Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education

A special issue of Education Sciences (ISSN 2227-7102). This special issue belongs to the section "Higher Education".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2021) | Viewed by 52692

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Department of Psychology and Education, Universidade Portucalense Infante D. Henrique, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
Interests: higher education; active learning; student assessment; teacher evaluation; project-based learning (PBL); curriculum development; education management and administration
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Guest Editor
Department of Education and Distance Learning, Universidade Aberta (UAb), 1000-013 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: teacher education; assessment and evaluation in education; project-based learning (PBL); higher education; curriculum development; teacher collaboration
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CISAS, Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, 4900-498 Viana do Castelo, Portugal
Interests: higher education development and evaluation; active learning; service-learning; teachers’ development and collaboration; skills development and evaluation; process-based approach
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Education Sciences focuses on research and practice concerning assessment and evaluation in higher education. This Special Issue intends to contribute to this line of research, assuming that assessment and evaluation are crucial processes for the advancement of higher education.

Recent research on assessment in higher education shows that the most favored assessment methods continue to be examinations within a one- and only-time frame. Therefore, despite policy recommendations, student assessment continues to be mostly focused on a unique episode and much less aimed at promoting the development of students’ competences, which remain, in most cases, outside of the assessment process. The impact of assessment methods and tasks on students’ learning processes, including their motivation, engagement, and approaches to learning, is an important issue to be discussed. Assessment should be seen as an educational development process, rather than a final outcome or winning post. For these reasons, this Special Issue welcomes submissions regarding the different dimensions and forms of assessment within higher education. This includes topics related to assessment methods (formative and summative), assessment purposes (assessment of/for/as learning), rubrics assessment and the assessment of learning outcomes (knowledge and skills). In this line of research, we also acknowledge the need to develop research on the assessment of active learning approaches and new pedagogical methodologies, based on student-centered assessment practices, which include, but are not restricted to, self- and peer assessment and other assessment methods that engage students directly on their own assessment.

Currently, the challenges, strengths, and opportunities of online and virtual assessment, which were topics already on the research agenda, are now of greater concern due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, with implications for all stakeholders. It is, therefore, relevant and urgent to bring new and alternative forms of assessment, also regarding distance learning, for higher education practitioners and stakeholders.

This Special Issue also understands the need for the continuous improvement, development and evaluation of higher education institutions (HEI). For this reason, in this Special Issue, we welcome research on the evaluation of HEI’s organizational management processes, evaluation of teacher performance, performance appraisal processes, evaluation of HEI performance, pedagogical innovation in HEIs, curriculum changes, evaluation of training programs and evaluation of institutional and inter-institutional practices of innovation.

Original and unpublished works reporting on empirical studies, research articles, reviews, case studies, and concept papers discussing this topic will be considered for acceptance in this issue. We look forward to your contributions!

Dr. Sandra Raquel Gonçalves Fernandes
Dr. Marta Abelha
Dr. Ana Teresa Ferreira-Oliveira
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Education Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Assessment of Student Learning
  • Developement and Assessment of Competences
  • Assessment Methods and Practices
  • Online Assessment and Distance Learning
  • COVID-19 Impact on Assessment Practices
  • Research in Assessment and Evaluation
  • Evaluation of Teacher Performance
  • Evaluation of Pedagogical Innovation
  • Evaluation of Curriculum and Education Programs
  • Organizational Evaluation of Higher Education Institutions
  • Performance Evaluation of Higher Education Institutions
  • Evaluation of Institutional and Inter-Institutional Practices of Innovation

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 1206 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Application of Content and Language Integrated Learning in a Multilingual Classroom
by Tatiana Baranova, Dmitriy Mokhorov, Aleksandra Kobicheva and Elena Tokareva
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11120808 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2465
Abstract
(1) Background: based on the constantly increasing requirements for modern university graduates, we have developed an educational model that allows us to introduce content and language integrated learning into classes with a multilingual approach, which will allow students to use several foreign languages [...] Read more.
