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Simulation Modelling and Analysis of a Renewable Energy System, Volume II

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A: Sustainable Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 5246

Special Issue Editors

Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Dongguk University-Seoul, Seoul 04620, Republic of Korea
Interests: renewable energy; photovolatics; simulation; optimization; artificial intelligence
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Environmental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Environmental Horticulture, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Republic of Korea
Interests: renewable energy; energy crop; agrophotovoltaic system; simulation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For decades, environmental pollution has threatened the whole of civilization, and energy use generated by fossil fuel is one of the major pollution sources. To mitigate environmental pollution, the identification of renewable energy has received global attention. Currently, multiple renewable energy sources such as biofuel, solar and wind power, and geothermal energy are available. However, it is challenging to implement these renewable energy systems in real-world applications due to heavy implementation costs. Thus, it is crucial to utilize modelling techniques which enable us to predict the performance of a renewable energy system in terms of practicality, energy generation capacity, and monetary benefit. This Special Issue aims to identify multiple techniques of simulation modelling and analysis for renewable energy management.

We are pleased to invite you to submit original research papers and critical review papers to a Special Issue of Energies on the topic “Simulation Modelling and Analysis of a Renewable Energy System”. Any simulation modelling techniques (e.g., discrete event simulation, system dynamics, agent-based simulation, artificial intelligence) for better renewable energy management will be considered in this Special Issue.

