10th Anniversary of Electronics: Related Researches in Electrical and Autonomous Vehicles

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical and Autonomous Vehicles".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 53349

Special Issue Editors

GECAD-Research Group on Intelligent Engineering and Computing for Advanced Innovation and Development, Polytechnic of Porto (P.PORTO), P-4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Interests: artificial intelligence; demand response; electric vehicles; electricity markets; power and energy systems; renewable and sustainable energy; smart grids
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Mississippi State University, 406 Hardy Road, 216 Simrall Hall, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
Interests: Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS); scene understanding; sensor processing (Radar, LiDAR, camera, hyperspectral, thermal); machine learning; digital image and signal processing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are happy to celebrate the 10th Anniversary of MDPI’s Electronics journal by proposing a new Special Issue related to the subject of electrical and autonomous vehicles. Nowadays, electric mobility is rapidly growing, involving different aspects such as battery chargers, electric drives, battery management systems, grid integration, power quality, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services and so on. Moreover, autonomous vehicles are also getting a lot of attention from both academy and industries. Analysis, novel solutions, and more performant controls and algorithms must be investigated to face with the upcoming challenges in the future electric mobility.

This Special Issue encourages further research and development on power electronics for electric vehicles, power and energy management strategies, self-driving cars, charging stations and their integration with both the grid and renewable sources. Scholars, academic scientists, researchers, Ph.D. students, and professional groups are invited to submit original contributions and/or review papers.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Electric vehicle chargers (on-board, off-board, and wireless power transfer)
  • Converters for electric drives and power trains
  • Battery management systems
  • New battery technologies
  • Power supplies for auxiliary systems
  • Power and energy management strategies
  • Self-driving cars/Autonomous driving/vehicles
  • Artificial intelligence applications for vehicles and traffic
  • Electric vehicles and smart cities/smart grids/smart homes
  • Vehicle-to-grid (V2G), vehicle-to-home (V2H), vehicle-to-everything (V2X) 

Prof. Dr. Zita Vale
Dr. John Ball
Dr. Mattia Ricco
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • EV chargers
  • power electronics
  • battery management systems
  • drives/vehicles
  • grid integration
  • self-driving cars
  • V2G, V2H, V2X

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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23 pages, 4640 KiB  
Article
Novel Multi-Vehicle Motion-Based Model of Trolleybus Grids towards Smarter Urban Mobility
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060915 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
Trolleybus systems are resurfacing as a steppingstone to carbon-neutral urban transport. With an eye on smart city evolution, the study and simulation of a proper monitoring system for trolleybus infrastructures will be essential. This paper merges the authors’ engineering knowledge and sources available [...] Read more.
Trolleybus systems are resurfacing as a steppingstone to carbon-neutral urban transport. With an eye on smart city evolution, the study and simulation of a proper monitoring system for trolleybus infrastructures will be essential. This paper merges the authors’ engineering knowledge and sources available in the literature on designing and modeling catenary-based electric traction networks and performs a critical review of them to lay the foundations for proposing possible optimal alternatives. A novel multi-vehicle motion-based model of the DC catenary system is then devised and simulated in Matlab-Simulink, which could prove useful in predicting possible technical obstacles arising from the next-future introduction of smart electric traction grids, inevitably featuring greater morphological intricacy. The modularity property characterizing the created model allows an accurate, detailed, and flexible simulation of sophisticated catenary systems. By means of graphical and numerical results illustrating the behavior of the main electrical line parameters, the presented approach demonstrates today’s obsolescence of conventional design methods used so far. The trolleybus network of the city of Bologna was chosen as a case study. Full article
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19 pages, 6029 KiB  
Article
A Unified Topology for the Integration of Electric Vehicle, Renewable Energy Source, and Active Filtering for the Power Quality Improvement of the Electrical Power Grid: An Experimental Validation
Electronics 2022, 11(3), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11030429 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1923
Abstract
Electrical power grids are facing challenges concerning new linked technologies and associated contributions of power electronics, both regarding innovative topologies of power converters and advanced power management algorithms. Additionally, technologies related to renewables and electric mobility have several points in common, especially about [...] Read more.
