Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 25223

Special Issue Editors

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ariel University, Ariel 40700, Israel
Interests: piezoelectricity; multiferroicity; energy harvesting; energy storage; photovoltaic systems; dielectrics; crystallography
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ariel University, Ariel 40700, Israel
Interests: PV electrical generation; power electronics; electrical machines; vanadium redox batteries
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Electronics and Computer Technology, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Interests: nanotechnology; sensors; electrical characterization; nanoelectronics; laser-induced nanomaterials; energy harvesting; energy conversion; flexible electronics; memristive devices
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainable development systems are based on three pillars: economic development, environmental stewardship, and social equity. One of the principles set for finding the balance between these pillars is limiting the use of non-renewable energy sources. A promising method to resolve this challenge is harvesting energy from the ambient environment and converting it into electrical power. In recent days, the development of new energy generation technologies, such as solar, wind, and thermal energy, is high on demand to replace fossil fuel energy resources with cleaner renewable sources. Energy-harvesting systems have emerged as a prominent research area and continue to grow at a rapid pace.

Modern technologies such as portable electronic devices, electrical transportation, communication systems, and smart medical equipment need efficient energy storage systems. Electrical energy storage devices are also used for smart grid control, grid stability, and peak-power saving, as well as for frequency and voltage regulation. Electricity generated from renewable sources (e.g., solar power, wind energy) can hardly deliver an immediate response to demand because of a fluctuating power supply. Hence, it has been suggested to preserve the harvested electrical energy for future requirements. The present status of electrical energy storage technologies is quite far from the needed demand.

It is our pleasure to invite researchers and scientists to submit your research work to this Special Issue. The objective of this Special Issue is to present studies in the field of energy harvesting and energy storage systems. We look forward to receiving your outstanding theoretical and experimental research findings.

Dr. Shailendra Rajput
Prof. Dr. Moshe Averbukh
Prof. Dr. Noel Rodriguez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy harvesting
  • photovoltaic system
  • MPPT
  • electrostatic energy harvester
  • electromagnetic energy harvester
  • mechanic to electrical energy conversion
  • energy storage
  • ultracapacitor
  • capacitive reactive power
  • smart grid

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (17 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

4 pages, 188 KiB  
Editorial
Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II
Electronics 2023, 12(19), 4143; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12194143 - 05 Oct 2023
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Systems for sustainable development are built on three pillars: economic development, environmental stewardship, and social value [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

17 pages, 5020 KiB  
Article
A Bicycle-Embedded Electromagnetic Harvester for Providing Energy to Low-Power Electronic Devices
Electronics 2023, 12(13), 2787; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12132787 - 24 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1593
Abstract
Bicycles are rapidly gaining popularity as a sustainable mode of transportation around the world. Furthermore, the smart bicycle paradigm enables increased use through the Internet of Things applications (e.g., GPS tracking systems). This new paradigm introduces energy autonomy as a new challenge. The [...] Read more.
Bicycles are rapidly gaining popularity as a sustainable mode of transportation around the world. Furthermore, the smart bicycle paradigm enables increased use through the Internet of Things applications (e.g., GPS tracking systems). This new paradigm introduces energy autonomy as a new challenge. The energy harvesting technology can capture the energy present in the cycling environment (e.g., kinetic or solar) to give this autonomy. The kinetic energy source is more stable and dense in this environment. There are several wheel kinetic harvesters on the market, ranging from low-complexity dynamos used to power bicycle lights to smart harvester systems that harvest kinetic energy while braking and cycling and store it for when it is needed to power sensors and other electronics loads. Perhaps the hub and the “bottle” dynamos are the most commercially successful systems because of their cost-effective design. Furthermore, the bottle generator is very inexpensive, yet it suffers from significant energy losses and is unreliable in wet weather due to mechanical friction and wheel slippage in the wheel/generator contact. This paper proposes a cost-effective bicycle harvester based on a novel kinetic-electromagnetic transducer. The proposed harvester allows for the generation and storage of harnessed kinetic energy to power low-power electronics loads when the user requires it (e.g., cell phone charging, lighting). The proposed harvester is made up of a power processing unit, a battery, and an optimized transducer based on a Halbach magnet array. An extensive full-wave electromagnetic simulation was used to evaluate the proposed transducer. Circuit simulation was also used to validate the proposed power unit. The proposed harvester generates a simulated output power of 1.17 W with a power processing unit efficiency of 45.6% under a constant bicycle velocity of 30 km/h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 8277 KiB  
Article
Sawtooth V-Trough Cavity for Low-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems Based on Small-Scale Linear Fresnel Reflectors: Optimal Design, Verification, and Construction
Electronics 2023, 12(13), 2770; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12132770 - 21 Jun 2023
Viewed by 714
Abstract
Ensuring the uniformity of solar irradiance distribution on photovoltaic cells is a major challenge in low-concentrating photovoltaic systems based on a small-scale linear Fresnel reflector. A novel sawtooth V-cavity design method based on an optimization algorithm to achieve uniform irradiance distribution on photovoltaic [...] Read more.