(1) Background: based on the constantly increasing requirements for modern university graduates, we have developed an educational model that allows us to introduce content and language integrated learning into classes with a multilingual approach, which will allow students to use several foreign languages in the process of professional communication. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the efficiency of a newly introduced integrated learning model from the perspective of students, to identify the impact of such a model on students’ professional discipline learning outcomes and to determine if the learning model contributes to an improvement in foreign language proficiency. (2) Methods: for our research we used qualitative and quantitative data from students’ records of professional discipline and Spanish testing, as well as surveys and interviews on proposed learning model efficiency. Two groups of students took part in the experiment (N = 23 and N = 24). (3) Results: results on students’ Spanish proficiency showed that the proposed learning model had a positive influence. Students from the experimental group got higher results on Listening, Reading and Speaking. According to results on professional discipline, both groups achieved approximately equal scores. Moreover, students described such a proposed learning model as efficient and progressive, giving a lot of advantages. (4) Conclusions: the experiment conducted confirmed the efficiency of the proposed learning model. In conclusion, it can be recommended for the realization of a multilingual approach, as well as the learning of a professional discipline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
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18 pages, 423 KiB  
Article
Can Pedagogical Innovations Be Sustainable? One Evaluation Outlook for Research Developed in Portuguese Higher Education
by Cecília Guerra and Nilza Costa
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11110725 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
Across higher education, teachers have been inspiring themselves (and others) to apply pedagogical innovations grounded in a unifying intention: to prepare students for labour markets and societal challenges. Research-based education has been funded to promote pedagogical innovations with valuable impact on the students’ [...] Read more.
Across higher education, teachers have been inspiring themselves (and others) to apply pedagogical innovations grounded in a unifying intention: to prepare students for labour markets and societal challenges. Research-based education has been funded to promote pedagogical innovations with valuable impact on the students’ academic success and/or the teachers’ academic growth. However, there is still few documented research-based evidence that highlight how long-lasting and/or how embedded are the pedagogical innovations in academic practices, particularly when the funding period comes to an end. The purpose of this article is to discuss the extent to which funded national research-based education projects, developed in public Portuguese higher education institutions (universities and polytechnic institutes), have considered the sustainability of research results (e.g., pedagogical innovations), after funding ends. Based on a qualitative research approach, data collection included: document analysis of 39 projects’ materials and conceptions collected with 9 coordinators and 17 key participants from selected projects, through interviews and questionnaires, respectively. Content analysis of data collected showed that there are key factors that contribute to enhance and/or limit the sustainability of research results (e.g., funding and institutional support to maintain innovation). Results and recommendations are put forward to inform educational policies, funding agencies and involved actors (e.g., institution leaders, researchers, and teaching staff) to increase the sustainability of research results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
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17 pages, 1296 KiB  
Article
Assessment and Evaluation in Active Learning Implementations: Introducing the Engineering Education Active Learning Maturity Model
by Humberto Arruda and Édison Renato Silva
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11110690 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2643
Abstract
With the technological changes experienced in the world in recent decades, society has changed as a whole, due to the speed and availability of information that exists today. As student attention decreases, critical thinking and Active Learning, which places the student at the [...] Read more.
With the technological changes experienced in the world in recent decades, society has changed as a whole, due to the speed and availability of information that exists today. As student attention decreases, critical thinking and Active Learning, which places the student at the center of the learning process, have gained prominence. Considering the growing popularity of these techniques, this article proposes the Engineering Education Active Learning Maturity Model (E2ALM2), a framework that allows practitioners to assess the current maturity of Active Learning implementation in a program or a course. E2ALM2 was built from a literature review of key success factors (KSF) for Active Learning implementations, which were divided into dimensions. Each KSF is composed of constructs, which are detailed with variables. Each variable has a proposed measurement method and an estimated uncertainty level. The framework can support diagnosis and practical improvements in real settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
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20 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
Participation in the Assessment Processes in Problem-Based Learning: Experiences of the Students of Social Sciences in Lithuania
by Jurgita Lenkauskaitė, Remigijus Bubnys, Erika Masiliauskienė and Daiva Malinauskienė
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11110678 - 24 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2100
Abstract
The article explores the idea of change in the higher educational process that is implemented via the problem-based learning strategy. Problem-based learning (PBL) is widely understood as an epistemological transformation in higher education. It is emphasized that the transformation should take place throughout [...] Read more.
