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CO2 Capture and Renewable Energy

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "B3: Carbon Emission and Utilization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 34632

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Special Issue Editors

Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología del Carbono, INCAR-CSIC, Calle Francisco Pintado Fe 26, 33011 Oviedo, Spain
Interests: CO2 capture; adsorption; biomass; energy
LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, NOVA University Lisbon, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
Interests: separation processes; process intensification; adsorption; CO2 capture; biogas upgrading
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The rapid and global development of an energy sector based on renewables and green sources is critical for its decarbonization in a climate-friendly scenario. Nevertheless, CO2 capture and storage (CCS) remains necessary for abating CO2 emissions from operating fossil fuel-fired power stations and from many industrial sources that are hard or impossible to decarbonize otherwise. Furthermore, CO2 removal technologies, such as bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) and direct air capture (DAC), will also be necessary to reduce the high atmospheric concentration of CO2, if the ambitious climate goals established in the Paris Agreement are to be met. CO2 utilization (CU), in combination with renewable energy, is also foreseen to contribute to displace fossil fuels in a carbon-neutral scenario.

This Special Issue provides an overview of the recent advances in the referred topics and contributes to the climate agenda through the dissemination of enhanced scientific and multidisciplinary knowledge by bringing focus on the decarbonization of the economy in order to meet environmental goals. We therefore invite the submission of papers on innovative technical developments, reviews, case studies, analytical studies, as well as assessment papers from different disciplines, which are relevant to CCS, BECCS, DAC, CU, and a combination of these with renewable energy production.

Dr. Marta González Plaza
Dr. Rui P. P. L. Ribeiro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • CO2 capture and storage (CCS)
  • bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)
  • direct air capture (DAC)
  • CO2 utilization (CU)
  • renewable energy

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 175 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “CO2 Capture and Renewable Energy”
Energies 2022, 15(14), 5187; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15145187 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 925
Abstract
This book contains the successful submissions [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Capture and Renewable Energy)

