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Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Technology Trends, Challenges and Opportunities

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "E: Electric Vehicles".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 26091

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Natural Resources Development and Agricultural Engineering, School of Environment and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos Street, 11855 Athens, Greece
Interests: microgrids; electric vehicles; renewable energy; decentralized energy management system; multi-agent systems; smart grids; computational intelligence approaches; energy management and control of energy systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Natural Resources Development and Agricultural Engineering, School of Environment and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos Street, 11855 Athens, Greece
Interests: process control; computational intelligence; automation in agriculture; wireless sensor networks; microgrids’ management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of West Attica, 12244 Athens, Greece
Interests: wireless sensors networks; embedded systems; wearables; sensors; renewable resources systems; automotive; and autonomous vehicles design; Internet of Things; data acquisition; cyber–physical systems; autonomous vehicles; hardware design; smart agriculture; energy management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electric vehicles (EVs) have attracted global interest in science and industry as they are expected to be the future of transportation in the coming years. The global stock of electric vehicles is expected to reach 130 million by 2030. The increased number of EVs entails a set of important questions about the operation, stability, feasibility, and power quality of energy systems. In addition, the transition to electric road transport technologies requires new trends in the design and control of electric vehicles to offer improved performances and capabilities, such as fuel efficiency, extended range, and fast-charging options. Moreover, the low autonomy of EVs calls for the development of sustainable controlled charging processes and easily accessible charging networks. Finally, the expected significant growth in global electricity demand due to the increased number of EVs leads to the modernization of energy grids, such as the adoption of green renewable energy sources and energy storage systems that can improve the reliability of electric power systems. For this Special Issue on “Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Technology Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities”, we warmly invite the submission of original comprehensive reviews, case studies, and research articles on any topic related to the theme of the call.

Dr. Christos-Spyridon Karavas
Dr. Konstantinos Arvanitis
Dr. Athanasios Karlis
Dr. Dimitrios Piromalis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electric vehicles
  • charging stations
  • smart grids
  • renewable energy
  • energy efficiency and demand response
  • energy storage systems
  • power quality
  • vehicle dynamics
  • motion control
  • vehicle stability control
  • environmental issues
  • life-cycle assessment

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 4946 KiB  
Article
A Case Study on Electric Vehicles as Nationwide Battery Storage to Meet Slovenia’s Final Energy Consumption with Solar Energy
by Igor Mendek, Tim Marentič, Klara Anžur and Matej Zajc
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2733; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112733 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 229
Abstract
Despite the global importance of solar energy, its variability requires energy storage to balance production during peak and off-peak periods. Moreover, the transport sector is undergoing a global transition from internal combustion engines to electric vehicles. Since vehicles are idle 95% of the [...] Read more.
Despite the global importance of solar energy, its variability requires energy storage to balance production during peak and off-peak periods. Moreover, the transport sector is undergoing a global transition from internal combustion engines to electric vehicles. Since vehicles are idle 95% of the time, electric vehicle batteries, when connected to a grid, can effectively regulate intermittent photovoltaics using vehicle-to-grid technology. This conceptual study investigates the feasibility of a nationwide energy infrastructure that relies solely on solar energy, replacing other electricity sources, such as solid fuels, petroleum products, and natural gas, and utilizes electric vehicles as the sole battery energy storage system. This study aims to demonstrate the significant potential and benefits of such collaboration. The theoretical study combines historical data, assumptions, and conditions to build a simulation model that is modelled similarly as in previous conceptual studies of nationwide energy systems based solely on photovoltaics and electric vehicles, referenced in this article. In Slovenia, the total surface size suitable for the installation of photovoltaic systems is estimated to be 280 km2. The calculations show that a surface size of 217 km2 for photovoltaic systems can produce enough energy to cover Slovenia’s entire energy demand, Slovenia’s final energy consumption. However, simulations comparing photovoltaic production, total energy consumption (electricity, solid fuels, etc.), and the capacity of electric vehicle batteries show that a surface size of more than 500 km2 with photovoltaic systems and a 200% share of electric vehicles in the Slovenian vehicle fleet in 2022 will provide satisfactory results. Therefore, for a country like Slovenia, in addition to a solar power plant with a surface size of 280 km2, additional renewable energy sources are needed to cover the total energy demand, as well as additional battery energy storage systems in addition to electric vehicles. Full article
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28 pages, 1975 KiB  
Article
Regulatory Challenges in the Electromobility Sector: An Analysis of Electric Buses in Brazil
by Rodrigo Antonio Sbardeloto Kraemer, Paula Zenni Lodetti, Alisson Carlos da Silva, Beatriz Batista Cardoso, Ivangelo Vicente, Marcos Aurelio Izumida Martins, Adriano de Paula Simões and Newmar Spader
Energies 2023, 16(8), 3510; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16083510 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1786
Abstract
In recent years, fleet electrification has become a viable alternative for reducing carbon emissions through laws and government incentives around the world. Not only that, such incentives have favored the development of new technologies for the sector that have resulted in the reduction [...] Read more.