Electrical power grids are facing challenges concerning new linked technologies and associated contributions of power electronics, both regarding innovative topologies of power converters and advanced power management algorithms. Additionally, technologies related to renewables and electric mobility have several points in common, especially about the interface with the power grid, which allows to foresee a convergence for unified solutions in the power grid interface, without jeopardizing the functionalities and added values of each technology. Encompassing this purpose, this paper presents a unified topology, based on a three-phase structure, which, in addition to a collaborative operation with the power grid targeting the compensation of power quality problems, also enables the integration of a renewable energy source and an electric vehicle. The main contribution of this paper resides in the fact that only an interface with the power grid is necessary to involve three central features of smart grids: renewables, electric mobility, and power quality. Overall, the unified topology presents a four-quadrant structure, both in the perspective of AC and DC interfaces, offering multiple functionalities, mainly to the power grid. In the AC interface, the structure operates in interleaved mode, while in the DC interface, the structure operates in multilevel mode. The global control algorithm is presented, covering the interconnection between the mentioned technologies, as well as the details of implementation of the individual control algorithms regarding each interface. A laboratory prototype, connected to a three-phase 400 V-50 Hz power grid, was used to obtain an experimental validation for a maximum operating power of 12.5 kW, corroborating the essential advantage characteristics and the correct functioning of the presented unified topology. Full article
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18 pages, 8222 KiB  
Article
Novel Technique for Estimation of Cell Parameters Using MATLAB/Simulink
Electronics 2022, 11(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11010117 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2477
Abstract
The main source of power in Electric Vehicles (EVs) is derived from batteries. An efficient cell model is extremely important for the development of complex algorithms like core temperature estimation, State of Health (SOH) estimation and State of Charge (SOC) estimation. In this [...] Read more.
The main source of power in Electric Vehicles (EVs) is derived from batteries. An efficient cell model is extremely important for the development of complex algorithms like core temperature estimation, State of Health (SOH) estimation and State of Charge (SOC) estimation. In this paper, a new methodology for improving the SOC estimation using Equivalent Cell Model (ECM) approach is proposed. The modeling and simulations were performed using MATLAB/Simulink software. In this regard, a Li polymer cell was modeled as a single Resistor-Capacitor (RC) pair (R0, R1 and C1) model using PowerTrain blockset in MATLAB/Simulink software. To validate the developed model, a NASA dataset was used as the reference dataset. The cell model was tuned against the NASA dataset for different currents in such a way that the error in the terminal voltages (difference in terminal voltage between the dataset and the ECM) is <±0.2 V. The mean error and the standard deviation of the error were 0.0529 and 0.0310 respectively. This process was performed by tuning the cell parameters. It was found that the cell parameters were independent of the nominal capacity of the cell. The cell parameters of Li polymer and the Li ion cells (NASA dataset) were found be almost identical. These parameters showed dependence on SOC and temperature. The major challenge in a battery management system is the parameter estimation and prediction of SOC, this is because the degradation of battery is highly nonlinear in nature. This paper presents the parameter estimation and prediction of state of charge of Li ion batteries by implementing different machine learning techniques. The selection of the best suited algorithm is finalized through the performance indices mainly by evaluating the values of R- Squared. The parameters were trained using various Machine Leaning (ML) techniques for regression data analysis using Simulink. A study on Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique was carried out for the simulated and tuned data. It is concluded that the SVM algorithm was best suited. A detailed analysis on the errors associated with the algorithms was also carried out. Later, these parameters were trained using various Machine Leaning (ML) techniques for regression data analysis using Simulink. A study on SVM technique was carried out for the simulated and tuned data. It is concluded that the SVM algorithm was best suited. A detailed analysis on the errors associated with the algorithms was also carried out. Full article
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26 pages, 11745 KiB  
Article
Virtual Validation of an Automated Lane-Keeping System with an Extended Operational Design Domain
Electronics 2022, 11(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11010072 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3975
Abstract
Virtual testing using simulation will play a significant role in future safety validation procedures for automated driving systems, as it provides the needed scalability for executing a scenario-based assessment approach. This article combines multiple essential aspects that are necessary for the virtual validation [...] Read more.
Virtual testing using simulation will play a significant role in future safety validation procedures for automated driving systems, as it provides the needed scalability for executing a scenario-based assessment approach. This article combines multiple essential aspects that are necessary for the virtual validation of such systems. First, a general framework that contains the vital subsystems needed for virtual validation is introduced. Secondly, the interfaces between the subsystems are explored. Additionally, the concept of model fidelities is presented and extended towards all relevant subsystems. For an automated lane-keeping system with two different definitions of an operational design domain, all relevant subsystems are defined and integrated into an overall simulation framework. The resulting difference between both operational design domains is the occurrence of lateral manoeuvres, leading to greater demands of the fidelity of the vehicle dynamics model. The simulation results support the initial assumption that by extending the operation domain, the requirements for all subsystems are subject to adaption. As an essential aspect of harmonising virtual validation frameworks, the article identifies four separate layers and their corresponding parameters. In particular, the tool-specific co-simulation capability layer is critical, as it enables model exchange through consistently defined interfaces and reduces the integration effort. The introduction of this layered architecture for virtual validation frameworks enables further cross-domain collaboration. Full article
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15 pages, 1854 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Multi-Objective Optimization Techniques for Resilience Enhancement of Electric Vehicles
Electronics 2021, 10(23), 3030; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10233030 - 04 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2305
Abstract
The pervasiveness of electric vehicles (EVs) has increased recently, which results in the interdependence of power and transport networks. Power outages may adversely impact the transportation sector, and the available energy may not be sufficient to meet the needs of all EVs during [...] Read more.