Dr. Sojung Kim
Dr. Sumin Kim
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 523 KiB  
Article
Global Energy Transition and the Efficiency of the Largest Oil and Gas Companies
by Sami Jarboui and Hind Alofaysan
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2271; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17102271 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 341
Abstract
The challenges posed by climate change and global warming loom large, necessitating a critical initial step towards the long-term growth and the enhancement of both environmental and operational efficiency. Within the energy sector, renewable energy sources are gaining increasing prominence. Consequently, traditional oil [...] Read more.
The challenges posed by climate change and global warming loom large, necessitating a critical initial step towards the long-term growth and the enhancement of both environmental and operational efficiency. Within the energy sector, renewable energy sources are gaining increasing prominence. Consequently, traditional oil and gas companies (OGC) are undergoing a gradual transformation into comprehensive energy corporations, aligning themselves with energy transition policies. This paper examines two types of efficiency measures—operational and environmental—for the 20 largest OGC during the period of 2010–2019. Secondly, this research aims to explore the effect of the global energy transition on both environmental and operational efficiency. Based on three estimation methods, two estimation steps are used in this research. In the first step, the True Fixed Effect (TFE) model and the Battese and coelli (1995) SFA model are applied to evaluate, measure and compare the environmental and operational efficiency scores. In the second step, the TFE model and GMM approach for the dynamic panel data model are used to explore, evaluate and verify the effect of global energy transition on the environmental and operational efficiency of the largest 20 OGC in the world. The results reveal that the average operational efficiency of major OGC measured using the BC.95 model and TFE model is 66% and 85%, respectively, and the overall average level of environmental efficiency for OGC over a 10-year period is 31% (based to B.C.95 model) and 13% (based to TFE model). Our findings reveal that biofuels, solar and hydropower contribute to promote the operational and environmental efficiency of the largest 20 OGC. However, the analysis suggests that while the global energy transition significantly influences and bolsters environmental efficiency, its effect on operational efficiency among these major OGC remains less pronounced and insufficient. Full article
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13 pages, 2944 KiB  
Communication
Comparative Analysis of Methods for Predicting Brine Temperature in Vertical Ground Heat Exchanger—A Case Study
by Joanna Piotrowska-Woroniak, Krzysztof Nęcka, Tomasz Szul and Stanisław Lis
Energies 2024, 17(6), 1465; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17061465 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 609
Abstract
This research was carried out to compare selected forecasting methods, such as the following: Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Classification and Regression Trees (CARTs), Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID), Fuzzy Logic Toolbox (FUZZY), Multivariant Adaptive Regression Splines (MARSs), Regression Trees (RTs), Rough Set Theory [...] Read more.
This research was carried out to compare selected forecasting methods, such as the following: Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Classification and Regression Trees (CARTs), Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID), Fuzzy Logic Toolbox (FUZZY), Multivariant Adaptive Regression Splines (MARSs), Regression Trees (RTs), Rough Set Theory (RST), and Support Regression Trees (SRTs), in the context of determining the temperature of brine from vertical ground heat exchangers used by a heat pump heating system. The subject of the analysis was a public building located in Poland, in a temperate continental climate zone. The results of this study indicate that the models based on Rough Set Theory (RST) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) achieved the highest accuracy in predicting brine temperature, with the choice of the preferred method depending on the input variables used for modeling. Using three independent variables (mean outdoor air temperature, month of the heating season, mean solar irradiance), Rough Set Theory (RST) was one of the best models, for which the evaluation rates were as follows: CV RMSE 21.6%, MAE 0.3 °C, MAPE 14.3%, MBE 3.1%, and R2 0.96. By including an additional variable (brine flow rate), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) achieved the most accurate predictions. They had the following evaluation rates: CV RMSE 4.6%, MAE 0.05 °C, MAPE 1.7%, MBE 0.4%, and R2 0.99. Full article
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19 pages, 9047 KiB  
Article
Optimal Generation Dispatch in Electrical Microgrids Based on Inertia Markets as a Solution to Frequency Stability
by Luis Cruz, Alexander Águila Téllez and Leony Ortiz
Energies 2023, 16(22), 7500; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16227500 - 9 Nov 2023
Viewed by 820
Abstract
This paper addresses a crucial omission in the traditional approach to solving the classic economic dispatch problem within microgrids featuring renewable energy sources—the often-neglected frequency disturbances arising from reductions in system inertia. To remedy this, we present an innovative economic dispatch model empowered [...] Read more.
This paper addresses a crucial omission in the traditional approach to solving the classic economic dispatch problem within microgrids featuring renewable energy sources—the often-neglected frequency disturbances arising from reductions in system inertia. To remedy this, we present an innovative economic dispatch model empowered by nonlinear optimization (NLP), incorporating stringent minimum inertia constraints essential for ensuring system stability over a 24-h horizon. Our approach involves a comprehensive exploration of the intricate relationship between system inertia and frequency stability, culminating in the seamless integration of these inertia constraints into the economic dispatch model. To validate the practicality of our model, we present two distinct scenarios: a base case representing conventional dispatch methodologies and an alternative case that considers the imposition of inertia restrictions. These scenarios are rigorously tested and implemented using the CICGRE TF C6.04 test system. Employing the powerful GAMS platform alongside the NPL model, we successfully solved the dispatch problem. Our results underscore the significance of maintaining system inertia within the 1.54-s threshold proposed by our model, showcasing a tangible reduction in generation costs as a direct outcome of this enhanced approach to economic dispatch. This research advances the understanding of microgrid management and offers a practical solution to enhance system stability and economic efficiency in renewable-energy-powered microgrids. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 8068 KiB  
Review
Overview of Health and Safety Risks in the Process of Production and Storage of Forest Biomass for Energy Purposes—A Review
by Miloš Gejdoš and Martin Lieskovský
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051064 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 572