In recent years, fleet electrification has become a viable alternative for reducing carbon emissions through laws and government incentives around the world. Not only that, such incentives have favored the development of new technologies for the sector that have resulted in the reduction of the manufacturing cost of electric vehicles, which in turn, enabled new business models favoring the evolution of the electromobility sector. However, Brazil has also shown itself to be a market on the rise. However, electromobility in Brazil is still at an early stage of development when compared to other countries. In this sense, this paper sought to present the current state of the Brazilian sector through existing laws, regulations and incentives. In addition, it discusses and proposes alternatives for the development and maturation of the sector. Finally, technical aspects related to the standardization of communication protocols and charger installations are also presented. Full article
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22 pages, 744 KiB  
Article
Identifying Promising Technologies of Electric Vehicles from the Perspective of Market and Technical Attributes
by Lijie Feng, Kehui Liu, Jinfeng Wang, Kuo-Yi Lin, Ke Zhang and Luyao Zhang
Energies 2022, 15(20), 7617; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15207617 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
The vigorous development of electric vehicles (EVs) can promote the green and low-carbon development of society and the environment. However, the research and development of EVs technology in China started late, and there are some problems such as relatively backward technology. In order [...] Read more.
The vigorous development of electric vehicles (EVs) can promote the green and low-carbon development of society and the environment. However, the research and development of EVs technology in China started late, and there are some problems such as relatively backward technology. In order to promote the decarbonization process of transportation systems, there is an urgent need for appropriate methods to identify promising technologies in the EVs field to guide the efficient development of innovation activities. This study proposes a novel approach to integrate the perspective of market and technical attributes to identify promising EVs technologies. Firstly, text mining tools are applied to extract review and technical keywords from online reviews and patents, and technical topics are summarized. Secondly, sentiment analysis is conducted to calculate user satisfaction based on online reviews, and then market demand of technical topics is obtained. Thirdly, social network centrality analysis, DEA–Malmquist model, and CRITIC method are employed to obtain technical features of technical topics based on patents. Finally, a portfolio map is constructed to analyze technical topics and identify promising EVs technologies. As the main driving force for the development and transformation of the automotive industry, the efficient identification of promising technologies in this field can provide strategic decision support for the development of EVs. This study aims to provide objective data and scientific guidance for related enterprises to carry out technological innovation activities. Full article
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25 pages, 2363 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Selected Factors Influencing the Purchase of Electric Vehicles—A Case Study of the Republic of Croatia
by Maja Mutavdžija, Matija Kovačić and Krešimir Buntak
Energies 2022, 15(16), 5987; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15165987 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2127
Abstract
The use of electric vehicles and their adoption have become imperative due to the policies and goals to reduce harmful emissions emitted by fossil fuel vehicles. The adoption and acceptance of electric vehicles by the public may be determined by several factors, such [...] Read more.