The pervasiveness of electric vehicles (EVs) has increased recently, which results in the interdependence of power and transport networks. Power outages may adversely impact the transportation sector, and the available energy may not be sufficient to meet the needs of all EVs during such events. In addition, EVs will be used for diverse purposes in the future, ranging from personal usage to emergency response. Therefore, the allocation of energy to different EVs may have different degrees of societal-, community-, and individual-level benefits. To capture these diverse aspects, the energy allocation problem to EVs during outages is modeled as a multiobjective optimization (MOO) problem in this study. Three indices are formulated to quantify the value of different EVs for societies, communities, and individuals during outages, and, correspondingly, three objective functions are formulated. The formulated MOO problem is solved using the five most widely used MOO solution methods, and their performance is evaluated. These methods include the weighted-sum method, lexicographic method, normal boundary intersection method, min–max method, and nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II. To compare the performance of these methods, two indices are proposed in this study, which include the demand fulfillment index and total demand fulfillment index. The former is for analyzing the demand fulfillment ratio of different priority EVs, while the latter is for the demand fulfillment analysis of the whole EV fleet requiring a recharge. In addition, the computational complexity, variance, and additional constraints required by each method are also analyzed. The simulation results have shown that the lexicographic method has the best performance when the relative priorities are known, while the min–max method is the most suitable method if the priorities are not known. Full article
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15 pages, 2513 KiB  
Article
Vehicular Visible Light Positioning Using Receiver Diversity with Machine Learning
Electronics 2021, 10(23), 3023; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10233023 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2159
Abstract
This paper proposes a 2-D vehicular visible light positioning (VLP) system using existing streetlights and diversity receivers. Due to the linear arrangement of streetlights, traditional positioning techniques based on triangulation or similar algorithms fail. Thus, in this work, we propose a spatial and [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a 2-D vehicular visible light positioning (VLP) system using existing streetlights and diversity receivers. Due to the linear arrangement of streetlights, traditional positioning techniques based on triangulation or similar algorithms fail. Thus, in this work, we propose a spatial and angular diversity receiver with machine learning (ML) techniques for VLP. It is shown that a multi-layer neural network (NN) with the proposed receiver scheme outperforms other ML algorithms and can offer high accuracy with root mean square (RMS) error of 0.22 m and 0.14 m during the day and night time, respectively. Furthermore, the NN shows robustness in VLP across different weather conditions and road scenarios. The results show that only dense fog deteriorates the performance of the system due to reduced visibility across the road. Full article
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20 pages, 6719 KiB  
Article
The Grid Independence of an Electric Vehicle Charging Station with Solar and Storage
Electronics 2021, 10(23), 2940; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10232940 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2270
Abstract
The UK government has set a ban on the sale of new petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2030. This will create a shift to electric vehicles. which will present a substantial impact on the grid. Therefore, methods to reduce the charging [...] Read more.
The UK government has set a ban on the sale of new petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2030. This will create a shift to electric vehicles. which will present a substantial impact on the grid. Therefore, methods to reduce the charging station’s impact on the grid have to be developed. This paper’s objective is to evaluate how integrating solar and storage affects a charging station’s dependence on the grid. A photovoltaic electric vehicle charging station (PVEVCS) is first designed, and then four charging profiles are selected to assess the station through a simulation using MATLAB. The array produces 3257 MWh/yr which, on average, offsets 40% of the electric vehicle (EV) load experienced by the station. Furthermore, with the integration of storage, the dependence is further reduced by 10% on average. The system also exported energy to the grid, offsetting close to all the energy imported. Full article
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14 pages, 5971 KiB  
Article
Formulation and Analysis of Single Switch High Gain Hybrid DC to DC Converter for High Power Applications
Electronics 2021, 10(19), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10192445 - 08 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
The necessity for DC−DC converters has been rapidly increasing due to the emergence of RES-based electrification. However, the converter designed so far exhibits the drawbacks of lower efficiency and non-compactness in size. Hence, to rectify this problem, the new topology of a flyback [...] Read more.
