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High Value-Added Utilization of Fossil Fuels

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "H3: Fossil".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 May 2024) | Viewed by 4846

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Scientific Center “Issues of Processing Mineral and Technogenic Resources”, Saint Petersburg Mining University, 199106 St. Petersburg, Russia
Interests: needle coke; marine fuel; petroleum coke; asphaltenes; petroleum refining; heavy oil; pyrolysis; petrochemistry; coal-tar pitch
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The processing of technogenic resources is becoming an increasingly relevant modern trend in the mineral and raw materials and fuel and energy sectors of the economies of industrialized states. This is primarily due to the accumulation in technogenic resources of potentially valuable components for isolation in amounts comparable in content to natural resources. The possibility of utilizing technogenic resources of fossil fuels by using them as raw materials to obtain high value-added products is especially attractive for industrial enterprises. This is especially the case for oil refining and petrochemical enterprises, gas chemical plants, coke plants and other fossil fuel processing enterprises. The processing of technogenic fossil fuel resources can be performed by physical methods (mixing, fractionation, extraction) and chemical methods (thermal, catalytic and hydrocatalytic). The chemical composition (elemental, hydrocarbon, group, SARA) and the structure of individual components (including asphaltenes) of technogenic resources determine the possibility of using a given processing method to obtain commercial products. At the same time, only high demand for the resulting products with a limited supply will determine their status as high value-added products. An example of such a product is needle coke, which in world practice is obtained from both oil-based technogenic resources (a by-product of the production of a high-octane component of motor gasoline) and coal-based technogenic resources (a by-product of the production of metallurgical coke). The main area of application for this method is in the production of graphite electrodes for steelmaking. It is the flow of the technological chain through several industries that determines this carbon material as a product with a high added value.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to consider the most relevant methods for the global industry to utilize technogenic fossil fuel resources to obtain high value-added products.

Dr. Viacheslav A. Rudko
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • needle coke
  • petroleum coke
  • carbon fibers
  • atmospheric residue
  • vacuum residue
  • decant oil
  • ethylene tar
  • coal-tar pitch
  • asphaltenes
  • mesophase pitch
  • activated coal
  • carbon black

