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Experimental Analysis and Numerical Modelling of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flows in Energy Systems II

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "J: Thermal Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 5149

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Energy, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
Interests: computational fluid dynamics; component interaction; gas turbine cooling; pumps and compressors; uncertainty quantification
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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
Interests: turbomachinery; flow control; secondary air systems; uncertainty quantification
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The goals set by the European Commission in terms of reducing pollutant emissions by 2050 thrusted energy system designers to increase their efforts towards the deployment and adoption of greener technologies and innovative solutions. That has especially been true for the power generation and propulsion fields, both highly contributing to CO2 emissions.

The thermal management of energy systems plays a key role in attempts to increase overall system efficiency, thus, conversely decreasing pollutant emissions and driving researchers’ efforts towards an accurate evaluation of metal temperatures by correctly estimating heat transfer and fluid flow. Newly designed experimental equipment and high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics represent fundamental tools for dealing with such a demanding outcome. Furthermore, optimization methods based on artificial intelligence are now available for the design of complex components with the potential to be realized through additive manufacturing, potentially guaranteeing high aero-thermal efficiency. Still, manufacturing uncertainty must be accounted for.

Finally, the increasing usage of sustainable fuels and energy carriers (e.g., hydrogen) further complicates the situation due to the possible increase in NOx production. Several projects funded by the industry and public funding bodies have allowed for advancements in the state-of-the-art, with researchers worldwide drawing increasing attention to the issue.

Thence, the Guest Editors invite submissions to a Special Issue of Energies on the subject area of “Experimental Analysis and Numerical Modelling of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flows in Energy Systems”. Topics of interest for publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Experimental analyses;
  • Computational fluid dynamics;
  • Heat transfer;
  • Thermal management;
  • Turbomachinery;
  • Turbine cooling
  • Hybrid engines;
  • Power systems;
  • Hydrogen combustion;
  • Heat exchangers;
  • Artificial intelligence;
  • Optimization methods;
  • Uncertainty quantification.

Dr. Simone Salvadori
Prof. Daniela Anna Misul
Dr. Mauro Carnevale
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • experimental analysis
  • computational fluid dynamics
  • heat transfer
  • green aviation
  • green propulsion
  • turbulence modelling
  • combustion modelling
  • film cooling
  • high-performance computing
  • artificial intelligence
  • optimization methods
  • uncertainty quantification

