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Electric Vehicles for Smart Cities: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "E: Electric Vehicles".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2024 | Viewed by 2723

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Division of Transportation Systems Engineering and Logistics, Faculty of Transport, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: transport; modeling of transportation processes and systems; multi-criteria decision support; transport ecology; risk management; artificial intelligence; simulation models; optimization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Division of Transportation Systems Engineering and Logistics, Faculty of Transport, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: transport; transportation planning; logistics; optimization algorithms; artificial intelligence; mathematical modeling; operations research; public transport

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Transportation Systems Engineering and Logistics, Faculty of Transport, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: modeling of transport systems and processes; public transport; electric vehicles; fleet management and mobility
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The idea of a smart city assumes the use of modern information and communication technologies to maximize the quality of life and functioning of the city. Solutions for its implementation include, among others: organization of traffic, urban infrastructure, energy, environment, health, etc. An important area of activities is also the use of ecological means of transport. Currently, the transition from conventionally powered vehicles to electric vehicles is currently an irreversible trend in many countries around the world. This involves difficult challenges related to the need to provide an appropriate infrastructure and adopt a rational strategy of action.

Electric vehicles include not only cars, buses, trolleybuses, and trams but also other vehicles powered by electricity, including railways, e-scooters, and e-bikes. In smart cities, these systems should be integrated in terms of infrastructure and transport organization.

This Special Issue aims to present and disseminate the most recent advances related to the functioning of electric vehicles in Smart Cities.

Both original research and review works are welcome for submission. Topics of interest for publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Parameters of electric vehicles in terms of energy management;
  • Location of charging stations and their use in Smart Cities;
  • Energy efficiency of electric vehicles;
  • IT systems supporting the operation of electric vehicles;
  • Modern technologies used in the equipment and charging processes of electric vehicles;
  • Transport policy versus the implementation of electric vehicles in Smart Cities;
  • Use of renewable energy sources to power electric vehicles;
  • Fleet conversion processes in smart cities;
  • Economic and ecological aspects related to electric vehicles;
  • Methods of decision support in the problems of operating electric vehicles;
  • Electric autonomous and shared vehicles in Smart Cities;
  • Electric vehicles versus traffic safety;
  • Risk management aspects related to electric vehicles;
  • Modern technologies used in managing a fleet of electric vehicles;
  • Infrastructure development scenarios for servicing electric vehicles;
  • Energy efficiency in the area of green mobility in Smart Cities.

Prof. Dr. Marianna Jacyna
Dr. Mariusz Izdebski
Prof. Dr. Emilian Szczepański
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electric vehicles
  • smart cities
  • energy efficiency
  • support decision making
  • risk management
  • transport ecology
  • fleet conversion processes
  • electric vehicles