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 3387 KiB  
Article
Use of Asphaltene Stabilizers for the Production of Very Low Sulphur Fuel Oil
by Alisa E. Zvereva, Mikhail A. Ershov, Vsevolod D. Savelenko, Marina M. Lobashova, Marina Y. Rogova, Ulyana A. Makhova, Ekaterina O. Tikhomirova, Nikita O. Burov, David R. Aleksanyan, Vladimir M. Kapustin, Elena A. Chernysheva and Arina I. Rakova
Energies 2023, 16(22), 7649; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16227649 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 816
Abstract
Marine fuel oil stability has always been an issue for bunkering companies and ship owners all around the world and the problem has become even more apparent with the introduction of the Global Sulphur Gap by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in 2020. [...] Read more.
Marine fuel oil stability has always been an issue for bunkering companies and ship owners all around the world and the problem has become even more apparent with the introduction of the Global Sulphur Gap by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in 2020. In this article, the historical background and the technical reasons why marine fuel oils lose their stability, as well as methods for preventing such instability from occurring, are presented. While it is possible to make fuel compositions stable by adjusting their composition in such a way that the components of the fuel are compatible, considering that marine fuel oils are often comprised of the least value-added products, the method of adding special fuel oil stabilizers (also known as “asphaltene dispersants”) is usually preferred. An overview of such stabilizers is presented; their chemical composition, based on the information provided by the manufacturers and/or inventors is studied. In addition, the experimental research of the produced marine fuel oil and its components is carried out. The results of the model composition studies show that adding even as little as 10% of residual asphaltene-rich components can make a composition with a high stability reserve unstable. It was also shown that the content of the asphaltene-rich component in a stable fuel can be increased from 3% to 10% by introducing stabilizers in low amounts (up to 2000 ppm), thus lowering the amount of higher value-added, mostly naphthene-paraffinic-based components. Different methods of fuel stability evaluation were studied and tested, most of them being in correlation with one another. Several types of stability enhancers were tried out on unstable fuel, with stabilizers based on alkylphenol formaldehyde resin showing the best results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Value-Added Utilization of Fossil Fuels)
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20 pages, 5498 KiB  
Article
Asphaltenes from Ethylene Tar as a Potential Raw Material to Obtain High Value-Added Products
by Yulia Yu. Borisova, Alsu M. Minzagirova, Konstantin V. Shabalin, Vladimir I. Morozov, Dmitry N. Borisov and Makhmut R. Yakubov
Energies 2023, 16(21), 7376; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16217376 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 864
Abstract
Ethylene tar is the main byproduct of ethylene synthesis obtained via pyrolysis of hydrocarbon feedstock. With the growing demand for ethylene, the efficient use of ethylene tar is of great importance from both an economic and an ecological point of view. It contains [...] Read more.
Ethylene tar is the main byproduct of ethylene synthesis obtained via pyrolysis of hydrocarbon feedstock. With the growing demand for ethylene, the efficient use of ethylene tar is of great importance from both an economic and an ecological point of view. It contains significant amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which can be designated as technogenic asphaltenes. Such polyaromatic structures can be isolated and used as a synthetic platform for modification and molecular engineering, similar to petroleum asphaltenes. In this study, the possibility of modifying technogenic asphaltenes by oxidizing reagents used previously for petroleum asphaltenes was shown for the first time. Technogenic asphaltenes contain significantly fewer heteroatomic structures and have a lower molecular weight compared to petroleum asphaltenes. The compositional features of technogenic asphaltenes ensure deeper oxidation with the formation of various O-containing products, whose properties can vary significantly depending on the reaction conditions. At the same time, the general patterns of oxidative modification of technogenic asphaltenes correspond to the oxidation processes of petroleum asphaltenes. The modification products obtained in this way can be used as sorbents, catalysts, fillers for polymers, adhesive additives for road bitumens, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Value-Added Utilization of Fossil Fuels)
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15 pages, 2474 KiB  
Article
Tailoring NiMo-Based Catalysts for Production of Low-Viscosity Sustainable Hydrocarbon Bases for Drilling Muds from Secondary Gas Oils
by Aleksei Iusovskii, Roman Boldushevskii, Aleksandr Mozhaev, Olga Shmelkova, Elizaveta Pavlycheva, Aleksandr Koklyukhin and Pavel Nikulshin
Energies 2023, 16(16), 5859; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16165859 - 8 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
This article presents the prospect of using the process of deep hydrodesulfurization and hydrodearomatization of secondary gas oils using highly active NiMo catalysts to obtain hydrocarbon bases for drilling fluids. Catalysts were synthesized using PMo heteropolyanions, citric acid, and diethylene glycol on alumina [...] Read more.
This article presents the prospect of using the process of deep hydrodesulfurization and hydrodearomatization of secondary gas oils using highly active NiMo catalysts to obtain hydrocarbon bases for drilling fluids. Catalysts were synthesized using PMo heteropolyanions, citric acid, and diethylene glycol on alumina carriers with different pore volumes. This study showed that the concentration of the impregnating solution affects the composition and morphology of the active phase particles of the prepared catalyst, while the textural characteristics of the carrier influence the physicochemical properties and catalytic activity of the NiMo/Al2O3 catalysts. The catalyst that was synthesized using a carrier with the largest pore volume and an effective diameter of more than 7 nm exhibited the highest activity. It was demonstrated that the use of such a catalyst allows for the procurement of hydrocarbon bases for drilling fluids from mixtures of secondary gas oils at a hydrogen pressure of 15–20 MPa. This study has practical significance for the development of sustainable and economically efficient methods for the utilization of low-quality petroleum gas oils to produce high-margin environmentally friendly non-fuel petroleum products, as well as contributes to the development of economically efficient technologies for the utilization of petroleum raw materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Value-Added Utilization of Fossil Fuels)
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15 pages, 4961 KiB  
Article
Thermodynamic and Experimental Substantiation of the Possibility of Formation and Extraction of Organometallic Compounds as Indicators of Deep Naphthogenesis
by Tatiana Aleksandrova, Nadezhda Nikolaeva and Valentin Kuznetsov
Energies 2023, 16(9), 3862; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16093862 - 1 May 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1446
Abstract
In this article, typomorphic associations of microelements in carbonaceous caustobioliths and oils are defined as indicators of naphthogenesis based on the analytical survey of the literature and our own research. Various approaches to the studying of crude oil genesis from the position of [...] Read more.
In this article, typomorphic associations of microelements in carbonaceous caustobioliths and oils are defined as indicators of naphthogenesis based on the analytical survey of the literature and our own research. Various approaches to the studying of crude oil genesis from the position of abiotic and complex approaches (polygenesis) are considered. Such approaches are relevant to the prospect and development of offshore oil deposits, localized at ultra-deep levels. For deep deposits, the most prominent hypothesis of oil origin is the abiogenious theory. In the foundation of that approach lays the assumption that hydrocarbons are formed mainly due to reactions of the formed mantle gases and the host rock. Key factors for these reactions to proceed are specific conditions concerning temperature, pressure, and specific catalysts. The article presents the results of thermodynamic and quantum-chemical modeling of the possibility of the organic and organometallic compound formation using the software package HSC Chemistry 6.0. Pointed out the possibility of a low molecular weight hydrocarbon formation due to the contact of ascending flows of mantle gases with cooling natural barriers. The primary synthesis proceeds with the interaction of fluid forms of H2, CO2, and H2S. The estimation of the bonding energy depending on the structure of organometallic compounds was performed using the Avogadro software package. The program used the method of bond potential energy minimization to find the most stable structure of molecules. The metals nickel and vanadium, as the main companion metals of oil, are of the most interest from the position of analysis of their form of existence in the possible formation of hydrocarbons. Vanadium’s and nickel’s accumulation in asphaltene fractions of oils, probably, is caused by complex compounds of metalloporphyrin’s formation. In addition, the high sulfur content is probably associated with polymerization of organic molecules due to the formation of di-sulphide bonds. The method of cavitation extraction of organometallic compounds from oil and complex mineral–oil raw materials has been developed for experimental confirmation of microelements the extraction capability from oil raw materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Value-Added Utilization of Fossil Fuels)
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