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 2127 KiB  
Article
Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Approximation of Heat Conduction in Three-Phase-Lag Solid
by Anibal Coronel, Esperanza Lozada, Stefan Berres, Fernando Huancas and Nicolás Murúa
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2497; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112497 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 412
Abstract
In this article, we propose a mathematical model for one-dimensional heat conduction in a three-layered solid considering that an interfacial condition is present for the temperature and heat flux conditions between the layers. The numerical approach is developed by constructing a finite difference [...] Read more.
In this article, we propose a mathematical model for one-dimensional heat conduction in a three-layered solid considering that an interfacial condition is present for the temperature and heat flux conditions between the layers. The numerical approach is developed by constructing a finite difference scheme to solve the initial boundary–interface problem. The numerical scheme is designed by considering the accuracy of the model on the inner part of each layer, then extending to the interfaces and boundaries by incorporating the continuous interfacial conditions. The finite difference scheme is unconditionally stable, convergent, and easy to implement since it consists of the solution of two algebraic systems. We provide three numerical examples to confirm that our numerical approximation is consistent with the analytical solution and the physical phenomenon. Full article
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24 pages, 16907 KiB  
Article
Development of 1D Model of Constant-Volume Combustor and Numerical Analysis of the Exhaust Nozzle
by Panagiotis Gallis, Daniela Anna Misul, Bastien Boust, Marc Bellenoue and Simone Salvadori
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051191 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Pressure gain combustion cycles are under the spotlight due to their higher theoretical cycle thermal efficiency compared to conventional machines. Under this prism, a constant-volume combustor (CVC) prototype supplied with a mixture of air and liquid iso–octane was developed. The efforts of the [...] Read more.
Pressure gain combustion cycles are under the spotlight due to their higher theoretical cycle thermal efficiency compared to conventional machines. Under this prism, a constant-volume combustor (CVC) prototype supplied with a mixture of air and liquid iso–octane was developed. The efforts of the current study were focused on both creating a 1D model of the experimental test rig for the CVC analysis and a 3D numerical simulation of the exhaust system. The goal of the study was to retrieve the total outlet quantities of the combustor, which would otherwise be difficult to assess experimentally, and to investigate the pulsating flow field at the outlet. First, a thorough description of the reduced order model was accompanied with the model’s validation using the available experimental data of the chamber. Then, the resulting outlet stagnation properties of the CVC were imposed as spatially averaged transient boundary conditions to the 3D exhaust flow domain. The unsteady Reynolds–averaged Navier–Stokes equations were solved for a sufficient number of periods, and the assessment of the out-take system in terms of losses and attenuation was conducted. In conclusion, the analysis of the combustor’s outflow will pave the way for an effective future design of the CVC exhaust system. Full article
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12 pages, 5610 KiB  
Article
Vehicle Underhood Environment Investigations Using a Simplified Test Rig
by Alexey Vdovin and Tarun Kadri Sathiyan
Energies 2023, 16(24), 8028; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16248028 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 799
Abstract
Energy efficiency and thermal management continue to be critical areas in the vehicle development process. Independent of whether it is a vehicle with an internal combustion engine, hybrid, or fully electrical, engineers require proper and accurate tools to comprehend heat transfer in engine [...] Read more.
Energy efficiency and thermal management continue to be critical areas in the vehicle development process. Independent of whether it is a vehicle with an internal combustion engine, hybrid, or fully electrical, engineers require proper and accurate tools to comprehend heat transfer in engine bays. However, developing such tools using a fully detailed production geometry can be challenging. This work presents a simplified and flexible test rig design of the vehicle underhood environment in two different variants: a passenger car and a commercial truck. The rig design in CAD and experimental data for the two rig configurations are made available upon request. These data will allow for the validation of different simulation approaches against the experimental dataset. An example of such a validation is presented in this paper. The load case scenario represented includes constant speed driving under heavy loads continued by a complete halt, which is followed by soaking for 100 min. The differences in experimental results for different rig variants are shown and analyzed. A good correlation between the experiments and CFD is obtained. Full article
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22 pages, 2886 KiB  
Article
Determination and Modeling of Proximate and Thermal Properties of De-Watered Cassava Mash (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Gari (Gelatinized cassava mash) Traditionally Processed (In Situ) in Togo
by Mwewa Chikonkolo Mwape, Aditya Parmar, Franz Roman, Yaovi Ouézou Azouma, Naushad M. Emmambux and Oliver Hensel
Energies 2023, 16(19), 6836; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16196836 - 27 Sep 2023
Viewed by 949
Abstract
The roasting process of Gari (Gelatinized cassava mash), a shelf-stable cassava product, is energy-intensive. Due to a lack of information on thermal characteristics and scarcity/rising energy costs, heat and mass transfer calculations are essential to optimizing the traditional gari procedure. The [...] Read more.