The use of electric vehicles and their adoption have become imperative due to the policies and goals to reduce harmful emissions emitted by fossil fuel vehicles. The adoption and acceptance of electric vehicles by the public may be determined by several factors, such as the price of the vehicles, the environmental and political costs of vehicle production, infrastructure availability, etc. However, given the diverse context of each country, different factors may have a different impact on customer attitudes. According to that fact, the purpose of this research is to identify which factors influence attitudes towards the purchase of electric vehicles in the Republic of Croatia. In order to identify those factors, this paper is based on a survey in which 578 randomly selected respondents took part. The research was conducted between 1 October 2021 and 1 May 2022. The obtained research results were analyzed using linear regression, i.e., moderation analysis. The results indicated that the most significant factors influencing attitudes towards the purchase of electric cars are difficulties in servicing, the cost of battery replacement, lack of charging infrastructure, and the reduced impact on environmental pollution. The basic conclusion of this research is that it is necessary to invest more in the development of infrastructure that supports the use of electric vehicles and in the development of electric vehicles themselves and their characteristics. Full article
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17 pages, 1366 KiB  
Article
Policy Instruments for the Improvement of Customers’ Willingness to Purchase Electric Vehicles: A Case Study in Iran
by Elham Allahmoradi, Saeed Mirzamohammadi, Ali Bonyadi Naeini, Ali Maleki, Saleh Mobayen and Paweł Skruch
Energies 2022, 15(12), 4269; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15124269 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2958
Abstract
Given the various advantages of electric vehicles compared to conventional gasoline vehicles in terms of energy efficiency and environmental pollution (among others), this paper studies the factors affecting customers’ willingness to purchase electric vehicles. An integrated discrete choice and agent-based approach is applied [...] Read more.
Given the various advantages of electric vehicles compared to conventional gasoline vehicles in terms of energy efficiency and environmental pollution (among others), this paper studies the factors affecting customers’ willingness to purchase electric vehicles. An integrated discrete choice and agent-based approach is applied to model the customers’ choice for the valuation of electric vehicles based on the internal reference price. The agent-based model evaluates customers’ preferences for a number of personal and vehicle attributes, according to which vehicle they chose. Data from 376 respondents are collected to estimate a random-parameter logit model where customers are asked to reveal their preferences about five attributes of electric vehicles, including travel range, top speed, charge cost, government incentives, and price. The role of social networks of customers and their threshold purchase price is also examined in the agent-based model. The scenario simulation results indicate that the allocation of government incentives for electric vehicles, decreasing electric vehicle/non-electric vehicle price gap, expanding electric vehicle travel range, increasing gasoline prices, and enhancing electric vehicle top speed stimulate electric vehicle market shares, respectively. Full article
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17 pages, 2038 KiB  
Article
Feature Selection in Energy Consumption of Solar Catamaran INER 1 on Galapagos Island
by Marcelo Moya, Javier Martínez-Gómez, Esteban Urresta and Martín Cordovez-Dammer
Energies 2022, 15(8), 2761; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082761 - 9 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2006
Abstract
Maritime passenger transport in the Galapagos Islands–Itabaca Channel is based on boats with combustion engines that consume an annual average of 4200 gallons of fuel and produce about 38 tons of CO2 per year. The operation of the solar catamaran “INER 1” [...] Read more.
