tang and Jiabiao Yi
Energies 2022, 15(21), 8059; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15218059 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
Aiming at the problem of unbalanced data categories of UHV converter valve fault data, a method for UHV converter valve fault detection based on optimization cost-sensitive extreme random forest is proposed. The misclassification cost gain is integrated into the extreme random forest decision [...] Read more.
Aiming at the problem of unbalanced data categories of UHV converter valve fault data, a method for UHV converter valve fault detection based on optimization cost-sensitive extreme random forest is proposed. The misclassification cost gain is integrated into the extreme random forest decision tree as a splitting index, and the inertia weight and learning factor are improved to construct an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm. First, feature extraction and data cleaning are carried out to solve the problems of local data loss, large computational load, and low real-time performance of the model. Then, the classifier training based on the optimization cost-sensitive extreme random forest is used to construct a fault detection model, and the improved particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to output the optimal model parameters, achieving fast response of the model and high classification accuracy, good robustness, and generalization under unbalanced data. Finally, in order to verify its effectiveness, this model is compared with the existing optimization algorithms. The running speed is faster and the fault detection performance is higher, which can meet the actual needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Renewable Energy Development and Utilization)
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20 pages, 5978 KiB  
Article
Effect of Actual Recuperators’ Effectiveness on the Attainable Efficiency of Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycles for Solar Thermal Power Plants
by George Stamatellos and Tassos Stamatelos
Energies 2022, 15(20), 7773; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15207773 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1073
Abstract
One of the most promising concentrated solar power technologies is the central receiver tower power station with heliostat field, which has attracted renewed research interest in the current decade. The introduction of the sCO2 recompression Brayton cycles in the near future installations [...] Read more.
One of the most promising concentrated solar power technologies is the central receiver tower power station with heliostat field, which has attracted renewed research interest in the current decade. The introduction of the sCO2 recompression Brayton cycles in the near future installations instead of the Rankine cycle is very probable, due to the prospects of a significant efficiency improvement, process equipment size and capital cost reduction. In this study, energy and exergy analysis of a recompression Brayton cycle configuration for a central receiver power station are performed. Special emphasis is given to the computation of actual performance for the High-Temperature Recuperator and the Low-Temperature Recuperator. The results define realistic thermal and exergetic efficiency limits for the specific cycle configurations applied on a central receiver solar power plant with variable turbine entry temperature. Thermal efficiency, predicted with the improved accuracy of heat exchanger computations, does not exceed the 50% target. Overall, a realizable total power plant efficiency of 37% at 900 K turbine entry temperature is predicted, which is a significant improvement on the current state-of-the-art with steam Rankine cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Renewable Energy Development and Utilization)
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24 pages, 12630 KiB  
Article
Implementation and Design of FREEDM System Differential Protection Method Based on Internet of Things
by Ahmed Y. Hatata, Mohamed A. Essa and Bishoy E. Sedhom
Energies 2022, 15(15), 5754; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15155754 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1652
Abstract
This paper introduces an enhancement of the protection and operation of the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. It uses the solid-state transformers to connect the residential A.C. and D.C. microgrids to the distribution system and fault isolation devices for [...] Read more.
This paper introduces an enhancement of the protection and operation of the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. It uses the solid-state transformers to connect the residential A.C. and D.C. microgrids to the distribution system and fault isolation devices for faulty line isolation. In this paper, a current differential protection scheme has been proposed to detect faults in the FREEDM-based microgrid network. This method is based on the current measurement at the two-line terminals using phasor measurement units to ensure data synchronization and minimize the measuring error. Also, a communication scheme that is based on the Internet of things technology and Wi-Fi is constructed for data monitoring and interlinking between the relays, transducers, and the fault isolation devices in the two-terminals lines. A hypothetical FREEDM system has been used for the verification and testing of the proposed method. Different fault types at different locations and fault resistances have been applied to prove the effectiveness of the proposed protection method in detecting the fault condition. The performance of the proposed method is investigated using the security, dependability, and accuracy indices. A prototype of the FREEDM system is designed, implemented, and tested using the Proteus software simulator and in the laboratory. The results prove the efficiency of the proposed protection method in detecting and isolating the fault conditions in a fast, reliable, and accurate manner. Moreover, the protection scheme achieved high accuracy for all faults, equal to 98.825%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Renewable Energy Development and Utilization)
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24 pages, 6061 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Optimisation for Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farm Based on Decoupled Groups Operation
by Yanfang Chen, Young Hoon Joo and Dongran Song
Energies 2022, 15(7), 2336; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15072336 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
Operation optimization for large-scale offshore wind farms can cause the fatigue loads of single wind turbines to exceed their limits. This study aims to improve the economic profit of offshore wind farms by conducting multi-objective optimization via decoupled group operations of turbines. To [...] Read more.