Abstract
With increasing demands on the quality and quantity of produced biomass, as the main element of the knowledge-based economy, people and the issue of safety and health protection at work are coming to the fore. The aim of the work is the synthesis [...] Read more.
With increasing demands on the quality and quantity of produced biomass, as the main element of the knowledge-based economy, people and the issue of safety and health protection at work are coming to the fore. The aim of the work is the synthesis and overview of the results of the analysis of the health and safety risks of the production of forest biomass in various production phases, starting with its cultivation, through the harvesting production and transport process, up to the issue of its safe storage until it is used for the production of primary energy. Based on the analyzed overview of the existing risks in the production and storage of biomass, it can be concluded that the largest number of works is dedicated to the technological process of storage and consumption of the produced forms of biomass. Of the risks in this phase, the largest number of works is devoted to the risks of the production of spores of phytopathogens and fungi threatening human health. Further research should be primarily oriented toward creating models and modeling the processes of the emergence of these risk factors and the dynamics of their growth. Full article
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34 pages, 9460 KiB  
Review
Innovative Industrial Solutions for Improving the Technical/Economic Competitiveness of Concentrated Solar Power
by Valeria Palladino, Marialaura Di Somma, Carmine Cancro, Walter Gaggioli, Maurizio De Lucia, Marco D’Auria, Michela Lanchi, Fulvio Bassetti, Carla Bevilacqua, Stefano Cardamone, Francesca Nana, Fabio Maria Montagnino and Giorgio Graditi
Energies 2024, 17(2), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17020360 - 10 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
The modernization, efficiency, and decarbonization of the energy supply systems are among the new challenges to be faced in the coming decades to achieve the targets and objectives dictated by European strategic policies. Despite the countless benefits related to renewable energy sources (RES) [...] Read more.
The modernization, efficiency, and decarbonization of the energy supply systems are among the new challenges to be faced in the coming decades to achieve the targets and objectives dictated by European strategic policies. Despite the countless benefits related to renewable energy sources (RES) integration, this brings key challenges to the power system, such as the risk of imbalance between energy generation and demand, sudden changes in flows in transmission lines with a need for expensive and time-consuming upgrades, and the withdrawal of conventional generation systems with consequent demands for new solutions and innovation to support grid services. A potential solution to limit the huge intermittence and fluctuation in power generation from RES is Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology integrated with thermal energy storage. The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential benefits related to the use of CSP technology by presenting innovative industrial solutions developed in the Italian SOLARGRID Project, namely the hybridization of CSP–PV systems and the solar thermo-electric system developed by MAGALDI, the parabolic trough collector of Eni, and the new linear Fresnel reflector configuration of IDEA S.r.l. These plant and component solutions are developed for improving the technical performance of CSP technology and reducing the levelized cost of electricity, thereby fostering an effective and massive deployment and encouraging the creation of new business models. Full article
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13 pages, 2876 KiB  
Review
Simulation Modeling in Supply Chain Management Research of Ethanol: A Review
by Sojung Kim, Yeona Choi and Sumin Kim
Energies 2023, 16(21), 7429; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16217429 - 3 Nov 2023
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Ethanol, a common renewable energy resource, can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to resolve the problem of global warming worldwide. Various feedstocks such as corn, sugarcane, maize stover, and wheat straw can be utilized for ethanol production. They determine production operations and relevant [...] Read more.
Ethanol, a common renewable energy resource, can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to resolve the problem of global warming worldwide. Various feedstocks such as corn, sugarcane, maize stover, and wheat straw can be utilized for ethanol production. They determine production operations and relevant costs. Although there are monetary incentives and government policies in different countries to increase ethanal use, it is still challenging to make its sales price competitive due to the inefficient supply chain of ethanol. Unlike fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas using a well-designed supply chain in the long history of mankind, additional efforts are needed to organize and stabilize the supply chain of ethanol efficiently. The goal of this study is to investigate how simulation modeling techniques can be applied to various supply chain management issues of ethanol. Particularly, application cases of three major simulation paradigms such as discrete-event simulation, system dynamics, and agent-based simulation are investigated by conducting a scientific literature review. The findings of this study will contribute to the expansion of simulation use in the field of biofuel supply chain management. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Solar Radiation Forecasting: State of Art and Methodological Discussion
Authors: Joanicjusz Nazarko, Ewa Chodakowska, Lukasz Nazarko
Affiliation: Bialystok University of Technology, Poland

Title: Green Hydrogen Energy Systems: A Review on their Contribution to a Renewable Energy System
Authors: Julián Gómez; Rui Castro
Affiliation: INESC-ID/IST, University of Lisbon
Abstract: Accelerating the transition to a cleaner global energy system is crucial for addressing the climate crisis, and green hydrogen energy systems have shown promise in integrating renewable energy sources. This paper provides a comprehensive assessment of green hydrogen’s potential as an innovative alternative for achieving near-zero GreenHouse Gas (GHG) emissions in a renewable energy system. The paper analyzes the current technology available and evaluates the industry’s current status and future challenges. An economic assessment is also included to determine the feasibility of green hydrogen integration. The results suggest that green hydrogen could play a significant role in reducing GHG emissions, particularly in sectors that are difficult to decarbonize. However, there are still challenges that need to be addressed for green hydrogen to become a cost-competitive alternative. One of these challenges is the need for further technological advancements and the implementation of hydrogen policies to achieve cost reductions in electrolysers, which are critical components in the production of green hydrogen. Addressing these challenges will be crucial for realizing the full potential of green hydrogen in the transition towards a more sustainable energy system.

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