Ensuring the uniformity of solar irradiance distribution on photovoltaic cells is a major challenge in low-concentrating photovoltaic systems based on a small-scale linear Fresnel reflector. A novel sawtooth V-cavity design method based on an optimization algorithm to achieve uniform irradiance distribution on photovoltaic cells is presented. The reliability of the design was verified using the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method and a laser experiment. A prototype was built using 3D printing technology with a biodegradable green polymer material known as polylactic acid. The new cavity was compared to the standard V-trough cavity, keeping the cavity aperture, reflective surface area, and photovoltaic cell width constant. In addition, the focal height, number of mirrors, mirror width, and mirror spacing were also kept constant; so, the cost of the two configurations was the same from the point of view of the primary reflector system. The new design ensured the uniform distribution of solar irradiation and significantly reduced the height of the cavity. The significant decrease in the height of the proposed cavity has the following advantages: (i) a decrease in the dimensions of the fixed structure of the small-scale linear Fresnel reflector, thus reducing its cost, (ii) a significant decrease in the surface area exposed to wind loads, thus reducing the cost of the fixed structure and secondary system structures, (iii) a reduction in the difficulty of the manufacture, maintenance, and transportation of the cavity’s reflecting walls, and (iv) an increase in the cooling surface area, which increases the electrical efficiency of the photovoltaic cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2296 KiB  
Article
Energy Efficient Enhancement in a 5.8 GHz Batteryless Node Suitable for Backscattering Communications
Electronics 2023, 12(10), 2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12102256 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 858
Abstract
This work presents a compact batteryless node architecture suitable with the backscattering communication (BackCom) approach. The key functional blocks are demonstrated at 5.8 GHz, making use of commercially available components involving a DC/DC step-up converter, a 3.3 V data generator, and an ASK [...] Read more.
This work presents a compact batteryless node architecture suitable with the backscattering communication (BackCom) approach. The key functional blocks are demonstrated at 5.8 GHz, making use of commercially available components involving a DC/DC step-up converter, a 3.3 V data generator, and an ASK backscattering modulator based on a single GaAs HEMT in a cold-FET configuration. The node integrates a patch antenna exhibiting a non-50 Ω optimal port impedance; the value is defined by means of a source pull-based optimization technique aimed at maximizing the DC/DC input current supplied by the RF to DC converter. This approach maximizes the node compactness, as well as the wireless power conversion efficiency. A prototype was optimized for the −5 dBm power level at the input of the RF to DC converter. Under this measurement condition, the experimental results showed a 63% increase in the harvesting current, rising from 145 to 237 μA, compared to an identical configuration that used a microstrip matching network coupled with a typical 50-Ω patch antenna. In terms of harvested power, the achieved improvement was from −13.2 dBm to −10.9 dBm. The conversion efficiency in an operative condition improved from 15% to more than 25%. In this condition, the node is capable of charging a 100 μF to the operative voltage in about 27 s, and operating the backscattering for 360 ms with a backscattering modulation frequency of about 10 MHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 2084 KiB  
Article
Floating Photovoltaic Systems Coupled with Pumped Hydroplants under Day-Ahead Electricity Market Conditions: Parametric Analysis
Electronics 2023, 12(10), 2250; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12102250 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
The intermittent nature of the solar resource together with the fluctuating energy demand of the day-ahead electricity market requires the use of efficient long-term energy storage systems. The pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) power plant has demonstrated its technical and [...] Read more.