The necessity for DC−DC converters has been rapidly increasing due to the emergence of RES-based electrification. However, the converter designed so far exhibits the drawbacks of lower efficiency and non-compactness in size. Hence, to rectify this problem, the new topology of a flyback converter for PV application is proposed in this work. The proposed converter exhibits reduced ripple in input current and enhances the conversion efficiency. Finally, the efficiency of this proposed converter is verified using MATLAB. The results indicate that this projected topology can be suitable for high voltage DC applications. Full article
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15 pages, 3896 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Implementation of a Frequency Control DC–DC Converter for Light Electric Vehicle Applications
Electronics 2021, 10(14), 1623; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10141623 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2421
Abstract
In order to realize emission-free solutions and clean transportation alternatives, this paper presents a new DC converter with pulse frequency control for a battery charger in electric vehicles (EVs) or light electric vehicles (LEVs). The circuit configuration includes a resonant tank on the [...] Read more.
In order to realize emission-free solutions and clean transportation alternatives, this paper presents a new DC converter with pulse frequency control for a battery charger in electric vehicles (EVs) or light electric vehicles (LEVs). The circuit configuration includes a resonant tank on the high-voltage side and two variable winding sets on the output side to achieve wide output voltage operation for a universal LEV battery charger. The input terminal of the presented converter is a from DC microgrid with voltage levels of 380, 760, or 1500 V for house, industry plant, or DC transportation vehicle demands, respectively. To reduce voltage stresses on active devices, a cascade circuit structure with less voltage rating on power semiconductors is used on the primary side. Two resonant capacitors were selected on the resonant tank, not only to achieve the two input voltage balance problem but also to realize the resonant operation to control load voltage. By using the variable switching frequency approach to regulate load voltage, active switches are turned on with soft switching operation to improve converter efficiency. In order to achieve wide output voltage capability for universal battery charger demands such as scooters, electric motorbikes, Li-ion e-trikes, golf carts, luxury golf cars, and quad applications, two variable winding sets were selected to have a wide voltage output (50~160 V). Finally, experiments with a 1 kW rated prototype were demonstrated to validate the performance and benefits of presented converter. Full article
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16 pages, 6115 KiB  
Article
Model-Based Estimation of Transmission Gear Ratio for Driving Energy Consumption of an EV
Electronics 2021, 10(13), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10131530 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2205
Abstract
This paper presents a numerical study of the effect of the transmission configuration on the energy consumption of an electric vehicle. The first part of this study is related to a vehicle simulation model that takes into consideration vehicle resistances such as aerodynamic, [...] Read more.
This paper presents a numerical study of the effect of the transmission configuration on the energy consumption of an electric vehicle. The first part of this study is related to a vehicle simulation model that takes into consideration vehicle resistances such as aerodynamic, rolling and inertial resistance as well as the traction force. The model was then validated by means of vehicle acceleration time, from 0 to 100 km/h in the case of a single-speed gearbox. Vehicle power demand and electrical energy consumption were then evaluated over three standardized test cycles: WLTC-Class 3, NEDC and FTP-75. For each cycle, two cases were studied: a single-speed and dual-speed gearbox. Very different power demand was observed between the cycles in terms of maximum and average driving power. The most power-demanding cycle was WLTC, while NEDC was less power demanding. However, the specific driving energy per kilometer was very similar for NEDC and FTP-75, as it respectively accounted to 0.118/0.116 kWh/km and 0.117/0.115 kWh/km. WLTC led to a higher specific consumption of 0.127/0.124 kWh/km. A dual-speed gearbox led to better efficiency, within the range of 1.7% to 2.4%. The higher value was obtained for highly dynamic WLTC. Full article
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10 pages, 2264 KiB  
Article
High-Frequency Core Loss Analysis of High-Speed Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Machines
Electronics 2021, 10(9), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10091076 - 02 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2365
Abstract
Accurate prediction of core losses plays an important role in the design and analysis of flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machines, especially during high-speed and high-frequency operation. Firstly, based on the numerical method, a high-frequency core loss prediction method considering a DC-bias magnetization component [...] Read more.
Accurate prediction of core losses plays an important role in the design and analysis of flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machines, especially during high-speed and high-frequency operation. Firstly, based on the numerical method, a high-frequency core loss prediction method considering a DC-bias magnetization component and local hysteresis loops as well as the harmonic effect is proposed. Secondly, the magnetizing characteristics of the silicon steel sheet and, consequently, the core loss of the electrical steel used as the core lamination are measured. Then, the loss coefficient of each core loss component is obtained by the data fitting tool. Based on the proposed method, the stator and rotor core losses of a three-phase, 12-stator-slot, and 10-rotor-pole (12/10) FSPM machine with different soft iron materials and driving modes are calculated. Finally, the results of the numerical method are verified by conventional finite element analysis. Full article
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18 pages, 8126 KiB  
Article
Multiple Sensor Fault Detection Algorithm for Fault Tolerant Control of BLDC Motor
Electronics 2021, 10(9), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10091038 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2385
Abstract
A direct redundancy-based fault tolerant control system (FTCS) is proposed for the operation of a brushless DC (BLDC) motor in the case of multiple sensor failures. The presented method expands on the previously published work that dealt with the failure of a single [...] Read more.