Research

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8 pages, 848 KiB  
Communication
CO2 Capture by Virgin Ivy Plants Growing Up on the External Covers of Houses as a Rapid Complementary Route to Achieve Global GHG Reduction Targets
Energies 2022, 15(5), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15051683 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 2612
Abstract
Global CO2 concentration level in the air is unprecedently high and should be rapidly and significantly reduced to avoid a global climate catastrophe. The work indicates the possibility of quickly lowering the impact of changes that have already happened and those we [...] Read more.
Global CO2 concentration level in the air is unprecedently high and should be rapidly and significantly reduced to avoid a global climate catastrophe. The work indicates the possibility of quickly lowering the impact of changes that have already happened and those we know will happen, especially in terms of the CO2 emitted and stored in the atmosphere, by implanting a virgin ivy plant on the available area of walls and roofs of the houses. The proposed concept of reducing CO2 from the atmosphere is one of the technologies with significant potential for implementation entirely and successfully. For the first time, we showed that the proposed concept allows over 3.5 billion tons of CO2 to be captured annually directly from the atmosphere, which makes even up 6.9% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The value constitutes enough high CO2 reduction to consider the concept as one of the applicable technologies allowing to decelerate global warming. Additional advantages of the presented concept are its global nature, it allows for the reduction of CO2 from all emission sources, regardless of its type and location on earth, and the fact that it will simultaneously lower the air temperature, contribute to oxygen production, and reduce dust in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Capture and Renewable Energy)
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16 pages, 3598 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Nitrogen on Zn(dcpa) Metal-Organic Framework
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5598; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185598 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2269
Abstract
Adsorption-based processes using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a promising option for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from flue gases and biogas upgrading to biomethane. Here, the adsorption of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrogen (N2) on Zn(dcpa) [...] Read more.
Adsorption-based processes using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a promising option for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from flue gases and biogas upgrading to biomethane. Here, the adsorption of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrogen (N2) on Zn(dcpa) MOF (dcpa (2,6-dichlorophenylacetate)) is reported. The characterization of the MOF by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and N2 physisorption at 77 K shows that it is stable up to 650 K, and confirms previous observations suggesting framework flexibility upon exposure to guest molecules. The adsorption equilibrium isotherms of the pure components (CO2, CH4, and N2), measured at 273–323 K, and up to 35 bar, are Langmuirian, except for that of CO2 at 273 K, which exhibits a stepwise shape with hysteresis. The latter is accurately interpreted in terms of the osmotic thermodynamic theory, with further refinement by assuming that the free energy difference between the two metastable structures of Zn(dcpa) is a normally distributed variable due to the existence of different crystal sizes and defects in a real sample. The ideal selectivities of the equimolar mixtures of CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 at 1 bar and 303 K are 12.8 and 2.9, respectively, which are large enough for Zn(dcpa) to be usable in pressure swing adsorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Capture and Renewable Energy)
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15 pages, 3567 KiB  
Article
Extrusion and Characterization of High Si/Al Ratio ZSM-5 Using Silica Binder
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051201 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2538
Abstract
Biogas upgrading is a key operation for transforming raw biogas into valuable biomethane that can be used as fuel or transported through pipelines. Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is one possible technique that can be used for upgrading. ZSM-5 with high silica/aluminum (Si/Al) ratio [...] Read more.
Biogas upgrading is a key operation for transforming raw biogas into valuable biomethane that can be used as fuel or transported through pipelines. Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is one possible technique that can be used for upgrading. ZSM-5 with high silica/aluminum (Si/Al) ratio has a reasonable CO2/CH4 selectivity and an almost linear CO2 adsorption isotherm, which can reduce power consumption. Extrusion of zeolites uses Al-based binders which can result in a denaturation and in a decrease of Si/Al ratio, promoting a steeper CO2 isotherm and also impacting the water adsorption. In this work, we have extruded a ZSM-5 (with a Si/Al = 200) using only silica-based binder. Different samples were obtained using different extrusion paste compositions and operating conditions and their textural properties characterized. The mechanical strength of the samples as well as the CO2, CH4, and H2O adsorption equilibrium isotherms at 303–343 K were measured. Our results show that it is possible to produce extrudates with mechanical resistance comparable to (or higher than) commercial zeolite materials with surface area reductions lower than 10% and little or no impact on the CO2/CH4 selectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Capture and Renewable Energy)
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Review

