Editor’s Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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14 pages, 2221 KiB  
Review
Looking at Diabetes-Related Distress through a New Lens: The Socio-Ecological Health Model
by Neeka Farnoudi, Mimi Lyang, Kees Vanderwyk, Sarah Vreeburg and Clipper Young
Endocrines 2022, 3(4), 775-788; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines3040064 - 6 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2335
Abstract
Diabetes-related distress (DRD) is defined as an emotional state experienced by people with diabetes (PWD) who are worried about their disease management, the emotional burden from the condition, and/or potential difficulties accessing care or support. The psychosocial aspect of diabetes management is a [...] Read more.
Diabetes-related distress (DRD) is defined as an emotional state experienced by people with diabetes (PWD) who are worried about their disease management, the emotional burden from the condition, and/or potential difficulties accessing care or support. The psychosocial aspect of diabetes management is a factor that directly influences patients’ well-being as well as the chronic management of the condition yet is not a primary clinical problem being addressed within the healthcare setting. This review advocates for a re-evaluation and subsequent adjustment of the current DRD screening methodology by implementing the five primary components (Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Organizational, Community, and Public Policy) of the Socio-Ecological Model of Health (SEMH), bridging the gaps from a public-health perspective. We searched two electronic databases for studies published in the United States from 1995 to 2020 reporting the effects of social determinants of health (SDOH) on DRD. Articles that contained at least one of the five elements of the SEMH and focused on adults aged 18 years or older were included. SDOH, which include circumstances where individuals grow, work, and age, are highly influenced by external factors, such as the distribution of wealth, power, and resources. Current DRD screening tools lack the capacity to account for all major components of SDOH in a comprehensive manner. By applying the SEMH as a theory-based framework, a novel DRD screening tool addressing sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic background should be implemented to better improve diabetes management outcomes. By exploring the relationships between each level of the SEMH and DRD, healthcare professionals will be better equipped to recognize potential stress-inducing factors for individuals managing diabetes. Further efforts should be invested with the goal of developing a novel screening tool founded on the all-encompassing SEMH in order to perpetuate a more comprehensive diabetes treatment plan to address barriers within the SDOH framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diabetes Care)
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10 pages, 676 KiB  
Review
Neuroendocrine Blockade of the Reproductive Axis in Female Athletes
by Winfried G. Rossmanith
Endocrines 2022, 3(4), 765-774; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines3040063 - 5 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1973
Abstract
This review aims at defining the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the sport-induced restrictions of the reproductive axis in female athletes. Episodic gonadotropin release was found to be compromised, presumably a result of impaired hypothalamic pulsatile GnRH release. Any deviation from optimal gonadotropin release may [...] Read more.
This review aims at defining the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the sport-induced restrictions of the reproductive axis in female athletes. Episodic gonadotropin release was found to be compromised, presumably a result of impaired hypothalamic pulsatile GnRH release. Any deviation from optimal gonadotropin release may result in a suboptimal function of the ovaries, leading to disorders of the menstrual cycle and ovulation. A whole spectrum of menstrual dysfunctions ranging from ovulatory eumenorrhea to luteal phase defects and amenorrhea has been reported in sportive women. As essential neuroendocrine factors underlying these observations, activation of the adrenal axis and altered central nervous neurotransmitter activity have been identified to transfer metabolic, nutritional, and stress signals into the hypothalamic GnRH release. The degree by which the neuroendocrine axis governing reproduction is impaired critically depends on the intensity and duration of exercise and the state of training. Other decisive factors may be energy expenditure and availability, nutritional components, and the maturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis when sport activity was initiated. In conclusion, the gradual cessation of reproductive function observed in female athletes may be interpreted as an adaptive mechanism in response to physical and psychological endurance during sport. This sport-induced restriction of reproductive capacity may serve as protection (endogenous contraception) to preserve a woman’s health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuroendocrinology and Pituitary Disorders)
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9 pages, 268 KiB  
Review
Growth Hormone Deficiency
by Colleen O'Neill, Mariam Gangat and Sally Radovick
Endocrines 2022, 3(4), 736-744; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines3040060 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2619
Abstract
Short stature is a common reason for a child to visit the endocrinologist, and can be a variant of normal or secondary to an underlying pathologic cause. Pathologic causes include growth hormone deficiency (GHD), which can be congenital or acquired later. GHD can [...] Read more.