Maritime passenger transport in the Galapagos Islands–Itabaca Channel is based on boats with combustion engines that consume an annual average of 4200 gallons of fuel and produce about 38 tons of CO2 per year. The operation of the solar catamaran “INER 1” electric propulsion (PV) is a renewable and sustainable model for passenger shipping in the Galapagos Islands. In this regard, the detailed study of the relationship between the variability of solar radiation, the abrupt change of tides due to changes in wind speed and direction, and the increase in tourists, according to dry and wet seasons, cause high energy consumption. The boats must absorb energy from the electrical grid of the islands; this energy is from renewable (solar and wind) and, mostly, of fossil origin so identifying the source of the energy absorbed by the boats is essential. The aim of this study was to select the most influential attributes in the operation of the solar catamaran “INER 1” in the Galapagos Islands. The methodology for knowledge discovery in the databases was determined by selecting attributes that combine environmental, social, and energy variables affecting the energy performance of the solar catamaran. The energy consumption of the boats features a direct relationship with the attributes defined in this research as: (1) Energ (energy used), (2) Tur (tourists and residents), (3) Fotov (PV park), (4) Glrad (global radiation), (5) date (date and time), (6) Term9 (thermo-electric 9). Considering the six best attributes filtered by the proposed algorithms, 4.95% in the mean squared error parameter and a 98.94% accuracy in the classification and prediction of the energy consumed by boats were obtained. Full article
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18 pages, 1847 KiB  
Article
Virtual Sensor Using a Super Twisting Algorithm Based Uniform Robust Exact Differentiator for Electric Vehicles
by Hassam Muazzam, Mohamad Khairi Ishak, Athar Hanif, Ali Arshad Uppal, AI Bhatti and Nor Ashidi Mat Isa
Energies 2022, 15(5), 1773; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15051773 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
The highly efficient Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM) is ubiquitous choice in Electric Vehicles (EVs) for today’s automotive industry. IPMSM control requires accurate knowledge of an immeasurable critical Permanent Magnet (PM) flux linkage parameter. The PM flux linkage is highly influenced by [...] Read more.
The highly efficient Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM) is ubiquitous choice in Electric Vehicles (EVs) for today’s automotive industry. IPMSM control requires accurate knowledge of an immeasurable critical Permanent Magnet (PM) flux linkage parameter. The PM flux linkage is highly influenced by operating temperature which results in torque derating and hence power loss, unable to meet road loads and reduced life span of electrified powertrain in EVs. In this paper, novel virtual sensing scheme for estimating PM flux linkage through measured stator currents is designed for an IPMSM centric electrified powertrain. The proposed design is based on a Uniform Robust Exact Differentiator (URED) centric Super Twisting Algorithm (STA), which ensures robustness and finite-time convergence of the time derivative of the quadrature axis stator current of IPMSM. Moreover, URED is able to eliminate chattering without sacrificing robustness and precision. The proposed design detects variation in PM flux linkage due to change in operating temperature and hence is also able to establish characteristics of fault detection. The effectiveness and accuracy in different operating environments of the proposed scheme for nonlinear mathematical IPMSM model with complex EV dynamics are verified thorough extensive simulation experiments using MATLAB/Simulink. Full article
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18 pages, 8561 KiB  
Article
Possibility to Use Professional Bicycle Computers for the Scientific Evaluation of Electric Bikes: Trajectory, Distance, and Slope Data
by Tomasz Matyja, Andrzej Kubik and Zbigniew Stanik
Energies 2022, 15(3), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030758 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2267
Abstract
This work presents an analysis of data recorded by a bicycle computer paired with typical measurement sensors in order to determine whether the data can be useful for a scientific evaluation of the cyclist–electric bicycle anthropotechnical system. There are no studies on this [...] Read more.
This work presents an analysis of data recorded by a bicycle computer paired with typical measurement sensors in order to determine whether the data can be useful for a scientific evaluation of the cyclist–electric bicycle anthropotechnical system. There are no studies on this subject in the available literature. An attempt was made to estimate the quality of data and define the most effective methods of processing and filtering. The imperfections of the measurement system and the potential directions of the development of bicycle computers are indicated. Particular attention has been given to the data needed to compare the energy efficiency of assisted electric bicycles. However, the results of the analyses can also be used in cyclist endurance tests and to simulate routes in various types of bicycle trainers. The article focuses on the data obtained from the GPS module and the barometric altimeter, which make it possible to estimate the trajectory of movement, the distance traveled, and the height of the route above sea level as well as its slope. In order to assess the accuracy, the data from the bicycle computer was compared with the geodetic data. Methods for averaging GPS routes were also proposed. In this way, it was possible to identify the parameters of the selected path for testing bicycles quite accurately. The research presented in this paper is an introduction to the development of methods for assessing the energy efficiency of electric bicycles. Analyses of other data measured by the cycling computer, such as speed, cadence, and power, will be carried out in the second planned part of the article. Full article
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Review

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24 pages, 6212 KiB  
Review
Comparative Review of Motor Technologies for Electric Vehicles Powered by a Hybrid Energy Storage System Based on Multi-Criteria Analysis
by Dimitrios Rimpas, Stavrοs D. Kaminaris, Dimitrios D. Piromalis, George Vokas, Konstantinos G. Arvanitis and Christos-Spyridon Karavas
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2555; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062555 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4334
Abstract
The modern era of green transportation based on Industry 4.0 is leading the automotive industry to focus on the electrification of all vehicles. This trend is affected by the massive advantages offered by electric vehicles (EV), such as pollution-free, economical and low-maintenance cost [...] Read more.
