Electric Vehicles Integration and Control in Smart Grids

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical and Autonomous Vehicles".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2023) | Viewed by 18420

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
GECAD-Research Group on Intelligent Engineering and Computing for Advanced Innovation and Development, Polytechnic of Porto (P.PORTO), P-4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Interests: artificial intelligence; demand response; electric vehicles; electricity markets; power and energy systems; renewable and sustainable energy; smart grids
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
INESC-ID, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico-IST, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: smart grids; electricity markets; energy resource management; distributed power generation; smart power grids; battery-powered vehicles; distribution networks; electric vehicle charging; power distribution economics; power distribution operational planning; power system management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent years have seen clear signs of the increasing electrification of the transportation sector. From light electric vehicles (EVs) to large electric buses and trucks, electric vehicles are the focus of manufacturers and are increasingly seen on our roads. The seamless integration of electric vehicles in smart grids is crucial to enable their contribution towards more sustainable transportation in energy terms. New trends in electric vehicle integration and control in smart homes, smart buildings, energy communities, and charging infrastructure (e.g., parking lots and electric roads) are paving the way for smart and sustainable electrified transportation systems. The intensive use of renewable energy sources in smart grids should be combined with the electric vehicles need for charging. For that, electric vehicle integration in the smart grid must be done in an intelligent way, taking advantage of the underlying flexibility, from flexible charge to a flexible power supply.  Smart contracts and demand-response programs can utilize the flexibility of electric vehicles and enable the most efficient use of low-carbon technologies.

This Special Issue will address all aspects related to the integration of electric vehicles in smart grids, with a special focus on control and management aspects. Business models, contractual arrangements, and charging tariffs are relevant topics. The required equipment and components required for the battery charging and discharging of electric vehicles and the means required for their control and intelligent management are also crucial in this scope.  The Special Issue welcomes original and innovative contributions regarding new models and methods, as well as real solutions and real-live experiences. Considering the huge need for additional research, tests, and validation in this area, submissions regarding open-source software and datasets relevant for the use of the community are particularly welcome.

Prof. Dr. Zita Vale
Dr. João Soares
Dr. Hugo Morais
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Advances in electric road systems
  • Autonomous EVs
  • Business models for EVs and their integration in smart grids
  • Charging infrastructure for EVs
  • Contactless charging stations and other innovative charging solutions for EVs
  • Demand response interfaces and control for electric mobility
  • Electric bus and trucks
  • EV coordination with other distributed energy resources
  • EV fleets and large-scale integration for V2G
  • EV flexibility and demand response programs for EVs
  • Home and building smart charging control devices
  • Integration of electric vehicles in energy communities and collective self-consumption
  • Light electric vehicles (LEV)
  • Robotized charging piles and parks with grid flexibility
  • Smart contracts for EVs
  • Vehicle-to-grid (V2G), vehicle-to-building (V2B), vehicle-to-home (V2H), vehicle-to-everything (V2X)