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 5047 KiB  
Article
Minimisation of the Energy Expenditure of Electric Vehicles in Municipal Service Companies, Taking into Account the Uncertainty of Charging Point Operation
by Mariusz Izdebski, Marianna Jacyna and Jerzy Bogdański
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2179; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092179 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 310
Abstract
This article presents an original method for minimising the energy expenditure of electric vehicles used in municipal service undertakings, taking into account the uncertainty in the functioning of their charging points. The uncertainty of the charging points’ operation was presented as the probability [...] Read more.
This article presents an original method for minimising the energy expenditure of electric vehicles used in municipal service undertakings, taking into account the uncertainty in the functioning of their charging points. The uncertainty of the charging points’ operation was presented as the probability of the occurrence of an emergency situation hindering a point’s operation, e.g., a breakdown or lack of energy supply. The problem is how to calculate the driving routes of electric vehicles so that they will arrive at charging points at times at which there is a minimal probability of breakdowns. The second aspect of this problem to be solved is that the designated routes are supposed to ensure the minimum energy expenditure that is needed for the vehicles to complete the tasks assigned. The developed method is based on two heuristic algorithms, i.e., the ant algorithm and genetic algorithms. These algorithms work in a hybrid combination, i.e., the ant algorithm generates the initial population for the genetic algorithm. An important element of this method is the decision-making model for defining the driving routes of electric vehicles with various restrictions, e.g., their battery capacity or the permissible risk of charging point breakdown along the routes of the vehicles. The criterion function of the model was defined as the minimisation of the energy expenditure needed by the vehicles to perform their transport tasks. The method was verified against real-life data, and its effectiveness was confirmed. The authors presented a method of calibrating the developed optimisation algorithms. Theoretical distributions of the probability of charging point failure were determined based on the Statistica 13 program, while a graphical implementation of the method was carried out using the PTV Visum 23 software. Full article
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23 pages, 7716 KiB  
Article
Design of Three Electric Vehicle Charging Tariff Systems to Improve Photovoltaic Self-Consumption
by Garazi Etxegarai, Haritza Camblong, Aitzol Ezeiza and Tek Tjing Lie
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1806; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081806 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs) are emerging as one of the pillars for achieving climate neutrality. They represent both a threat and an opportunity for the operation of the network. Used as flexible loads, they can favor the self-consumption of photovoltaic (PV) energy. This paper [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are emerging as one of the pillars for achieving climate neutrality. They represent both a threat and an opportunity for the operation of the network. Used as flexible loads, they can favor the self-consumption of photovoltaic (PV) energy. This paper presents three EV charging tariff systems (TSs) based on the self-consumption of excess PV energy. The TS objectives are to increase the self-consumption rate (SCR) and thus indirectly decrease the charging cost of the EV users. Two of the proposed TSs correspond to an indirect control of EV charging. The third TS is a hybrid system where the charging power is controlled. The TS is designed using a series of rules that consider the momentary PV surplus and the charging power of each EV. The influence of the TS is simulated by considering real data from a PV collective self-consumption project in the Basque Country (Spain). The TS simulations performed with 6 months of data show a 13.1% increase in the SCR when applying the third TS, reaching an average of 93.09% for the SCR. In addition, the cost of EV charging is reduced by 25%. Full article
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24 pages, 3448 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Overhead Crane Energy Consumption Using Different Container Loading Strategies in Urban Logistics Hubs
by Michał Kłodawski, Roland Jachimowski and Norbert Chamier-Gliszczyński
Energies 2024, 17(5), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17050985 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 663
Abstract
This study addresses the critical gap in the literature regarding the energy efficiency of intermodal terminals in smart cities, mainly focusing on crane operations during train loading processes. Novelty’s contribution lies in developing a comprehensive simulation model in FlexSim, where quantitative analysis of [...] Read more.
This study addresses the critical gap in the literature regarding the energy efficiency of intermodal terminals in smart cities, mainly focusing on crane operations during train loading processes. Novelty’s contribution lies in developing a comprehensive simulation model in FlexSim, where quantitative analysis of crane energy consumption, factoring in container location in the storage yard, rehandling operations, and crane movement strategies were performed. Moreover, the analysis of hoist, trolley, and gantry movements was performed to evaluate their impact on overall container loading process energy efficiency. The findings reveal that the choice of train loading method significantly influences crane energy consumption, thereby affecting the operational costs, environmental footprint, and energy efficiency of the logistics hub in the form of an intermodal terminal. This research provides a methodology for assessing and enhancing the energy efficiency of intermodal terminals and highlights the broader implications for smart city sustainability goals, including reduced greenhouse gas emissions, lower operating costs, and improved transportation infrastructure. The outcomes of this research can possibly support smart city planners and logistics managers in making informed decisions to optimise intermodal terminal operations, contributing to urban areas’ sustainable development and economic resilience. Full article
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24 pages, 6298 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Priority in Coordinated Traffic Lights on Tram Energy Consumption
by Anna Górka, Andrzej Czerepicki and Tomasz Krukowicz
Energies 2024, 17(2), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17020520 - 21 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 755
Abstract
Traffic signal priority issues have been a research subject for several decades in Poland and worldwide. Traffic control algorithms have evolved considerably during this period and have become increasingly advanced. Most of them operate within coordinated street sequences, which adds to their complexity. [...] Read more.
Traffic signal priority issues have been a research subject for several decades in Poland and worldwide. Traffic control algorithms have evolved considerably during this period and have become increasingly advanced. Most of them operate within coordinated street sequences, which adds to their complexity. Tramway priority affects traffic conditions for other road users, so many aspects must be taken into account when choosing a priority solution. Typically, one of the main criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of priority is reducing travel time for the priority vehicle while ensuring that the travel times of other traffic participants through the intersection are maintained or slightly deteriorated. However, the energy aspects are often overlooked. This publication aims to investigate how local priority for tramways in traffic signals of coordinated streets affects energy consumption for tramway traction needs. The study was conducted using a microscopic modeling method with PTV Vissim software (ver. 2021). The models were built for coordinated sequences with different levels of priority. Real traffic control algorithms with priority were implemented into the model on the sequence of Marymoncka Street and Grochowska Street in Warsaw. Then, by introducing changes to the parameters of the algorithms, their effect on traffic characteristics, including estimated power consumption, was studied. The results obtained from the computer simulation were statistically processed using R software (ver. 4.3.2). The analysis results prove the effectiveness of tramway priority operation, show its impact on electricity consumption, and allow us to determine the limits of its effective application. Thus, they complement the knowledge of the impact of tramway priority on traffic. The research results also have practical value, as they help us to make rational decisions in the process of designing traffic control algorithms at intersections with a multi-criteria approach. Full article
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