Operation optimization for large-scale offshore wind farms can cause the fatigue loads of single wind turbines to exceed their limits. This study aims to improve the economic profit of offshore wind farms by conducting multi-objective optimization via decoupled group operations of turbines. To do this, a large-scale wind farm is firstly divided into several decoupled subsets through the parallel depth-first search (PDFS) and hyperlink-induced topic search (HITS) algorithms based on the wake-based direction graph. Next, three optimization objectives are considered, including total output power, total fatigue load, and fatigue load dispatch on a single wind turbine (WT) in a wind farm. And then, the combined Monte Carlo and beetle swarm optimization (CMC-BSO) algorithms are applied to solve the multi-objective non-convex optimization problem based on the decentralized communication network topology. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method balances the total power output, fatigue load, and single fatigue loads with fast convergence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Renewable Energy Development and Utilization)
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Review

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18 pages, 939 KiB  
Review
Review of PV Solar Energy Development 2011–2021 in Central European Countries
by Elzbieta Rynska
Energies 2022, 15(21), 8307; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15218307 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3040
Abstract
According to the data collected in 2022 during 5th International Off-Grid Renewable Energy Conference organized in Abu Dhabi by the International Renewable Energy Agency, the global energy requirements show a negative impact on approximately 785 million people facing energy poverty. The long-term energy [...] Read more.
According to the data collected in 2022 during 5th International Off-Grid Renewable Energy Conference organized in Abu Dhabi by the International Renewable Energy Agency, the global energy requirements show a negative impact on approximately 785 million people facing energy poverty. The long-term energy sustainability solutions should consider off-grid solutions in the planning of an energy mix and be considered as interim both in remote and already urbanized areas. These measures require integrated planning and partnering with local distribution networks. The review presents the development of photovoltaic installations in Central European countries. For more than 40 years, this area belonged to different regimes and joined the European Union at various dates. Hence, the development of energy policies and cultural and social expectations differ even when based on the Green Deal presented by the European Union in 2020. The outcomes prove that even with a variety of policy measures, the strongest boost can be given only by a set of national rules and financial incentives supporting the stakeholders. It should be noted that the advancement of PV often does not rely on climatic conditions, but more on the level of incentives undertaken by each country, as well as the general policy measures undertaken on the EU level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Renewable Energy Development and Utilization)
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17 pages, 2737 KiB  
Review
Review on the Damage and Fault Diagnosis of Wind Turbine Blades in the Germination Stage
by Xiaowen Song, Zhitai Xing, Yan Jia, Xiaojuan Song, Chang Cai, Yinan Zhang, Zekun Wang, Jicai Guo and Qingan Li
Energies 2022, 15(20), 7492; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15207492 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2443
Abstract
In recent years, wind turbines have shown a maximization trend. However, most of the wind turbine blades operate in areas with a relatively poor natural environment. The stability, safety, and reliability of blade operation are facing many challenges. Therefore, it is of great [...] Read more.
In recent years, wind turbines have shown a maximization trend. However, most of the wind turbine blades operate in areas with a relatively poor natural environment. The stability, safety, and reliability of blade operation are facing many challenges. Therefore, it is of great significance to monitor the structural health of wind turbine blades to avoid the failure of wind turbine outages and reduce maintenance costs. This paper reviews the commonly observed types of damage and damage detection methods of wind turbine blades. First of all, a comprehensive summary of the common embryonic damage, leading edge erosion, micro-cracking, fiber defects, and coating defects damage. Secondly, three fault diagnosis methods of wind turbine blades, including nondestructive testing (NDT), supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), and vibration signal-based fault diagnosis, are introduced. The working principles, advantages, disadvantages, and development status of nondestructive testing methods are analyzed and summarized. Finally, the future development trend of wind turbine blade detection and diagnosis technology is discussed. This paper can guide the use of technical means in the actual detection of wind turbine blades. In addition, the research prospect of fault diagnosis technology can be understood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Renewable Energy Development and Utilization)
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