The roasting process of Gari (Gelatinized cassava mash), a shelf-stable cassava product, is energy-intensive. Due to a lack of information on thermal characteristics and scarcity/rising energy costs, heat and mass transfer calculations are essential to optimizing the traditional gari procedure. The objective of this study was to determine the proximate, density, and thermal properties of traditionally processed de-watered cassava mash and gari at initial and final processing temperatures and moisture contents (MCwb). The density and thermal properties were determined using proximate composition-based predictive empirical models. The cassava mash had thermal conductivity, density, specific heat capacity, and diffusivity of 0.34 to 0.35 W m−1 °C−1, 1207.72 to 1223.09 kg m−3, 2849.95 to 2883.17 J kg−1 °C, and 9.62 × 10−8 to 9.76 × 10−8 m2 s−1, respectively, at fermentation temperatures and MCwb of 34.82 to 35.89 °C and 47.81 to 49%, respectively. The thermal conductivity, density, specific heat capacity and diffusivity of gari, ranged from 0.27 to 0.31 W m−1 °C−1, 1490.07 to 1511.11 kg m−3, 1827.71 to 1882.61 J kg−1 °C and 9.64 × 10−8 to 1.15 × 10−8 m2 s−1, respectively. Correlation of all the parameters was achieved, and the regression models developed showed good correlation to the published models developed based on measuring techniques. Full article
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15 pages, 1597 KiB  
Article
Modeling Multivariate Spray Characteristics with Gaussian Mixture Models
by Markus Wicker, Cihan Ates, Max Okraschevski, Simon Holz, Rainer Koch and Hans-Jörg Bauer
Energies 2023, 16(19), 6818; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16196818 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 680
Abstract
With the increasing demand for efficient and accurate numerical simulations of spray combustion in jet engines, the necessity for robust models to enhance the capabilities of spray models has become imperative. Existing approaches often rely on ad hoc determinations or simplifications, resulting in [...] Read more.
With the increasing demand for efficient and accurate numerical simulations of spray combustion in jet engines, the necessity for robust models to enhance the capabilities of spray models has become imperative. Existing approaches often rely on ad hoc determinations or simplifications, resulting in information loss and potentially inaccurate predictions for critical spray characteristics, such as droplet diameters, velocities, and positions, especially under extreme operating conditions or temporal fluctuations. In this study, we introduce a novel approach to modeling multivariate spray characteristics using Gaussian mixture models (GMM). By applying this approach to spray data obtained from numerical simulations of the primary atomization in air-blast atomizers, we demonstrate that GMMs effectively capture the spray characteristics across a wide range of operating conditions. Importantly, our investigation reveals that GMMs can handle complex non-linear dependencies by increasing the number of components, thereby enabling the modeling of more complex spray statistics. This adaptability makes GMMs a versatile tool for accurately representing spray characteristics even under extreme operating conditions. The presented approach holds promise for enhancing the accuracy of spray combustion modeling, offering an improved injection model that accurately captures the underlying droplet distribution. Additionally, GMMs can serve as a foundation for constructing meta models, striking a balance between the efficiency of low-order approaches and the accuracy of high-fidelity simulations. Full article
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30 pages, 12365 KiB  
Article
Study of Combustor–Turbine Interactions by Performing Coupled and Decoupled Hybrid RANS-LES Simulations under Representative Engine-like Conditions
by Stella Grazia Tomasello, Roberto Meloni, Luca Andrei and Antonio Andreini
Energies 2023, 16(14), 5395; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16145395 - 15 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 962
Abstract
Combustion–turbine interaction phenomena are attracting ever-growing interest in recent years. As a matter of fact, the strong unsteady and three-dimensional flow field that characterizes the combustor is usually conserved up to the first-stage nozzle, possibly affecting its design and performance in terms of [...] Read more.
Combustion–turbine interaction phenomena are attracting ever-growing interest in recent years. As a matter of fact, the strong unsteady and three-dimensional flow field that characterizes the combustor is usually conserved up to the first-stage nozzle, possibly affecting its design and performance in terms of aerodynamics and the effectiveness of the cooling system as well. Such conditions are also exacerbated by the employment of lean-burn combustors, where high turbulence levels are required for the flame stabilization, resulting in even greater temperature and velocity distortions at the inlet of the first-stage nozzle. Even if it has been proven by several past studies that the best way of studying the combustor–turbine interaction is simulating the two components together, performing coupled simulations is still challenging from a numerical point of view, especially in an industrial context. For this reason, the application and generation of the most representative and reliable boundary conditions possible at the inlet of the S1N have assumed an increased importance in order to study the two components separately by performing decoupled simulations. In this context, the purpose of the present work is to compare fully integrated combustor–stator SBES simulations to isolated stator ones. To perform the stator-only calculations, the fully unsteady inlet conditions of the stator have been recorded at the interface plane between the two components in the integrated SBES simulation and then they have been reconstructed by applying the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique. The SBES simulations of the isolated stator have been so performed with the aim of determining whether the flow field obtained is comparable with the one of the integrated simulation, thus allowing more realistic results to be obtained rather than imposing time-averaged 2D maps, as per standard design practice. Full article
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