The article explores the idea of change in the higher educational process that is implemented via the problem-based learning strategy. Problem-based learning (PBL) is widely understood as an epistemological transformation in higher education. It is emphasized that the transformation should take place throughout the educational process, and assessment is an inseparable and very important part thereof. The study was aimed at revealing the experiences of participation in the assessment processes in PBL of students attending social science programmes in Lithuania. The empirical study, employing a semi-structured interview method, has shown that the students feel empowered when they have the opportunity to assess the entire educational process and (self-)assess the efforts related to the possibilities to become actively engaged in improvement of the assessment strategy. The study has also shown students’ critical approach to the previous experience of assessment in the educational process. Difficulties of student participation in the assessment process in PBL were also identified. They were largely due to the change in the assessment system employed by the teacher and the manifestations of student bias when participating in (self-)assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
11 pages, 240 KiB  
Article
Needs Analysis of Psychosocial Module Development Based on Psychoeducation Approach for Public University Students in Malaysia
by Salleh Amat, Harizah Izyan Samsudin, Abu Yazid Abu Bakar, Mohd Izwan Mahmud and Mohd Hasrul Kamarulzaman
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11100604 - 1 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
This study is a needs analysis that aims to develop a psychosocial module based on a psychoeducation approach in order to strengthen the assertiveness, social skills, and psychological well-being of public university students in Malaysia. The specific objectives of this study were to [...] Read more.
This study is a needs analysis that aims to develop a psychosocial module based on a psychoeducation approach in order to strengthen the assertiveness, social skills, and psychological well-being of public university students in Malaysia. The specific objectives of this study were to identify the perceptions of university students on the need to design and build a psychosocial module, identify the constructs that should be included in the phase of designing and building of the psychosocial module as well as the support that has been received and the support that the students desire while on campus. This survey study utilized a questionnaire distributed to a total of 286 first year students studying at three public universities in Malaysia. The data obtained were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study showed a highly positive response from the students toward the development of a psychosocial module and the constructs listed in the questionnaire. Implications from this study can further solidify the constructs that should be included in the design and construction of the psychosocial module as well as identify the availability of the approaches, strategies, and support activities that have been received and desired by the students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
21 pages, 697 KiB  
Article
Impact of Governance Factors over Lecturers’ Scientific Research Output: An Empirical Evidence
by Hue Thi Truong, Hung Manh Le, Duc Anh Do, Duc Anh Le, Huyen Thi Nguyen and Thanh Kim Nguyen
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11090553 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2783
Abstract
This study aims to determine the governance factors that influence the scientific research output of lecturers through the application of PLS-SEM, in conjunction with ANOVA and t-test. Based on a survey of 398 lecturers in twelve higher education institutions (HEIs) in Vietnam, [...] Read more.
This study aims to determine the governance factors that influence the scientific research output of lecturers through the application of PLS-SEM, in conjunction with ANOVA and t-test. Based on a survey of 398 lecturers in twelve higher education institutions (HEIs) in Vietnam, the psychometric properties of the scales measuring the considered dimensions of scientific research outputs were initially examined through the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) procedure, prior to being input into the PLS-SEM model. The SEM model comprised six constructs for the scientific research outputs: scientific research objectives of HEIs, leadership, decentralization, policies for lecturers, support for scientific research activities, and resources for scientific research. The results reveal that resources for scientific research have the most impact on lecturers’ scientific research output, followed by policies for lecturers, support for scientific research activities, scientific research objectives of HEIs, and finally, leadership. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
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16 pages, 2485 KiB  
Article
Authentic Assessment Implementation in Natural and Social Science
by Eddy Sutadji, Herawati Susilo, Aji Prasetya Wibawa, Nidal A. M. Jabari and Syaiful Nur Rohmad
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11090534 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2968
Abstract
Assessment methods are important to create qualified graduates who are ready to face the real world. Authentic assessment is considered to be the most effective method to achieve this. The application of authentic assessment is often universal. However, there is a difference between [...] Read more.