The modern era of green transportation based on Industry 4.0 is leading the automotive industry to focus on the electrification of all vehicles. This trend is affected by the massive advantages offered by electric vehicles (EV), such as pollution-free, economical and low-maintenance cost operation. The heart of this system is the electric motor powered by lithium-ion batteries; however, due to their many limitations, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of batteries and ultracapacitors is currently gaining increased attention. This paper aims to review the distinct motor technologies such as brushless motors, synchronous reluctance and induction motors currently used in EVs. Additionally, through eleven selected criteria, such as regenerative braking efficiency and power density at different load ranges, the motors are classified in terms of their combined ability to operate with a HESS in order to maximize efficiency and sizing. The results show that permanent magnet and induction motors are the best options when all criteria are considered, while synchronous reluctance motor outperforms the induction motor regarding only the main factors affecting the performance of the hybrid storage system. Full article
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34 pages, 3846 KiB  
Review
Evolution of Equipment in Electromobility and Autonomous Driving Regarding Safety Issues
by Christodoulos Katis and Athanasios Karlis
Energies 2023, 16(3), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031271 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2297
Abstract
Over the years, an increase in the traffic of electric and hybrid electric vehicles and vehicles with hydrogen cells is being observed, while at the same time, self-driving cars are appearing as a modern trend in transportation. As the years pass, their equipment [...] Read more.
Over the years, an increase in the traffic of electric and hybrid electric vehicles and vehicles with hydrogen cells is being observed, while at the same time, self-driving cars are appearing as a modern trend in transportation. As the years pass, their equipment will evolve. So, considering the progress in vehicle equipment over the years, additional technological innovations and applications should be proposed in the near future. Having that in mind, an analytical review of the progress of equipment in electromobility and autonomous driving is performed in this paper. The outcomes of this review comprise hints for additional complementary technological innovations, applications, and operating constraints along with proposals for materials, suggestions and tips for the future. The aforementioned hints and tips aim to help in securing proper operation of each vehicle part and charging equipment in the future, and make driving safer in the future. Finally, this review paper concludes with a discussion and bibliographic references. Full article
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Other

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13 pages, 1579 KiB  
Perspective
Outlook of Lithium-Ion Battery Regulations and Procedures to Improve Cell Degradation Detection and Other Alternatives
by Maria Cortada-Torbellino, Abdelali El Aroudi and Hugo Valderrama-Blavi
Energies 2023, 16(5), 2458; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16052458 - 4 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1769
Abstract
This article constitutes a relatively new perspective that has emerged from the need to reduce environmental pollution from internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) by reinforcing the fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) on the road. Future requirements to exclusively use zero-emission vehicles have resulted [...] Read more.
This article constitutes a relatively new perspective that has emerged from the need to reduce environmental pollution from internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) by reinforcing the fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) on the road. Future requirements to exclusively use zero-emission vehicles have resulted in the necessity of enhancing the testing and monitoring process for EVs in order to release reliable devices. The unpredictable response of lithium-ion batteries (LIBS), future lack of raw materials, and inconsistencies in the present regulations must be reviewed and understood in order to develop enhanced batteries. This article aims to outline the future perspective of nonconventional vehicles monopolizing the roads by year 2035 in order to eradicate CO2 emissions by year 2050. Full article
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