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

24 pages, 3562 KiB  
Article
Model-Driven Developed Terminal for Remote Control of Charging Station for Electric Vehicles Powered by Renewable Energy
by Jovan Vujasinović, Goran Savić and Milan Prokin
Electronics 2023, 12(8), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12081769 - 07 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1626
Abstract
A terminal for remote control of charging stations for electric vehicles (EV) powered by renewable energy has been presented in this paper. This terminal enables remote control of EV chargers, smart batteries, smart electricity meters, fiscal cash registers (FCR), as well as remote [...] Read more.
A terminal for remote control of charging stations for electric vehicles (EV) powered by renewable energy has been presented in this paper. This terminal enables remote control of EV chargers, smart batteries, smart electricity meters, fiscal cash registers (FCR), as well as remote control of renewable energy sources and other devices within the station. This terminal also makes charging stations more accessible to electric vehicles users, to electricity distribution companies, to electricity suppliers, to tax administrations, and finally to users and owners of charging stations. Therefore, communication and control with all these devices and systems is integrated in one device. Realization of hardware and software of such a terminal has also been described in this paper. The net result of development and commercialization of terminals would encourage an increase in the use of electric vehicles powered by energy from renewable sources, which would cause a decrease in the level of air pollution and all negative effects it causes in the future. Different categories of this device are considered. Moreover, although it is a device with embedded software, a very advanced method was used, that is, a model-driven development method, which enables fast and more efficient development and maintenance of the device. The results of the application of this method to the terminal for remote control of fiscal cash registers are provided. They were compared with the results of the development of the terminal for remote control of smart meters without applying this method. A simulation of the development of the terminal for remote control of the station is also provided. The presented method can be used in the future for faster and better-quality development of embedded software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles Integration and Control in Smart Grids)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3616 KiB  
Article
An Electric Vehicle Assisted Charging Mechanism for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
by Chenn-Jung Huang, Kai-Wen Hu and Hao-Wen Cheng
Electronics 2023, 12(7), 1729; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12071729 - 05 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
The global greenhouse effect and air pollution problems have been deteriorating in recent years. The power generation in the future is expected to shift from fossil fuels to renewables, and many countries have also announced the ban on the sale of vehicles powered [...] Read more.
The global greenhouse effect and air pollution problems have been deteriorating in recent years. The power generation in the future is expected to shift from fossil fuels to renewables, and many countries have also announced the ban on the sale of vehicles powered by fossil fuels in the next few decades, to effectively alleviate the global greenhouse effect and air pollution problems. In addition to electric vehicles (EVs) that will replace traditional fuel vehicles as the main ground transportation vehicles in the future, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have also gradually and more recently been widely used for military and civilian purposes. The recent literature estimated that UAVs will become the major means of transport for goods delivery services before 2040, and the development of passenger UAVs will also extend the traditional human ground transportation to low-altitude airspace transportation. In recent years, the literature has proposed the use of renewable power supply, battery swapping, and charging stations to refill the battery of UAVs. However, the uncertainty of renewable power generation cannot guarantee the stable power supply of UAVs. It may even be very possible that a large number of UAVs need to be charged during the same period, causing congestion in charging stations or battery swapping facilities and delaying the arranged schedules of UAVs. Although studies have proposed the method of that employing moving EVs along with wireless charging technology in order to provide electricity to UAVs with urgent needs, the charging schemes are still oversimplified and have many restrictions. In addition, different charging options should be provided to fit the individual need of each UAV. In view of this, this work attempts to meet the mission characteristics and needs of various UAVs by providing an adaptive flight path and charging plan attached to individual UAVs, as well as reducing the power load of the renewable power generation during the peak period. We ran a series of simulations for the proposed flight path and charging mechanism to evaluate its performance. The simulation results revealed that the solutions proposed in this work can be used by UAV operators to fit the needs of each individual UAV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles Integration and Control in Smart Grids)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 3946 KiB  
Article
Distributed Multi-Robot-Trailer Scheduling Based on Communication between Charging Stations for Robot Being Towed to Recharge
by Yanfang Deng, Taijun Li, Mingshan Xie and Song Zhang
Electronics 2023, 12(6), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12061402 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
It is necessary for robot-trailer to tow robot to the charging station for recharging when the robot fails, or the battery cannot support the robot to the charging station. However, the delay of towing robot is affecting the working efficiency of mobile robot. [...] Read more.