Assessment methods are important to create qualified graduates who are ready to face the real world. Authentic assessment is considered to be the most effective method to achieve this. The application of authentic assessment is often universal. However, there is a difference between natural sciences and social sciences. If it is used for different scientific constructions, then the authentic assessment should also be different. Therefore, there is a need for authentic implementation research in these two fields of science. This research is survey research with quantitative descriptive method. This study focuses on the analysis of differences in implementation of the assessment carried out, assignment techniques, assessment components, and post-assessment at the State University of Malang in two different fields of science, namely natural sciences and social sciences. The population in this study was 1069 lecturers represented by 270 sample lecturers. There are 106 (39.26%) samples of lecturers representing 388 (36.3%) lecturer populations from 2 natural fields and 164 (60.74%) samples representing 681 (63.7%) lecturer populations from 6 social fields. The analysis is carried out by comparing the results of each aspect of the assessment implementation in the two fields. Almost all aspects of authentic assessment between the natural and social sciences had no difference. The only differences were in the assessment form and individual assignment techniques that were performed. Social science conducted non-test assessment only higher than the natural science. Measured tests were primarily used in the natural science using Higher-Order Thinking Skills questions. Performance test was mostly conducted in social science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
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12 pages, 599 KiB  
Article
Moodle Quizzes as a Continuous Assessment in Higher Education: An Exploratory Approach in Physical Chemistry
by Isabel López-Tocón
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11090500 - 3 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2755
Abstract
The use of Moodle quizzes as a continuous assessment and an integral part of the educational methodology in higher education has been analyzed in a case study of physical chemistry subject. Two types of quiz designed with different item types and different settings, [...] Read more.
The use of Moodle quizzes as a continuous assessment and an integral part of the educational methodology in higher education has been analyzed in a case study of physical chemistry subject. Two types of quiz designed with different item types and different settings, called basic quiz (BQ) and thematic block quiz (TBQ), were elaborated making use of a question bank with more than 450 items. BQ has true/false items, while TBQ has randomly mixed items (multiple choice, numerical and matching). The effect of the type of quiz on the student scores is analyzed according to statistical and psychometric data such as the degree of participation, the facility index and the discrimination index of each item, and the average score, calculated according to the classical test theory. This allows us to discern which type of quiz has an enough quality to use it as an assessment tool. Moreover, the effect of this educational activity, developed during the last six academic years from 2014 to 2020, just before of the pandemic situation, is evaluated considering the scores of the students in the Ordinary Calls of exams and comparing them with previous courses taught with a traditional education based on master classes. The statistic results indicate that TBQs are more discriminative than BQs and could be used as an assessment tool, while BQs could be only useful as formative activity. Moodle quizzes turn out to be a reliable strategy for learning of contents in scientific matter, with a high participation in the knowledge tests, with good marks in the average score and a greater number of pass degrees in the Ordinary Calls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
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15 pages, 1352 KiB  
Article
Organizational Differences among Universities in Three Socioeconomic Contexts: Finland, Spain and Ecuador. Relational Coordination Approach
by Cristina Checa-Morales, Carmen De-Pablos-Heredero, Angela Lorena Carreño, Sajid Haider and Antón García
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11080445 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2160
Abstract
The knowledge of local culture is essential to establish competitive strategies in higher education. The objective of this research was to identify the organizational differences among three universities with different international contexts and satisfaction level. An approach was made regarding Relational Coordination (RC) [...] Read more.