The intermittent nature of the solar resource together with the fluctuating energy demand of the day-ahead electricity market requires the use of efficient long-term energy storage systems. The pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) power plant has demonstrated its technical and commercial viability as a large-scale energy storage technology. The objective of this paper is to analyse the parameters that influence the mode of operation in conjunction with a floating photovoltaic (FPV) power plant under day-ahead electricity market conditions. This work proposes the analysis of two parameters: the size of the FPV power plant and the total process efficiency of the PHS power plant. Five FPV plant sizes are analysed: 50% (S1), 100% (S2), 150% (S3), 350% (S4) and 450% (S5) of the PHS plant. The values of the total process efficiency parameter analysed are as follows: 0.77 for old PHS plants, and 0.85 for more modern plants. The number of daily operating hours of the PHS plant is 4 h. These 4 h of operation correspond to the highest prices on the electricity market. The framework of the study is the Iberian electricity market and the Alto Rabagão dam (Portugal). Different operating scenarios are considered to identify the optimal size of the FPV power plant. Based on the measured data on climatic conditions, an algorithm is designed to estimate the energy production for different sizes of FPV plants. If the total process efficiency is 0.85, the joint operation of both plants with FPV plant sizes S2 and S3 yields a slightly higher economic benefit than the independent mode of operation. If the total process efficiency is 0.77, there is always a higher economic benefit in the independent operation mode, irrespective of the size of the FPV plant. However, the uncertainty of the solar resource estimation can lead to a higher economic benefit in the joint operation mode. Increasing the number of operating hours of the PHS plant above 4 h per day decreases the economic benefit of the joint operation mode, regardless of the total process efficiency parameter and the size of the FPV plant. As the number of operating hours increases, the economic benefit decreases. The results obtained reveal that the coupling of floating photovoltaic systems with pumped hydroelectric storage power plants is a cost-effective and reliable alternative to provide sustainable energy supply security under electricity market conditions. In summary, the purpose of this work is to facilitate decision making on the mode of operation of both power plants under electricity market conditions. The case studies allow to find the optimal answer to the following practical questions: What size does the FPV power plant have to be in order for both plants to be better adapted to the electricity market? What is the appropriate mode of operation of both plants? What is the economic benefit of changing the turbine pump of the PHS power plant? Finally, how does the installation of the FPV power plant affect the water volume of the upper reservoir of the PHS plant? Knowledge of these questions will facilitate the design of FPV power plants and the joint operation of both plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 4663 KiB  
Article
Modelling of Electric Power Generation Plant Based on Gas Turbines with Agricultural Biomass Fuel
Electronics 2023, 12(9), 1981; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12091981 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
To ensure the survival of society, an enormous amount of energy is required to sustain the economic and social development of communities. In addition, there is a pressing need to achieve significant reductions in climate change and the associated costs of implementing systems [...] Read more.
To ensure the survival of society, an enormous amount of energy is required to sustain the economic and social development of communities. In addition, there is a pressing need to achieve significant reductions in climate change and the associated costs of implementing systems based on traditional energy sources, as well as addressing the issue of providing electricity to isolated areas. In rural environments, there is an alternative energy source with enormous potential, agricultural biomass, which can produce electrical and thermal energy and can progressively help to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The purpose of this work is to present a dynamic simulation model of a power generation plant that uses the Joule Brayton thermodynamic cycle, based on a gas turbine which is fueled by residual agricultural biomass; the cycle converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. The problem is approached through the characterization of the biomass, mathematical models of the plant components, and simulation of the system behavior in different scenarios. The simulations are processed in Matlab/Simulink, which allows the model to be verified, validating the equilibrium relationship between generation and load demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 6036 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Oscillation and Resonance in the Renewable Integrated DC-Microgrid
Electronics 2023, 12(7), 1574; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12071574 - 27 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1063
Abstract
This paper assessed the small-signal stability performance of a multi-converter-based direct current microgrid (DCMG). The oscillation and potential interactions between critical modes are evaluated. First, the complete analytical model of the DCMG is developed with the converter and associated controllers. Three methodologies, impedance [...] Read more.