It is necessary for robot-trailer to tow robot to the charging station for recharging when the robot fails, or the battery cannot support the robot to the charging station. However, the delay of towing robot is affecting the working efficiency of mobile robot. Based on the task priority of the mobile robot and impact degree on the room after the power failure, the paper proposes a distributed scheduling of robot being towed to recharge for reducing the delay expectation. This work designs a Distributed Three Nodes Service (DTNS) scheduling based on the communication between charging stations. The two-step path-planner based on decision factor and travel path is used in the scheme. Simulations show that the distributed scheduling of this work can well ensure the success communication in the case of low power, and DTNS can well reduce the delay expectation of towing robot to recharge. Compared with First Come First Service (FCFS) scheduling, DTNS reduces the towing delay by 48.71%, 48.83% and 40.45% when there are some robots sending the towing request, and by 58.77%, 39.97% and 41.90% when no robot sends request in the case of 1, 2 and 3 robot trailers in the service space respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles Integration and Control in Smart Grids)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 19791 KiB  
Article
Traction System for Electric Vehicles Based on Synchronous Reluctance Permanent Magnet Machine
by Joao D. C. Sousa, Tiago J. C. Sousa, Vitor Monteiro and Joao L. Afonso
Electronics 2023, 12(3), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12030539 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs) integrate two main power electronics systems, namely, the battery charging system and the traction system. In this study, we aimed to complement and deepen the study of the latter, more specifically, focusing on a traction system based on a synchronous [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs) integrate two main power electronics systems, namely, the battery charging system and the traction system. In this study, we aimed to complement and deepen the study of the latter, more specifically, focusing on a traction system based on a synchronous reluctance permanent magnet (SRPM) machine, since this is an emerging electric machine in the EV paradigm. The developed prototype integrates bidirectional ac-dc and dc-dc converters, allowing for regenerative braking, and the SRPM machine is controlled using a maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) algorithm. Computer simulations and the experimental results for the traction system are presented in this paper. The dynamic characteristics of the SRPM machine proved to be relevant for EV applications, with effective results obtained during load and speed changes. The effective behavior of the SRPM machine was partially rooted in the use of the MTPA algorithm, which has proven itself to be an effective algorithm for the electric machines of EVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles Integration and Control in Smart Grids)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5373 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Grid Reactive Voltage Regulation with Reconfiguration Network for Electric Vehicle Penetration
by Farrukh Nagi, Aidil Azwin, Navaamsini Boopalan, Agileswari K. Ramasamy, Marayati Marsadek and Syed Khaleel Ahmed
Electronics 2022, 11(19), 3221; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11193221 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
Renewable energy sources and EV growth brings new challenges for grid stabilization. Smart grid techniques are required to reconfigure and compensate for load fluctuation and stabilize power losses and voltage fluctuation. Numerical tools are available to equip the smart grid to deal with [...] Read more.
Renewable energy sources and EV growth brings new challenges for grid stabilization. Smart grid techniques are required to reconfigure and compensate for load fluctuation and stabilize power losses and voltage fluctuation. Numerical tools are available to equip the smart grid to deal with such challenges. Distribution Feeder reconfiguration and reactive voltage injection to the disturbed grid are some of the techniques employed for the purpose. However, either reconfiguration or injection alone is used commonly for this purpose. In this study, both techniques are applied to EV penetration as load and compared. A balanced IEEE 33 Radial network is used in this study and selected branches with high power losses are targeted for the reactive voltage injection and Minimum Spanning tree techniques (MST). EV charging loads are usually modelled with time base distribution which requires times base power flow analysis for reactive power injection. A comparison between coordinated, reconfiguration, and reactive voltage injection shows differences in power losses, voltage distortion, and cost saving. The analysis is carried out with an integer linear programming technique for coordinated charging, a minimum spanning tree for network reconfiguration, and genetic optimization for reactive power injection. Besides, all power flow analyses are carried out with the Backward/Forward sweep method. The information would help lowering power losses, grid stabilization, and charging station infrastructure planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles Integration and Control in Smart Grids)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3081 KiB  
Article
An Optimization Model for Energy Community Costs Minimization Considering a Local Electricity Market between Prosumers and Electric Vehicles
by Ricardo Faia, João Soares, Zita Vale and Juan Manuel Corchado
Electronics 2021, 10(2), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10020129 - 09 Jan 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3098
Abstract
Electric vehicles have emerged as one of the most promising technologies, and their mass introduction may pose threats to the electricity grid. Several solutions have been proposed in an attempt to overcome this challenge in order to ease the integration of electric vehicles. [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles have emerged as one of the most promising technologies, and their mass introduction may pose threats to the electricity grid. Several solutions have been proposed in an attempt to overcome this challenge in order to ease the integration of electric vehicles. A promising concept that can contribute to the proliferation of electric vehicles is the local electricity market. In this way, consumers and prosumers may transact electricity between peers at the local community level, reducing congestion, energy costs and the necessity of intermediary players such as retailers. Thus, this paper proposes an optimization model that simulates an electric energy market between prosumers and electric vehicles. An energy community with different types of prosumers is considered (household, commercial and industrial), and each of them is equipped with a photovoltaic panel and a battery system. This market is considered local because it takes place within a distribution grid and a local energy community. A mixed-integer linear programming model is proposed to solve the local energy transaction problem. The results suggest that our approach can provide a reduction between 1.6% to 3.5% in community energy costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles Integration and Control in Smart Grids)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