The knowledge of local culture is essential to establish competitive strategies in higher education. The objective of this research was to identify the organizational differences among three universities with different international contexts and satisfaction level. An approach was made regarding Relational Coordination (RC) attributes: accurate, frequent and problem-solving communication, shared knowledge, mutual respect and shared goals, by discriminant analysis method. A random sample of 300 students, 100 belonging to each university, was surveyed on the 23 RC variables in 2017–2018. First, the RC variables were evaluated by general linear model (GLM). The three universities—Arcada University of Applied Science (ARCADA) in Finland, University of Cordoba (UCO) in Spain and Agricultural Polytechnic of Manabi “MFL” (ESPAM) in Ecuador—and the two levels of student satisfaction—Low and High—were used as fixed factors. Second, a discriminant model was built with RC variables. A higher level of RC practices concerning to accurate, frequent and problem-solving communication achieved higher levels of satisfaction, regardless of the universities’ socioeconomic context. RC differentiation among three universities showed that shared goals with lecturers and administrative officers and problem-solving communication among classmates were the variables with the highest discriminant power. Two clusters were obtained, where UCO was the most differentiated university. In conclusion, organizational practices made a difference among the three universities. Discriminant analysis can be adapted and extended to different universities to improve quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
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12 pages, 2693 KiB  
Article
Effect on Procrastination and Learning of Mistakes in the Design of the Formative and Summative Assessments: A Case Study
by Fidel Salas Vicente, Ángel Vicente Escuder, Miguel Ángel Pérez Puig and Francisco Segovia López
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11080428 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3527
Abstract
The design of the formative and summative assessment processes is of paramount importance to help students avoid procrastination and guide them towards the achievement of the learning objectives that are described in the course syllabus. If the assessment processes are poorly designed the [...] Read more.
The design of the formative and summative assessment processes is of paramount importance to help students avoid procrastination and guide them towards the achievement of the learning objectives that are described in the course syllabus. If the assessment processes are poorly designed the outcome can be disappointing, including high grades but poor learning. In this paper, we describe the unexpected and undesirable effects that an on-demand formative assessment and the timetable of a summative assessment that left the most cognitively demanding part, problem-solving, to the end of the course, had on the behavior of students and on both grading and learning. As the formative assessment was voluntary, students procrastinated till the last minute. However, the real problem was that due to the design of the summative assessment, they focused their efforts mainly on the easiest parts of the summative assessment, passing the course with ease, but achieving a low learning level, as evidenced by the low scores of the problem-solving part of the summative assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
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15 pages, 2895 KiB  
Article
A Qualitative Assessment of the Pedagogical Process at Czech Public Universities
by Jiří Bečica and Roman Vavrek
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11080389 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2057
Abstract
Quality is currently an often-used term in all areas of human activity. However, the measurement of quality is very problematic in the field of education, particularly if no specific, comprehensible criteria for its measurement, accepted by most subjects active in the specific sector, [...] Read more.
Quality is currently an often-used term in all areas of human activity. However, the measurement of quality is very problematic in the field of education, particularly if no specific, comprehensible criteria for its measurement, accepted by most subjects active in the specific sector, exist. Monitoring quality in the field of education is difficult because there is no long-term embedded quality standard and the established level can be affected not only by the selection of the chosen criteria for measurement, but also by determining specific weights when comparing the importance of the chosen criteria. The authors of this paper endeavour to point out one way of assessing the quality of publicly established universities in the Czech Republic during the academic years 2011/2012 and 2018/2019 on a basic sample of all 26 publicly established universities. The quality of the pedagogic apparatus and the converted number of students indicate that the classification of schools into categories according to the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic (MEYS) is possible, but the individual categories should be discussed and modified according to the assessment performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
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18 pages, 2920 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Learning Space Designs for Flipped and Collaborative Learning: A Transactional Distance Approach
by William Swart and Ken MacLeod
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11060292 - 12 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4014
Abstract
Problem-based learning is the latest name for a teaching philosophy that is as old as Ancient Greece. Whether you call it Socratic Inquiry, case-based teaching, problem-based learning, interactive group learning, or “flipped” learning, the essential concept is to encourage the student to collaborate [...] Read more.
Problem-based learning is the latest name for a teaching philosophy that is as old as Ancient Greece. Whether you call it Socratic Inquiry, case-based teaching, problem-based learning, interactive group learning, or “flipped” learning, the essential concept is to encourage the student to collaborate in applying their gained knowledge to solve a problem. As traditional lecture-based teaching has been challenged, the design of classrooms has been called into question. A flat or tiered room is not seen as an ideal setting for collaborative work. In our own College of Business, several traditional classrooms were converted to problem-based learning classrooms at considerable expense. This paper evaluates, using measures based on Michael G. Moore’s theory of transactional distance, whether moving flipped classes into these high-tech classrooms improves the collaborative learning experience. Transactional distance can be defined as the barriers that exist to a student’s engagement with their learning experience. These barriers arise due to the interaction between students and the teacher, other students, the subject matter content, and instructional technology being used. Our results suggest that, from a student engagement and outcome standpoint, the investment in costly high-tech classrooms is not warranted—a welcome result in times when university budgets are stretched to the limit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
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12 pages, 16278 KiB  
Article
Multi-Class Assessment Based on Random Forests
by Mehdi Berriri, Sofiane Djema, Gaëtan Rey and Christel Dartigues-Pallez
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11030092 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3183
Abstract
Today, many students are moving towards higher education courses that do not suit them and end up failing. The purpose of this study is to help provide counselors with better knowledge so that they can offer future students courses corresponding to their profile. [...] Read more.
