Electronics for Low-Size Low-Power Sensors and Systems: From Custom Design to Embedded Solutions

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioelectronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 8957

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Departament of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Interests: design and testing of IoT-based electronic systems; smart remote control of facilities; electronic systems for automation and automotive; energy harvesting systems for sensors nodes; wearable devices for health monitoring; new materials and advanced sensors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Interests: design of electronic boards; firmware programming of microcontroller-based boards; sensors and energy-harvesting applications; development of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and body area networks (BANs); wearable devices for health monitoring
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As smart sensing systems increase in functionality, complexity, and spread, the related electronic sections have to be flexible, reconfigurable, and possibly low-cost. Several electronics issues are still open among researchers, with the aim of minimizing energy consumption, optimizing performance, and reducing dimensions to obtain non-invasive and miniaturized solutions suitable in different applications and scenarios. The Special Issue “Electronics for Low-Size Low-Power Sensors and Systems: From Custom Design to Embedded Solutions” will publish innovative developments and synergies in the following topics (but not limited to them):

  • User-customizable SoC platform applied to sensing and control complex applications
  • Conditioning and interface electronics for smart sensing in real applications
  • Electronic solutions for MEMS devices applied to industrial applications
  • Electronics solutions for IoT-based health monitoring applications
  • Electronic solutions for smart cities, homes and smart workplaces
  • New sensors for food safety and quality: related interface electronics
  • Wearable systems for biophysical parameters detection: electronic issues
  • Wearable electronic systems for assisting people with physical disabilities, active living, and rehabilitation.
  • Applications and innovations of energy harvesting systems: electronics open issues
  • Low-size low-power sensors in embedded SoC: electronics aspects
  • IoT-based systems for remote process control in different scenarios
  • Low-power Electronic Solutions for signals acquisition/processing from wearable sensors;
  • Embedded solutions and platforms for data processing: firmware issues and applications

Prof. Dr. Paolo Visconti
Prof. Dr. Ramiro Velázquez
Dr. Fazio Roberto
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Interface electronics
  • Low-power sensors and systems
  • Sensor and related electronics
  • Wearable systems and energy issues
  • IoT solutions in different scenarios
  • Remote process control
  • Sensors for industrial applications
  • Signals electronic conditioning
  • SoC platforms

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

35 pages, 12780 KiB  
Article
Development of a Digitally Controlled Inductive Power Transfer System with Post-Regulation for Variable Load Demand
by Kateryna Stoyka, Antonio Vitale, Massimo Costarella, Alfonso Avella, Mario Pucciarelli and Paolo Visconti
Electronics 2022, 11(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11010058 - 25 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2560
Abstract
Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) is an emerging technology enabling a contactless charging process in manifold applications such as electric vehicles, wearable and portable devices, or biomedical applications. Such technology can be profitably used to develop enhanced electronic solutions in the framework of smart [...] Read more.
Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) is an emerging technology enabling a contactless charging process in manifold applications such as electric vehicles, wearable and portable devices, or biomedical applications. Such technology can be profitably used to develop enhanced electronic solutions in the framework of smart cities, homes and smart workplaces. This paper presents the development and realization of a series–series compensated IPT System (IPTS) followed by a post-regulator implemented by means of a DC–DC converter. Such a system is modeled through a first harmonic approximation method, and a sensitivity analysis of the IPTS performance is carried out with respect to the variations of the primary inverter switching frequency and phase-shift angle. As an element of novelty of this work, the bias points are determined which allow the efficiency maximization while ensuring system controllability. An enhanced dynamic modeling of the system is then performed by means of a coupled mode theory, including the inverter phase-shift modulation and extending its validity to whatever operating frequency. A digital control of the post-regulator is implemented by means of a commercial low-cost microcontroller enabling the output voltage regulation under both fixed and variable load conditions through a voltage mode control technique. An IPTS prototype is eventually realized, which is able to correctly perform the output voltage regulation at the desired nominal value of 12 V for static resistive loads in the range [5, 24] Ω, yielding the output power in the range [6, 28.8] W and the experimental efficiencies going from 72.1% (for 24 Ω) to 91.7% (for 5 Ω). The developed system can also be effectively used to deliver up to 35 W output power to variable loads, as demonstrated during the battery charging test. Finally, an excellent output voltage regulation is ascertained for load transients between 5 Ω and 24 Ω, with limited over- and undershoot amplitudes (less than 3% of the nominal output voltage), thus enabling the use of the proposed system for both fixed and variable loads in the framework of smart homes and workplaces applications. Full article
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27 pages, 7925 KiB  
Article
Design Improvements on Fast, High-Order, Incremental Sigma-Delta ADCs for Low-Noise Stacked CMOS Image Sensors
by Luis Miguel Carvalho Freitas and Fernando Morgado-Dias
Electronics 2021, 10(16), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10161936 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2865
Abstract
Modern CMOS imaging devices are present everywhere, in the form of line, area and depth scanners. These image devices can be used in the automotive field, in industrial applications, in the consumer’s market, and in various medical and scientific areas. Particularly in industrial [...] Read more.
Modern CMOS imaging devices are present everywhere, in the form of line, area and depth scanners. These image devices can be used in the automotive field, in industrial applications, in the consumer’s market, and in various medical and scientific areas. Particularly in industrial and scientific applications, the low-light noise performance or the high dynamic-range features are often the cases of interest, combined with low power dissipation and high frame rates. In this sense, the noise floor performance and the power consumption are the focus of this work, given that both are interlinked and play a direct role in the remaining sensor features. It is known that thermal and flicker noise sources are the main contributors to the degradation of the sensor performance, concerning the sensor output image noise. This paper presents an indirect way to reduce both the thermal and the flicker noise contributions by using thin-oxide low voltage supply column readout circuits and fast 3rd order incremental sigma-delta converters with noise shaping capabilities (to provide low noise output digital samples—74 μVrms; 0.7 e−rms; at 105 μV/e−), and thus performing correlated double sampling in a short time (19 μs), while dissipating significant low power (346 μW). Throughout the extensive parametric transistor-level simulations, the readout path produced 1.2% non-linearity, with a competitive saturation capacity (6.5 ke−) pixel. In addition, this paper addresses the readout parallelism as the main point of interest, decoupling resolution from the image noise and the frame rate, at virtually any array resolution. The design and simulations were performed with Virtuoso 6.17 tools (Cadence Design Systems, San Jose, CA, USA) using Spectre models from TS18IS Image Sensor 0.18 µm Process Development Kit (Tower Jazz Semiconductor, Migdal Haemek, Israel). Full article
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20 pages, 5170 KiB  
Article
A Hybrid Radix-4 and Approximate Logarithmic Multiplier for Energy Efficient Image Processing
by Uroš Lotrič, Ratko Pilipović and Patricio Bulić
Electronics 2021, 10(10), 1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10101175 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2615
Abstract
Multiplication is an essential image processing operation commonly implemented in hardware DSP cores. To improve DSP cores’ area, speed, or energy efficiency, we can approximate multiplication. We present an approximate multiplier that generates two partial products using hybrid radix-4 and logarithmic encoding of [...] Read more.
Multiplication is an essential image processing operation commonly implemented in hardware DSP cores. To improve DSP cores’ area, speed, or energy efficiency, we can approximate multiplication. We present an approximate multiplier that generates two partial products using hybrid radix-4 and logarithmic encoding of the input operands. It uses the exact radix-4 encoding to generate the partial product from the three most significant bits and the logarithmic approximation with mantissa trimming to approximate the partial product from the remaining least-significant bits. The proposed multiplier fills the gap between highly accurate approximate non-logarithmic multipliers with a complex design and less accurate approximate logarithmic multipliers with a more straightforward design. We evaluated the multiplier’s efficiency in terms of error, energy (power-delay-product) and area utilisation using NanGate 45 nm. The experimental results show that the proposed multiplier exhibits good area utilisation and energy consumption and behaves well in image processing applications. Full article
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