This paper assessed the small-signal stability performance of a multi-converter-based direct current microgrid (DCMG). The oscillation and potential interactions between critical modes are evaluated. First, the complete analytical model of the DCMG is developed with the converter and associated controllers. Three methodologies, impedance scanning, eigenvalue analysis, and time-domain simulation, along with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis, have been used to comprehensively investigate the oscillations and interactions. The simulation results show inherent weak modes, with a wide range of oscillations in the studied DCMG, which may destabilize the system under disturbances. Based on the sensitivity analysis, controller gains and DC-link capacitance are identified as the most critical parameters and substantially influence the weak modes leading to oscillations, interactions, and resonance. Finally, the performance of the various control synthesis methods is compared. This examination would help the researchers, planning, and design engineers to design and stably operate a multi converter-based DC microgrid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 6373 KiB  
Article
One-Dimensional Maximum Power Point Tracking Design of Switched-Capacitor Charge Pumps for Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting
Electronics 2023, 12(5), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12051203 - 02 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
This paper proposes a one-dimensional (1D) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) design which only requires measurement of one parameter (the input voltage of a switched-capacitor charge pump) for calibrating a power converter including the charge pump and thermoelectric generator. The frequency of the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a one-dimensional (1D) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) design which only requires measurement of one parameter (the input voltage of a switched-capacitor charge pump) for calibrating a power converter including the charge pump and thermoelectric generator. The frequency of the clock to drive the charge pump is designed to minimize the circuit area of the entire charge pump circuit for generating a target output current at a specific output voltage. The ratio of the capacitance value of each boosting capacitor (C) to the size of the switching MOSFET can be determined to maximize the transferring current at the same time. When a thermoelectric generator (TEG) is given, its output impedance is determined. Its open-circuit voltage varies with the temperature difference between two plates of the TEG. MPPT maximizes the output power of the charge pump even when the temperature difference varies. It was indicated that the number of stages of charge pump (N) needs to increase when the temperature difference lowers, whereas C needs to decrease inversely proportional to N, meaning that the C–N product should be kept unchanged for MPPT. Demonstration of the circuit design was conducted in 65 nm CMOS, and the measured results validated the concept of the 1D MPPT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 10469 KiB  
Article
Design and Implementation of Embedded Controller-Based Energy Storage and Management System for Remote Telecom
Electronics 2023, 12(2), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12020341 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1072
Abstract
The source of energy extracted in renewable form has turned out to be a primary mainstream energy source, especially in the telecom sectors. Rapid growth of renewable sources has led to telecom operators concentrating more on designing the system with appropriate energy storage [...] Read more.
The source of energy extracted in renewable form has turned out to be a primary mainstream energy source, especially in the telecom sectors. Rapid growth of renewable sources has led to telecom operators concentrating more on designing the system with appropriate energy storage elements, providing control facilities, improving system efficiency and verifying uninterrupted power supplies. Therefore, this paper gives a novel approach of utilizing embedded control in energy generation consisting of a solar-wind hybrid energy system placed in isolated areas. For the purpose of integration of wind, together with the solar energy sources, into an increasingly efficient system, a single Cuk-Luo integrated DC-DC converter has been put forward. The proposed system has been modeled using MATLAB/Simulink and verified under various combinations of solar-wind energy sources without compromising the required power. In order to verify the proposed Cuk-Luo integrated converter with the energy management controller system, a prototype hardware is implemented and tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 491 KiB  
Article
Throughput Maximization for the Full-Duplex Two-Way Relay System with Energy Harvesting
Electronics 2023, 12(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12010016 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 936
Abstract
The full-duplex technique can improve the transmission capacity of the communication systems, and energy harvesting (EH) is a promising operation to prolong the lifespan of a wireless node by utilizing the radio-frequency signals. In this paper, the throughput performance of a full-duplex two-way [...] Read more.