Short stature is a common reason for a child to visit the endocrinologist, and can be a variant of normal or secondary to an underlying pathologic cause. Pathologic causes include growth hormone deficiency (GHD), which can be congenital or acquired later. GHD can be isolated or can occur with other pituitary hormone deficiencies. The diagnosis of GHD requires thorough clinical, biochemical, and radiographic investigations. Genetic testing may also be helpful in some patients. Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) should be initiated as soon as the diagnosis is made and patients should be monitored closely to evaluate response to treatment and for potential adverse effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Growth and Growth Disorders)
11 pages, 5734 KiB  
Review
Dental Manifestations and Oral Management of X-Linked Hypophosphatemia
by Rena Okawa and Kazuhiko Nakano
Endocrines 2022, 3(4), 654-664; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines3040056 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 4132
Abstract
X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is the most common genetic form of rickets and osteomalacia and is characterized by growth retardation, deformities of the lower limbs, and bone and muscular pain. Spontaneous dental abscesses caused by endodontic infections due to dentin dysplasia are well-known dental [...] Read more.
X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is the most common genetic form of rickets and osteomalacia and is characterized by growth retardation, deformities of the lower limbs, and bone and muscular pain. Spontaneous dental abscesses caused by endodontic infections due to dentin dysplasia are well-known dental manifestations. When dentin affected by microcracks or attrition of the enamel is exposed to oral fluids, oral bacteria are able to invade the hypomineralized dentin and pulp space, leading to pulp necrosis, followed by the formation of a periapical gingival abscess. Without appropriate dental management, this dental manifestation results in early loss of teeth and deterioration in the patient’s quality of life. Early specific dental intervention and oral management in collaboration with medical personnel are strongly recommended for XLH patients. Importantly, dental manifestations sometimes appear before the diagnosis of XLH. Dentists should be alert for this first sign of XLH and refer affected children to a pediatrician for early diagnosis. A humanized monoclonal antibody for FGF23 (burosumab) is a promising new treatment for XLH; however, the effects on the dental manifestations remain to be elucidated. The establishment of fundamental dental therapy to solve dental problems is still underway and is eagerly anticipated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on X-linked Hypophosphatemia)
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12 pages, 5683 KiB  
Article
Different Expression Patterns of Metabolic Reprogramming Proteins in Testicular Germ Cell Cancer
by Anna Perri, Danilo Lofaro, Sabrina Bossio, Lorenza Maltese, Ivan Casaburi, Luigi Tucci, Sandro La Vignera, Antonio Aversa, Saveria Aquila and Vittoria Rago
Endocrines 2022, 3(4), 578-589; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines3040049 - 1 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1697
Abstract
Metabolic reprogramming is an emerging hallmark of cancer, involving the overexpression of metabolism-related proteins, such as glucose and monocarboxylate transporters and intracellular glycolytic enzymes. The biology of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) is very complex, and although their metabolic profile has been scantily [...] Read more.
Metabolic reprogramming is an emerging hallmark of cancer, involving the overexpression of metabolism-related proteins, such as glucose and monocarboxylate transporters and intracellular glycolytic enzymes. The biology of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) is very complex, and although their metabolic profile has been scantily explored, some authors have recently reported that the metabolic rewiring of cancer cells resulted in an association with aggressive clinicopathological characteristics. In this study we have investigated, by immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of key proteins sustaining the hyperglycolytic phenotype in pure seminoma (SE, nr. 35), pure embryonal carcinoma (EC, nr. 17) tissues samples, and normal testes (nr. 5). GLUT1, CD44, PFK-1, MCT1, MCT4, LDH-A, and PDH resulted in more expression in EC cells compared to SE cells. TOM20 was more expressed in SE than in EC. GLUT1, MCT1, and MCT4 expression showed a statistically significant association with SE histology, while for EC, the association resulted in being significant only for GLUT1 and MCT4. Finally, we observed that EC resulted as negative for p53, suggesting that the GLUT1 and MTC overexpression observed in EC could be also attributed to p53 downregulation. In conclusion, our findings evidenced that EC exhibits a higher expression of markers of active aerobic glycolysis compared to SE, suggesting that the aggressive phenotype is associated with a higher glycolytic rate. These data corroborate the emerging evidence on the involvement of metabolic reprogramming in testicular malignancies as well, highlighting that the metabolic players should be explored in the future as promising therapeutic targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Andrology and Male Sexual Function)
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