Today, many students are moving towards higher education courses that do not suit them and end up failing. The purpose of this study is to help provide counselors with better knowledge so that they can offer future students courses corresponding to their profile. The second objective is to allow the teaching staff to propose training courses adapted to students by anticipating their possible difficulties. This is possible thanks to a machine learning algorithm called Random Forest, allowing for the classification of the students depending on their results. We had to process data, generate models using our algorithm, and cross the results obtained to have a better final prediction. We tested our method on different use cases, from two classes to five classes. These sets of classes represent the different intervals with an average ranging from 0 to 20. Thus, an accuracy of 75% was achieved with a set of five classes and up to 85% for sets of two and three classes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
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20 pages, 2513 KiB  
Article
The Continuous Intention to Use E-Learning, from Two Different Perspectives
by Rana Saeed Al-Maroof, Khadija Alhumaid and Said Salloum
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11010006 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 10337
Abstract
During the recent vast growth of digitalization, e-learning methods have become the most influential phenomenon at higher educational institutions. E-learning adoption has proved able to shift educational circumstances from the traditional face-to-face teaching environment to a flexible and sharable type of education. An [...] Read more.
During the recent vast growth of digitalization, e-learning methods have become the most influential phenomenon at higher educational institutions. E-learning adoption has proved able to shift educational circumstances from the traditional face-to-face teaching environment to a flexible and sharable type of education. An online survey was conducted, consisting of 30 teachers and 342 students in one of the universities in the United Arab Emirates. The results show that teachers’ and students’ perceived technology self-efficacy (TSE), ease of use (PEOU), and usefulness (PU) are the main factors directly affecting the continuous intention to use technology. Instructors’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) and perceived organizational support (POS) positively affect the intention to use the technology, whereas students’ controlled motivation (CTRLM) has a greater influence on their intention to use the technology, due to the type of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation that they have and which they can develop throughout the process of learning. The findings support the given hypotheses. In addition, they provide empirical evidence of a relationship between perceived organizational support and perceived pedagogical content knowledge. In fact, they are considered the key factors that support the use of technology continuously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
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Review

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10 pages, 506 KiB  
Review
Strategies for Flipped Learning in the Health Professions Education in South Korea and Their Effects: A Systematic Review
by Jung Hee Park, Woo Sok Han, Jinkyung Kim and Hyunjung Lee
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11010009 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2697
Abstract
This study aims to identify and synthesize recent literature on the effect and strategies of flipped learning in the health professions education. Participant–intervention-comparator-outcome (PICO) strategies were used to identify articles from published peer-reviewed papers from January 2017 to March 2020 in Korea Med, [...] Read more.
This study aims to identify and synthesize recent literature on the effect and strategies of flipped learning in the health professions education. Participant–intervention-comparator-outcome (PICO) strategies were used to identify articles from published peer-reviewed papers from January 2017 to March 2020 in Korea Med, Korean Citation Index, National Digital Science Library, and Korean Studies Information Service System. Of the 83 screened articles, 10 published articles met all the inclusion criteria. Most of articles targeted nursing students and focused on practicum classes. The effects of flipped learning were measured based on satisfaction, self-motivated learning, information literacy, and critical thinking disposition. Further, pre-class, in-class, and post-class activities were analyzed. The findings revealed that flipped learning improved class performance, overall evaluation, self-motivated learning, self-efficacy, and problem-solving abilities. The study suggests implementing a tailored flipped learning design based on class characteristics and appropriate post-class activities for enhancing students’ learning abilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)
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