The full-duplex technique can improve the transmission capacity of the communication systems, and energy harvesting (EH) is a promising operation to prolong the lifespan of a wireless node by utilizing the radio-frequency signals. In this paper, the throughput performance of a full-duplex two-way energy EH capable relay system is investigated. In particular, a practical EH protocol, named the time-switching-based relaying (TSR) protocol, is used for EH and the decode-and-forward (DF) policy for information transmission. The outage probability is successfully obtained, and the corresponding system throughput for TSR protocol can be derived by it. The derived throughput is a function of different system parameters, including the time-switching (TS) ratio, power allocation ratio, and the length of the communication time slot. Meanwhile, the throughput is used to characterize a joint time and power allocation scheme for the system, and we aim to find the optimal time and power allocation to achieve the optimal throughput. Due to the existence of three variables and the integral form of throughput expression, an optimization for the throughput is difficult. However, a modified simulated annealing-based search (SABS) algorithm can be used to optimize the throughput. The modified SABS algorithm overcomes being highly impacted by the initial point, and derives the optimal solution fast. Simulation results show that the analytical throughput expression is related with the TS ratio, power allocation ratio, and the length of the communication time slot. The analytical curve of the throughput matches with the simulated one well, which shows that the obtained analytical system throughput for the TSR protocol is valid. Meanwhile, the proposed modified SABS algorithm could be used to derive accurate throughput when SNR is higher than 10 dB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3878 KiB  
Article
A Design of a Thermoelectric Energy Harvester for Minimizing Sensor Module Cost
Electronics 2022, 11(21), 3441; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11213441 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1422
Abstract
This paper discusses a relationship between thermoelectric generator (TEG) electrical parameters, power efficiency of converters, and power consumption of loads in autonomous sensor modules. Based on the method discussed, one can determine the total number of TEG units together with the number of [...] Read more.
This paper discusses a relationship between thermoelectric generator (TEG) electrical parameters, power efficiency of converters, and power consumption of loads in autonomous sensor modules. Based on the method discussed, one can determine the total number of TEG units together with the number of TEG arrays and the number of TEG units connected in series per array when the characteristics of TEG unit, the minimum temperature difference in operation, the power conversion efficiency of the converter and the load condition are given. A practical design flow to minimize TEG cost is proposed and demonstrated, taking the maximum open circuit voltage of TEG and the dependence of the power conversion efficiency of the converter on the input voltage of the converter into consideration. The entire system including TEG and a Dickson charge pump converter, which were designed through the proposed flow, was validated with SPICE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 8432 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Phase-Locked Loops Used for Frequency Measurements in a Low-Inertia Power Grid with Wind Generation
Electronics 2022, 11(19), 3226; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11193226 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2366
Abstract
The need for more precise frequency measurements in electric power systems is increasing because of the growing penetration of renewable energy and the subsequent reduction in inertia, which gives rise to more intense frequency fluctuations. Phase-locked loops (PLLs) are now more accurate and [...] Read more.
The need for more precise frequency measurements in electric power systems is increasing because of the growing penetration of renewable energy and the subsequent reduction in inertia, which gives rise to more intense frequency fluctuations. Phase-locked loops (PLLs) are now more accurate and present faster dynamic responses, helping to implement primary frequency controllers for renewable generators connected to the grid through power electronics. However, there are differences among PLL implementations that affect their behavior when estimating frequency, depending on factors as location, voltage level, or penetration of renewable energy, among other things. How this affects the ability of PLL-based frequency controllers to adequately estimate the instantaneous mismatch between generation and demand, especially in low-inertia power systems, is still unclear, and constitutes an open research topic. This paper contributes to this research effort by presenting a comparative study of different PLL configurations in order to gain insight into their performance in different scenarios in a low-inertia power system with a high share of wind energy. Constant and variable wind speed scenarios are considered, and PLL behavior is assessed in terms of the absolute mean value and the root-mean-square value of the frequency error, and the absolute value of the frequency derivative error. The results show that the PLL behavior depends on the voltage level and the location, and it was found that the further away the PLL is from the source that controls the frequency, the more noise is produced, which impacts the quality of the frequency measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 5893 KiB  
Article
More Enhanced Swing Colpitts Oscillators: A Circuit Analysis
Electronics 2022, 11(18), 2808; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11182808 - 06 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1437
Abstract
In this paper, we show that an additional inductor–capacitor–inductor filter can increase the oscillation amplitude of the enhanced swing Colpitts oscillator (ESCO), and call this topology the more enhanced swing Colpitts oscillator (mESCO). When it is connected with a rectifier, the DC–DC boost [...] Read more.
In this paper, we show that an additional inductor–capacitor–inductor filter can increase the oscillation amplitude of the enhanced swing Colpitts oscillator (ESCO), and call this topology the more enhanced swing Colpitts oscillator (mESCO). When it is connected with a rectifier, the DC–DC boost conversion ratio can be increased, especially for low-voltage sensor ICs or energy harvesting. This paper focuses on the electrical characteristics of mESCO. The oscillation frequency was modeled as a function of the circuit parameters of mESCO. The common gate voltage gain (ACG), defined by the ratio of the drain voltage amplitude to the source voltage amplitude of the switching MOSFET of mESCO, was also modeled under the assumption that all the circuit elements are ideal. The model was validated with a SPICE simulation. For ACG < 1.5, the model was in good agreement with the SPICE results within 10%. In addition, the drain voltage amplitude vda was modeled by assuming that the average transconductance of the MOSFET in a half cycle is null when the long-channel Shockley model is used. vda needs to be sufficiently high to have a large DC–DC boost conversion ratio. The model can predict the tendency that vda increases as ACG approaches unity. We found that the voltage difference of the drain voltage amplitude to the source voltage amplitude is a constant even when the circuit parameters, and thereby ACG are varied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 3303 KiB  
Article
Design of Switched-Capacitor DC-DC Voltage-Down Converters Driven by Highly Resistive Energy Transducer
Electronics 2022, 11(12), 1874; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11121874 - 14 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1697
Abstract
Electrostatic vibration energy transducers have a relatively high output impedance (RET) and open-circuit voltage (VIN), so that voltage-down conversion is required for sensor/RF ICs. Switched-capacitor converters are the best candidate to create small-form-factor technology and are a low-cost solution [...] Read more.
Electrostatic vibration energy transducers have a relatively high output impedance (RET) and open-circuit voltage (VIN), so that voltage-down conversion is required for sensor/RF ICs. Switched-capacitor converters are the best candidate to create small-form-factor technology and are a low-cost solution because of their capability to fully integrate into sensor/RF ICs. To design switched-capacitor voltage-down converters (SC-VDCs) with a minimum circuit area for electrostatic vibration energy transducers, two steps are required. The first step requires an optimum design of DC-DC SC-VDCs driven by high RET with a minimum circuit area, and the second step requires an optimum design of AC-DC SC-VDCs based on the first step, to minimize the converter circuit area. This paper discusses circuit analysis and design optimization aimed at the first step. Switching frequency, the number of stages and the capacitance per stage were determined as a function of RET, VIN and the output voltage (Vo) and current (Io) to the load, to achieve a minimum circuit area. The relationship between Io and the power conversion efficiency was studied as well. The performance was validated by SPICE simulation in 250 nm BCD technology. An optimum design flow was proposed to design DC-DC SC-VDCs driven by high RET with a minimum circuit area under conditions where RET, VIN, Vo and Io were given. The second design step remains as future work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 8982 KiB  
Article
Global Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Module Arrays Based on Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
Electronics 2022, 11(10), 1572; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11101572 - 14 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1617
Abstract
In this paper, an improved artificial bee colony (I-ABC) algorithm for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a photovoltaic module array (PVMA) is presented. Even though the P-V output characteristic curve with multi-peak was generated due to any damages or shading discovered [...] Read more.
In this paper, an improved artificial bee colony (I-ABC) algorithm for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a photovoltaic module array (PVMA) is presented. Even though the P-V output characteristic curve with multi-peak was generated due to any damages or shading discovered on the PVMA, the I-ABC algorithm could get rid of stuck on tracking the local maximum power point (LMPP), but quickly and stably track the global maximum power point (GMPP), thereby improving the power generation efficiency. This proposed I-ABC algorithm could search for the higher power point of a PVMA by a small bee colony, determine the next tracking direction through the perturb and observe (P&O) method, and keep tracking until the GMPP is obtained. This method could prevent tracking the GMPP for too long due to applying a small bee colony. First, in this study, the photovoltaic modules produced by Sunworld Co., Ltd. were used and were configured as a PVMA with four series and three parallel connections under different numbers of shaded modules and different shading ratios, so that corresponding P-V output characteristic curves with multi-peak values were generated. Then, the GMPP was tracked by the proposed MPPT method. The simulation and experimental results showed that the proposed method performed better both in dynamic response and steady-state performance than the traditional artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm. According to the experimental results, it showed that the tracking accuracy for the GMPP based on the proposed MPPT with 100 iterations under 5 different shading ratios was about 100%; on the other hand, that of the traditional ABC algorithm was 70%, and that of the P&O method was lower at about 30%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

19 pages, 2601 KiB  
Review
2D-Nanolayer (2D-NL)-Based Hybrid Materials: A Next-Generation Material for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Electronics 2023, 12(3), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12030570 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1859
Abstract
Two-dimensional (2D) materials, an electrifying family of innovative materials, have recently attracted wide attention due to their remarkable characteristics, primarily their high optical transparency, exceptional metallic conductivity, high mechanical strength, carrier mobility, tunable band gap values, and optimum work function. Interestingly, 2D-nanosheets/nanolayers (2D-NLs) [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional (2D) materials, an electrifying family of innovative materials, have recently attracted wide attention due to their remarkable characteristics, primarily their high optical transparency, exceptional metallic conductivity, high mechanical strength, carrier mobility, tunable band gap values, and optimum work function. Interestingly, 2D-nanosheets/nanolayers (2D-NLs) might be synthesized into single/multi-layers using simple processes such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD), chemical bath deposition (CBD), and mechanical and liquid-phase exfoliation processes that simply enhance optoelectronic properties. However, the stability of 2D-NLs is one of the most significant challenges that limits their commercialization. Researchers have been focusing on the stability of 2D-NLs with the aim of developing next-generation solar cells. Easily tunable distinctive 2D-NLs that are based on the synthesis process, surface functional groups, and modification with other materials/hybrid materials thereby improve the stability of the 2D-NLs and their applicability to the hole transport layer (HTL) and the electron transport layer (ETL) in solar cells. Moreover, metal/non-metal-based dopants significantly enhance band gap ability and subsequently improve the efficacy of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this context, research has focused on 2D-NL-based photoanodes and working electrodes that improve the photoconversion efficiency (PCE) and stability of DSSCs. Herein, we mainly focus on synthesizing 2D-NLs, challenges during synthesis, stability, and high-performing DSSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 4307 KiB  
Review
An Investigation on Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms for Parameter Optimization of PV Cells
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060909 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2869
Abstract
The demands for renewable energy generation are progressively expanding because of environmental safety concerns. Renewable energy is power generated from sources that are constantly replenished. Solar energy is an important renewable energy source and clean energy initiative. Photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules are [...] Read more.
The demands for renewable energy generation are progressively expanding because of environmental safety concerns. Renewable energy is power generated from sources that are constantly replenished. Solar energy is an important renewable energy source and clean energy initiative. Photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules are employed to harvest solar energy, but the accurate modeling of PV cells is confounded by nonlinearity, the presence of huge obscure model parameters, and the nonattendance of a novel strategy. The efficient modeling of PV cells and accurate parameter estimation is becoming more significant for the scientific community. Metaheuristic algorithms are successfully applied for the parameter valuation of PV systems. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a metaheuristic algorithm inspired by animal behavior. PSO and derivative algorithms are efficient methods to tackle different optimization issues. Hybrid PSO algorithms were developed to improve the performance of basic ones. This review presents a comprehensive investigation of hybrid PSO algorithms for the parameter assessment of PV cells. This paper presents how much work is conducted in this field, and how much work can additionally be performed to improve this strategy and create more ideal arrangements of an issue. Algorithms are compared on the basis of the used objective function, type of diode model, irradiation conditions, and types of panels. More importantly, the qualitative analysis of algorithms is performed on the basis of computational time, computational complexity, convergence rate, search technique, merits, and demerits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage Systems, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop