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Stability and Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "D2: Electrochem: Batteries, Fuel Cells, Capacitors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2022) | Viewed by 11818

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, ‘‘Sapienza’’ University of Rome, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome, Italy
Interests: Li-ion batteries; chemical process safety; risk analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Lithium-ion batteries represent one of the key technologies on the path towards a more sustainable economy based on renewable energy sources. Due to significant advantages with respect to other technologies (high energy and power density, long cycle life, limited memory effect, etc.), they are widely used in an increasing number of applications, ranging from portable equipment and electric mobility to aerospace and large smart grids. However, they are still affected by several problems associated with stability, safety, and reliability. The present Special Issue aims to collect the most recent research results on issues including, but not limited to:

  • Li-ion batteries thermal modelling;
  • Li-ion cells stability;
  • Li-ion battery ageing;
  • Li-ion battery safety;
  • Thermal stability;
  • Thermal runaway;
  • Abuse conditions;
  • Hazard identification;
  • Battery thermal management systems;
  • Accident analysis;
  • Maintenance and accident prevention;
  • Failure analysis and failure propagation modelling.

You may choose our Joint Special Issue in Nanoenergy Advances.

Prof. Dr. Roberto Bubbico
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Li-ion batteries thermal modelling
  • Battery thermal management
  • Li-ion cells stability and safety
  • Battery maintenance
  • Battery optimal configuration.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 8232 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Overdischarge Effects on Commercial Li-Ion Cells
by Carla Menale, Stefano Constà, Vincenzo Sglavo, Livia Della Seta and Roberto Bubbico
Energies 2022, 15(22), 8440; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228440 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1622
Abstract
Due to their attractive properties, such as high energy and power density, Lithium-ion batteries are currently the most suitable energy storage system for powering portable electronic equipment, electric vehicles, etc. However, they are still affected by safety and stability problems that need to [...] Read more.
Due to their attractive properties, such as high energy and power density, Lithium-ion batteries are currently the most suitable energy storage system for powering portable electronic equipment, electric vehicles, etc. However, they are still affected by safety and stability problems that need to be solved to allow a wider range of applications, especially for critical areas such as power networks and aeronautics. In this paper, the issue of overdischarge abuse has been addressed on Lithium-ion cells with different anode materials: a graphite-based anode and a Lithium Titanate Oxide (LTO)-based anode model. Tests were carried out at different depths of discharge (DOD%) in order to determine the effect of DOD% on cell performance and the critical conditions that often make the cell fail irreversibly. Tests on graphite anode cells have shown that at DOD% higher than 110% the cell is damaged irreversibly; while at DOD% lower than 110% electrolyte deposits form on the anodic surface and structural damage affects the cathode during cycling after the overdischarge. Furthermore, at any DOD%, copper deposits are found on the anode. In contrast with the graphite anode, it was always possible to recharge the LTO-based anode cells and restore their operation, though in the case of DOD% of 140% a drastic reduction in the recovered capacity was observed. In no case was there any venting of the cell, or any explosive event. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stability and Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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25 pages, 9999 KiB  
Article
Effect of WLTP CLASS 3B Driving Cycle on Lithium-Ion Battery for Electric Vehicles
by Salvatore Micari, Salvatore Foti, Antonio Testa, Salvatore De Caro, Francesco Sergi, Laura Andaloro, Davide Aloisio, Salvatore Gianluca Leonardi and Giuseppe Napoli
Energies 2022, 15(18), 6703; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15186703 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2163
Abstract
Capacity loss over time is a critical issue for lithium-ion batteries powering battery electric vehicles (BEVs) because it affects vehicle range and performance. Driving cycles have a major impact on the ageing of these devices because they are subjected to high stresses in [...] Read more.
Capacity loss over time is a critical issue for lithium-ion batteries powering battery electric vehicles (BEVs) because it affects vehicle range and performance. Driving cycles have a major impact on the ageing of these devices because they are subjected to high stresses in certain uses that cause degradation phenomena directly related to vehicle use. Calendar capacity also impacts the battery pack for most of its lifetime with a capacity degradation. The manuscript describes experimental tests on a lithium-ion battery for electric vehicles with up to 10% capacity loss in the WLTP CLASS 3B driving cycle. The lithium-ion battery considered consists of an LMO-NMC cathode and a graphite anode with a capacity of 63 Ah for automotive applications. An internal impedance variation was observed compared to the typical full charge/discharge profile. Incremental capacitance (IC) and differential voltage (DV) analysis were performed in different states of cell health. A lifetime model is described to compute the total capacity loss for cycling and calendar ageing exploiting real data under some different scenarios of vehicle usage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stability and Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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13 pages, 3456 KiB  
Article
The Distribution and Detection Issues of Counterfeit Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Lingxi Kong, Diganta Das and Michael G. Pecht
Energies 2022, 15(10), 3798; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15103798 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2651
Abstract
This paper presents the various ways that lithium-ion batteries are being counterfeited, the problems that counterfeit batteries present, how they enter the consumer market, and the difficulties of detection. Simple external visual inspection of the battery is unreliable. As shown in the presented [...] Read more.
This paper presents the various ways that lithium-ion batteries are being counterfeited, the problems that counterfeit batteries present, how they enter the consumer market, and the difficulties of detection. Simple external visual inspection of the battery is unreliable. As shown in the presented case study, even for the same brand batteries, their internal structures are different. The current counterfeit prevention methods focus on the manufacturing step. To reduce the risk of counterfeit batteries, device manufacturers and retail stores should characterize the batteries they receive. In addition, related authorities or organizations should set standards to enable a universal battery tracking method along the supply chain to prevent counterfeit lithium-ion batteries from entering the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stability and Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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19 pages, 4830 KiB  
Article
Thermal Abuse Tests on 18650 Li-Ion Cells Using a Cone Calorimeter and Cell Residues Analysis
by Maria Luisa Mele, Maria Paola Bracciale, Sofia Ubaldi, Maria Laura Santarelli, Michele Mazzaro, Cinzia Di Bari and Paola Russo
Energies 2022, 15(7), 2628; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15072628 - 03 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2665
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are employed when high energy and power density are required. However, under electrical, mechanical, or thermal abuse conditions a thermal runaway can occur resulting in an uncontrollable increase in pressure and temperature that can lead to fire and/or explosion, and [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are employed when high energy and power density are required. However, under electrical, mechanical, or thermal abuse conditions a thermal runaway can occur resulting in an uncontrollable increase in pressure and temperature that can lead to fire and/or explosion, and projection of fragments. In this work, the behavior of LIBs under thermal abuse conditions is analyzed. To this purpose, tests on NCA 18,650 cells are performed in a cone calorimeter by changing the radiative heat flux of the conical heater and the State of Charge (SoC) of the cells from full charge to deep discharge. The dependence of SoC and radiative heat flux on the thermal runaway onset is clearly revealed. In particular, a deep discharge determines an earlier thermal runaway of the cell with respect to those at 50% and 100% of SoC when exposed to high radiative heat flux (50 kW/m2). This is due to a mechanism such as an electrical abuse. Cell components before and after tests are investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Scanning Electron Microscopy—Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) to determine the structural, morphological, and compositional changes. It results that the first reaction (423–443 K) that occurs at the anode involves the decomposition of the electrolyte. This reaction justifies the observed earlier venting and thermal runaway of fully charged cells with respect to half-charged ones due to a greater availability of lithium which allows a faster kinetics of the reaction. In the cathode residues, metallic nickel and NO are found, given by decomposition of metal oxide by the rock-salt phase cathode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stability and Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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20 pages, 8675 KiB  
Article
A Novel Air-Cooled Thermal Management Approach towards High-Power Lithium-Ion Capacitor Module for Electric Vehicles
by Danial Karimi, Hamidreza Behi, Mohsen Akbarzadeh, Joeri Van Mierlo and Maitane Berecibar
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7150; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217150 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1656
Abstract
This work presents an active thermal management system (TMS) for building a safer module of lithium-ion capacitor (LiC) technology, in which 10 LiCs are connected in series. The proposed TMS is a forced air-cooled TMS (ACTMS) that uses four axial DC 12 V [...] Read more.
This work presents an active thermal management system (TMS) for building a safer module of lithium-ion capacitor (LiC) technology, in which 10 LiCs are connected in series. The proposed TMS is a forced air-cooled TMS (ACTMS) that uses four axial DC 12 V fans: two fans are responsible for blowing the air from the environment into the container while two other fans suck the air from the container to the environment. An experimental investigation is conducted to study the thermal behavior of the module, and numerical simulations are carried out to be validated against the experiments. The main aim of the model development is the optimization of the proposed design. Therefore, the ACTMS has been optimized by investigating the impact of inlet air velocity, inlet and outlet positions, module rotation by 90° towards the airflow direction, gap spacing between neighboring cells, and uneven gap spacing between neighboring cells. The 3D thermal model is accurate, so the validation error between the simulation and experimental results is less than 1%. It is proven that the ACTMS is an excellent solution to keep the temperature of the LiC module in the desired range by air inlet velocity of 3 m/s when all the fans are blowing the air from both sides, the outlet is designed on top of the module, the module is rotated, and uneven gap space between neighboring cells is set to 2 mm for the first distance between the cells (d1) and 3 mm for the second distance (d2). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stability and Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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