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30 pages, 3083 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Small-Scale Carbon Capture Systems for Micro-Combined Heat and Power Applications
Energies 2022, 15(8), 2938; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082938 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3377
Abstract
To restrict global warming and relieve climate change, the world economy requires to decarbonize and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to net-zero by mid-century. Carbon capture and storage (CCS), and carbon capture and utilization (CCU), by which CO2 emissions are [...] Read more.
To restrict global warming and relieve climate change, the world economy requires to decarbonize and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to net-zero by mid-century. Carbon capture and storage (CCS), and carbon capture and utilization (CCU), by which CO2 emissions are captured from sources such as fossil power generation and combustion processes, and further either reused or stored, are recognized worldwide as key technologies for global warming mitigation. This paper provides a review of the latest published literature on small-scale carbon capture (CC) systems as applied in micro combined heat and power cogeneration systems for use in buildings. Previous studies have investigated a variety of small- or micro-scale combined heat and power configurations defined by their prime mover for CC integration. These include the micro gas turbine, the hybrid micro gas turbine and solid-state fuel cell system, and the biomass-fired organic Rankine cycle, all of which have been coupled with a post-combustion, amine-based absorption plant. After these configurations are defined, their performance is discussed. Considerations for optimizing the overall system parameters are identified using the same sources. The paper considers optimization of modifications to the micro gas turbine cycles with exhaust gas recirculation, humidification, and more advanced energy integration for optimal use of waste heat. Related investigations are based largely on numerical studies, with some preliminary experimental work undertaken on the Turbec T100 micro gas turbine. A brief survey is presented of some additional topics, including storage and utilization options, commercially available CC technologies, and direct atmospheric capture. Based on the available literature, it was found that carbon capture for small-scale systems introduces a large energy penalty due to the low concentration of CO2 in exhaust gases. Further development is required to decrease the energy loss from CC for economic feasibility on a small scale. For the micro gas turbine, exhaust gas recirculation, selective gas recirculation, and humidification were shown to improve overall system economic performance and efficiency. However, the highest global efficiencies were achieved by leveraging turbine exhaust waste heat to reduce the thermal energy requirement for solvent regeneration in the CC plant during low- or zero-heating loads. It was shown that although humidification cycles improved micro gas turbine cycle efficiencies, this may not be the best option to improve global efficiency if turbine waste heat is properly leveraged based on heating demands. The biomass-organic Rankine cycle and hybrid micro gas turbine, and solid-state fuel cell systems with CC, are in early developmental stages and require more research to assess their feasibility. However, the hybrid micro gas turbine and solid-state fuel cell energy system with CC was shown numerically to reach high global efficiency (51.4% LHV). It was also shown that the biomass-fired organic Rankine cycle system could result in negative emissions when coupled with a CC plant. In terms of costs, it was found that utilization through enhanced oil recovery was a promising strategy to offset the cost of carbon capture. Direct atmospheric capture was determined to be less economically feasible than capture from concentrated point sources; however, it has the benefit of negative carbon emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Capture and Renewable Energy)
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26 pages, 30910 KiB  
Review
Current Developments of Carbon Capture Storage and/or Utilization–Looking for Net-Zero Emissions Defined in the Paris Agreement
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2406; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092406 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 7555
Abstract
An essential line of worldwide research towards a sustainable energy future is the materials and processes for carbon dioxide capture and storage. Energy from fossil fuels combustion always generates carbon dioxide, leading to a considerable environmental concern with the values of CO2 [...] Read more.
An essential line of worldwide research towards a sustainable energy future is the materials and processes for carbon dioxide capture and storage. Energy from fossil fuels combustion always generates carbon dioxide, leading to a considerable environmental concern with the values of CO2 produced in the world. The increase in emissions leads to a significant challenge in reducing the quantity of this gas in the atmosphere. Many research areas are involved solving this problem, such as process engineering, materials science, chemistry, waste management, and politics and public engagement. To decrease this problem, green and efficient solutions have been extensively studied, such as Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS) processes. In 2015, the Paris Agreement was established, wherein the global temperature increase limit of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels was defined as maximum. To achieve this goal, a global balance between anthropogenic emissions and capture of greenhouse gases in the second half of the 21st century is imperative, i.e., net-zero emissions. Several projects and strategies have been implemented in the existing systems and facilities for greenhouse gas reduction, and new processes have been studied. This review starts with the current data of CO2 emissions to understand the need for drastic reduction. After that, the study reviews the recent progress of CCUS facilities and the implementation of climate-positive solutions, such as Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage and Direct Air Capture. Future changes in industrial processes are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Capture and Renewable Energy)
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28 pages, 9794 KiB  
Review
CO2 Capture, Use, and Storage in the Cement Industry: State of the Art and Expectations
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5692; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215692 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 97 | Viewed by 14094
Abstract
The implementation of carbon capture, use, and storage in the cement industry is a necessity, not an option, if the climate targets are to be met. Although no capture technology has reached commercial scale demonstration in the cement sector yet, much progress has [...] Read more.
The implementation of carbon capture, use, and storage in the cement industry is a necessity, not an option, if the climate targets are to be met. Although no capture technology has reached commercial scale demonstration in the cement sector yet, much progress has been made in the last decade. This work intends to provide a general overview of the CO2 capture technologies that have been evaluated so far in the cement industry at the pilot scale, and also about the current plans for future commercial demonstration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Capture and Renewable Energy)
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