A direct redundancy-based fault tolerant control system (FTCS) is proposed for the operation of a brushless DC (BLDC) motor in the case of multiple sensor failures. The presented method expands on the previously published work that dealt with the failure of a single Hall-effect sensor. In this paper, a novel algorithm is developed along with the new experimental scheme and the FTCS can deal with the failure of up to two Hall-effect sensors. The fault tolerant control (FTC) algorithm is based on three conditions and is designed to deal with any scenario of the sensor faults. Simulation was performed and presented experimental results show effectiveness and validation of the method. The method can be implemented with ease, is fast and does not require high end processors. Full article
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Review

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33 pages, 5048 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Potential for Electric Retrofit Regulations and an Accreditation Scheme for the UK
Electronics 2021, 10(24), 3110; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10243110 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4409
Abstract
Electric vehicles have zero tailpipe emissions and can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to 90% compared to internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. Electric retrofits involve converting an ICE vehicle to an electric drivetrain, aiding the transition to zero emission vehicles by adapting [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles have zero tailpipe emissions and can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to 90% compared to internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. Electric retrofits involve converting an ICE vehicle to an electric drivetrain, aiding the transition to zero emission vehicles by adapting current vehicles and, thus, reducing the transport sector emissions. Other benefits include charge exemptions in major cities, reduced driving costs, and lower maintenance. The UK has a considerable retrofit market, with a large price range of services offered. There is a varying level of practice undertaken and current regulations may not adequately cover these retrofits. Industrial engagement has highlighted the varying levels and common themes of practice, such as restoration work, computer-aided design, and finite element analysis. Converting the registered fuel type of a vehicle to electricity, post-retrofit, appears to be a limited process, with few steps. Therefore, a regulatory framework, such as an accreditation scheme, could be introduced to ensure high levels of safety and good practice. Future work suggestions include further meetings with the DVLA and DVSA, and meeting the Motor Insurers’ Bureau. Full article
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21 pages, 6785 KiB  
Review
Review of Electric Vehicle Technologies, Charging Methods, Standards and Optimization Techniques
Electronics 2021, 10(16), 1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10161910 - 09 Aug 2021
Cited by 72 | Viewed by 13521
Abstract
This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of electric vehicle technology, charging methods, standards, and optimization techniques. The essential characteristics of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) and Electric Vehicle (EV) are first discussed. Recent research on EV charging methods such as Battery Swap Station (BSS), [...] Read more.
This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of electric vehicle technology, charging methods, standards, and optimization techniques. The essential characteristics of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) and Electric Vehicle (EV) are first discussed. Recent research on EV charging methods such as Battery Swap Station (BSS), Wireless Power Transfer (WPT), and Conductive Charging (CC) are then presented. This is followed by a discussion of EV standards such as charging levels and their configurations. Next, some of the most used optimization techniques for the sizing and placement of EV charging stations are analyzed. Finally, based on the insights gained, several recommendations are put forward for future research. Full article
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14 pages, 291 KiB  
Review
Review of Autonomous Intelligent Vehicles for Urban Driving and Parking
Electronics 2021, 10(9), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10091021 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4206
Abstract
With the concept of Internet-of-Things, autonomous vehicles can provide higher driving efficiency, traffic safety, and freedom for the driver to perform other tasks. This paper first covers enabling technology involving a vehicle moving out of parking, traveling on the road, and parking at [...] Read more.
With the concept of Internet-of-Things, autonomous vehicles can provide higher driving efficiency, traffic safety, and freedom for the driver to perform other tasks. This paper first covers enabling technology involving a vehicle moving out of parking, traveling on the road, and parking at the destination. The development of autonomous vehicles relies on the data collected for deployment in actual road conditions. Research gaps and recommendations for autonomous intelligent vehicles are included. For example, a sudden obstacle while the autonomous vehicle executes the parking trajectory on the road is discussed. Several aspects of social problems, such as the liability of an accident affecting the autonomous vehicle, are described. A smart device to detect abnormal driving behaviors to prevent possible accidents is briefly discussed. Full article
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