23 pages, 4665 KiB  
Review
Applications of Clustering Methods for Different Aspects of Electric Vehicles
by Masooma Nazari, Akhtar Hussain and Petr Musilek
Electronics 2023, 12(4), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12040790 - 04 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3101
Abstract
The growing penetration of electric vehicles can pose several challenges for power systems, especially distribution systems, due to the introduction of significant uncertain load. Analysis of these challenges becomes computationally expensive with higher penetration of electric vehicles due to various preferences, travel behavior, [...] Read more.
The growing penetration of electric vehicles can pose several challenges for power systems, especially distribution systems, due to the introduction of significant uncertain load. Analysis of these challenges becomes computationally expensive with higher penetration of electric vehicles due to various preferences, travel behavior, and the battery size of electric vehicles. This problem can be addressed using clustering methods which have been successfully used in many other sectors. Recently, there have been several studies published on applying clustering methods for various aspects of electric vehicles. To summarize the existing efforts and provide future research directions, this contribution presents a three-step analysis. First, the existing clustering methods, including hard and soft clustering, are discussed. Then, the recent literature on the application of clustering methods for different aspects of electric vehicles is reviewed. The review concentrates on four major aspects of electric vehicles: the behavior of the user, driving cycle, used batteries, and charging stations. Then, several representative studies are selected from each category and their merits and demerits are summarized. Finally, gaps in the existing literature are identified and directions for future research are presented. They indicate the need for further research on the impact on distribution circuits, charging infrastructure during emergencies, equity and disparity in rebate allocations, and the use of big data with cluster analysis to assist transportation network management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles Integration and Control in Smart Grids)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3832 KiB  
Review
Electric Mobility: An Overview of the Main Aspects Related to the Smart Grid
by Rúben Barreto, Pedro Faria and Zita Vale
Electronics 2022, 11(9), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11091311 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2689
Abstract
Electric mobility has become increasingly prominent, not only because of the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but also because of the proven implementations in the electric and transport sector. This paper, considering the smart grid perspective, focuses on the financial and economic [...] Read more.
Electric mobility has become increasingly prominent, not only because of the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but also because of the proven implementations in the electric and transport sector. This paper, considering the smart grid perspective, focuses on the financial and economic benefits related to Electric Vehicle (EV) management in Vehicle-to-Building (V2B), Vehicle-to-Home (V2H), and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) technologies. Vehicle-to-Everything is also approached. The owners of EVs, through these technologies, can obtain revenue from their participation in the various ancillary and other services. Similarly, providing these services makes it possible to increase the electric grid’s service quality, reliability, and sustainability. This paper also highlights the different technologies mentioned above, giving an explanation and some examples of their application. Likewise, it is presented the most common ancillary services verified today, such as frequency and voltage regulation, valley filling, peak shaving, and renewable energy supporting and balancing. Furthermore, it is highlighted the different opportunities that EVs can bring to energy management in smart grids. Finally, the SWOT analysis is highlighted for V2G technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles Integration and Control in Smart Grids)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop