The Psychological and Educational Effects of COVID-19: Now and Then

A special issue of Education Sciences (ISSN 2227-7102).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 20448

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Psychology Department, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
Interests: promoting the academic success of children from diverse (race/ethnicity, SES, linguistic) backgrounds;how parental beliefs and practices are associated with children’s academic development
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Guest Editor
Department of Education, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
Interests: early childhood education; universal design for learning (UDL); early childhood mathematics; STEAM in early childhood education; STEAM in inclusive settings; early childhood teacher education
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

COVID-19 has been classified as a pandemic since March 2020, causing countries to quarantine their citizens and schools and businesses to close. The impact of this has been felt economically, academically, and psychologically. This monograph includes articles focusing on the different of effects of COVID-19 at different times. In particular, has the impact of COVID-19 changed since the start of the pandemic in March 2020? Among the topics that are of interest are:

  • What are the educational and educationally related impacts of COVID-19 at different points in the pandemic?
  • What are the educationally related impacts of COVID-19 on students of different ages and/or different grade levels?
  • What are the social/emotional effects of COVID-19 on different demographic groups of people and/or at different points in the pandemic?

Dr. Susan Sonnenschein
Dr. Michele L. Stites
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • children’s educational development
  • children’s social–emotional development
  • effects of COVID-19 on children’s development
  • longer-term impact of COVID-19

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 373 KiB  
Article
The COVID-19 Pandemic: Changes in Parent–Child Activities at Home from Spring 2020 to Spring 2021 from a Cross-Cultural View
by Galia Meoded Karabanov, Dorit Aram, Carmen López-Escribano, Katerina Shtereva, Merav Asaf, Margalit Ziv, Michele Lee Stites and Susan Sonnenschein
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13101013 - 07 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1166
Abstract
This study explored young children’s (2–8 years old) daily activities during the first lockdown with the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic (spring/2020, T1) and a year later (spring/2021, T2) from a cross-cultural perspective. It describes parent–child literacy and digital activities in Bulgaria, Israel, [...] Read more.
This study explored young children’s (2–8 years old) daily activities during the first lockdown with the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic (spring/2020, T1) and a year later (spring/2021, T2) from a cross-cultural perspective. It describes parent–child literacy and digital activities in Bulgaria, Israel, and Spain. Participating parents (747 in T1 and 432 in T2) answered online questionnaires about the frequency of parent–child literacy activities (alphabetic, book reading, and play) and digital activities (joint activities, selecting content, scaffolding) and the child’s screen time. The findings indicated moderate parent–child literacy and digital activities during the time points. A series of ANCOVAs revealed differences between time periods and cultures beyond the demographic measures (child’s age, parent’s education and age, and family size). During the first lockdown, parent–child joint digital activities and the child’s screen time were higher than a year later. A year later, parents were more involved in book reading, literacy play activities, and scaffolding their children’s use of digital devices. Interactions between the period and culture showed that Bulgarian and Spanish parents were more involved in their children’s literacy and digital activities than Israeli parents. Spanish children had more independent screen time than Bulgarian and Israeli children. Associations between literacy and digital activities implied a consistent parenting style across the activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychological and Educational Effects of COVID-19: Now and Then)
11 pages, 254 KiB  
Article
Two-Way Immersion Classrooms during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Parent and Teacher Perceptions of Student Learning
by Ximena Franco-Jenkins, Doré R. LaForett, Adam Winsler and Diego Ordoñez Rojas
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(9), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13090946 - 16 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1262
Abstract
The present study examined parents’ and teachers’ perceptions of student learning in Spanish–English Dual Language Education (DLE) programs during the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants included 72 parents of students from kindergarten to second grade and eight teachers in two schools in the southeastern [...] Read more.
The present study examined parents’ and teachers’ perceptions of student learning in Spanish–English Dual Language Education (DLE) programs during the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants included 72 parents of students from kindergarten to second grade and eight teachers in two schools in the southeastern U.S. Parents retrospectively reported their perceptions of their children’s instruction and learning experiences in English and Spanish during the 2020–2021 school year. Teachers reported if their students had opportunities to practice oral bilingual skills and their perception of students’ improvement in English and Spanish skills. Parents reported that there were more opportunities to practice English than there were to practice Spanish. Teachers reported that remote instruction offered fewer opportunities than hybrid instruction did to practice oral language skills. Overall, the teachers agreed that students’ language skills in English and Spanish improved. Similarly, the parents agreed that students’ language skills improved; however, they reported that their English skills improved more than their Spanish skills did. Student and family background factors, such as language fluency and parental education, were negatively associated with barriers to remote access. Implications for future research and suggestions for supporting students attending DLE programs during remote instruction are offered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychological and Educational Effects of COVID-19: Now and Then)
16 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
Anti-Asian Racism during COVID-19: Emotional Challenges, Coping, and Implications for Asian American History Teaching
by Xinwei Zhang, Anu Sachdev, Nino Dzotsenidze, Xiaoran Yu and Peggy A. Kong
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(9), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13090903 - 06 Sep 2023
Viewed by 2226
Abstract
Anti-Asian scapegoating, sentiment, and hate have caused devastating psychological and behavioral challenges among Asians and Asian Americans during the COVID-19 pandemic. This case study aims to understand Asians’ and Asian Americans’ experiences of racial discrimination during the pandemic, examine their reflections on the [...] Read more.
Anti-Asian scapegoating, sentiment, and hate have caused devastating psychological and behavioral challenges among Asians and Asian Americans during the COVID-19 pandemic. This case study aims to understand Asians’ and Asian Americans’ experiences of racial discrimination during the pandemic, examine their reflections on the impacts of anti-Asian racism on their emotions and coping, and explore their perspectives on teaching Asian American history in combating anti-Asian racism. The results of this study showed that the participants articulated an array of profound emotional challenges in response to the deleterious effects of personal and vicarious experiences of racism. They used varied coping strategies, exhibiting heightened vigilance and intentional proactive measures to protect themselves and their communities against anti-Asian racism. The participants also underscored the intersectionality between race and gender, highlighting the vulnerability of Asian women. Additionally, the participants advocated for the inclusion of Asian American history in the school curriculum to dismantle and disrupt systematic racism. This study reveals the emotional and behavioral effects of anti-Asian racism on Asian and Asian American individuals and communities. It illustrates the crucial role of amplifying Asian and Asian American voices in the school curriculum in combating anti-Asian racism beyond the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychological and Educational Effects of COVID-19: Now and Then)
21 pages, 1114 KiB  
Article
Have Teachers’ Perceptions of Parental Engagement Changed Following COVID-19? Evidence from a Mixed-Methods Longitudinal Case Study
by Cat Jones and Olympia Palikara
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13070750 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2222
Abstract
Parental engagement is of interest to teachers, school leaders, researchers, and policy makers as a key driver of pupil outcomes. Existing evidence suggests that parental engagement with learning in the home is most effective, but English schools often prioritise school-based events. However, the [...] Read more.
Parental engagement is of interest to teachers, school leaders, researchers, and policy makers as a key driver of pupil outcomes. Existing evidence suggests that parental engagement with learning in the home is most effective, but English schools often prioritise school-based events. However, the move to home-learning due to COVID-19 required parents and teachers to play different roles in relation to learning and in relation to each other. Little is known about how this has affected teachers’ perceptions of parental engagement. This mixed-methods, longitudinal case study examined whether teachers’ perceptions of parental engagement changed during COVID-19. Data was gathered from teachers at one large English primary school using interviews (n = 9) and questionnaires (n = 16). Data from before and after the school closures was compared. Teachers reported that parental engagement had become increasingly digital, flexible, and wellbeing-focussed during the school closures. However, teachers were pessimistic about the likelihood of retaining any benefits and their future plans remained focussed on school-based parental engagement events. Whilst school closures resulted in a temporary positive shift towards partnerships and family-centric parental engagement, teachers now need time and training to embed these changes. Without this, some of the potential benefits of the home-learning period may be lost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychological and Educational Effects of COVID-19: Now and Then)
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21 pages, 349 KiB  
Article
Exploring Environmental Factors Associated with Child Wellbeing during COVID-19 in Australia and Germany
by Penny Levickis, Lisa Murray, Frank Niklas, Lynn Lee-Pang, Marius Vogt, Jane Page, Patricia Eadie and Simone Lehrl
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13070641 - 22 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1065
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the wellbeing of children and families globally. With extended lockdown periods, early childhood education and school closures, and remote learning, families experienced increased stress and anxiety, financial hardship, and disrupted routines. This paper aims [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the wellbeing of children and families globally. With extended lockdown periods, early childhood education and school closures, and remote learning, families experienced increased stress and anxiety, financial hardship, and disrupted routines. This paper aims to explore associations between children’s social-emotional wellbeing and environmental factors (including the burden of COVID-19 on the family, early learning experiences in the home and early childhood education, and parent wellbeing and mental health) during COVID-19 in Australia and Germany, two countries that experienced significant lockdown periods. Using a longitudinal online survey design, parents of young children (aged 1–6 years) in Australia (N = 66) and Germany (N = 53) completed surveys on their own wellbeing; their child’s wellbeing; the home learning environment, and their satisfaction with early childhood education and care at two time points in 2020 and 2021. The burden of COVID-19 mitigation measures on families’ everyday lives correlated with child wellbeing outcomes in both the Australian and German cohorts. Findings also provide evidence of potential protective factors of children’s social-emotional wellbeing during stressful events, such as the lockdowns experienced by families in Germany and Australia during the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychological and Educational Effects of COVID-19: Now and Then)
17 pages, 854 KiB  
Article
Children’s Stress in the Time of COVID-19: Relationships with School, Social and Recreational Experiences
by Brook E. Sawyer, Fathima Wakeel, Patricia H. Manz and Olivia Link
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13070630 - 21 Jun 2023
Viewed by 756
Abstract
Introduction: In response to the public health threats during the pandemic, many schools shifted to online instructional delivery, and many children experienced changes to their social and recreational activities. While an emerging body of literature is documenting these changes or how these experiences [...] Read more.
Introduction: In response to the public health threats during the pandemic, many schools shifted to online instructional delivery, and many children experienced changes to their social and recreational activities. While an emerging body of literature is documenting these changes or how these experiences may be related to parents’ and children’s functioning, no known study has examined all of these constructs. We investigated the degree to which schooling, social, and recreational experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic influenced the stress levels of school-age children. Further, recognizing the interconnectedness of parents’ and children’s lives, we examined whether parental stress mediated the relations between children’s experiences and child stress. Method: Parents of school-age children (N = 701) completed an online questionnaire with items focused on school modality (i.e., fully online or not), sufficiency of school resources, change in relationships, change in social/recreational activities, parental stress, and child stress. Results: The findings indicated that fully online school was not associated with child stress. Lower sufficiency of school resources, greater change in relationships, and greater change in social/recreational activities predicted higher child stress. Parental stress fully or partially mediated these relations. Discussion: Implications for educators are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychological and Educational Effects of COVID-19: Now and Then)
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13 pages, 1342 KiB  
Article
Perception of Peruvian Students Studying in Biological Sciences about the Advantages of Virtual Classes during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Aldo Bazán-Ramírez, Walter Capa-Luque, Homero Ango-Aguilar, Roberta Anaya-González and Víctor Cárdenas-López
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13060626 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
There is significant educational research interest regarding the assessment of the benefits of virtual education implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic for university programs that were essentially face-to-face. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the management of online resources [...] Read more.
There is significant educational research interest regarding the assessment of the benefits of virtual education implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic for university programs that were essentially face-to-face. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the management of online resources that the teacher had on the valuation of the advantages of online classes in biological sciences, mediated by the students’ perception of virtual practices as well as the accessibility and use of online resources. A total of 332 Peruvian students studying in biological sciences from a public university, enrolled in five undergraduate academic years, of which 184 were women and 148 were men, participated. A non-experimental predictive design of causal relationships was used with the methodology of structural equation modeling. According to the SEM model (CFI and TLI > 0.95, RMSEA and SRMR < 0.05), the valuation of the advantages of virtual classes during the pandemic was significantly predicted by the valuation of virtual practices (positively) as well as by the accessibility and management of online resources by students (negatively); likewise, the use and mastery of digital and online resources by teachers had an indirect effect on the valuation of virtual classes, but direct effects on virtual practices and accessibility to digital resources by students. Also, virtual practice was the most crucial variable in predicting the valuation of online classes (β = 0.48, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the student’s perception of the teachers’ handling of online resources during the COVID-19 pandemic was determinant as a favorable valuation of the advantages offered by online classes, a relationship that is mediated by virtual practices and accessibility to online resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychological and Educational Effects of COVID-19: Now and Then)
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15 pages, 324 KiB  
Article
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Sense of Belonging and Science Outcomes among Biomedical Science Students: A Longitudinal Study
by Patricia Escobedo, Sungmin Moon, Kyle Moreno, Judith C. P. Lin, Patchareeya P. Kwan, Gilberto E. Flores and Gabriela Chavira
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13060579 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1313
Abstract
To understand how COVID-19 impacted undergraduate research experiences (URE), the current study examined how student outcomes changed over time among biomedical science majors. In addition, this study describes how a Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity (BUILD) Promoting Opportunities for Diversity in Education and [...] Read more.
To understand how COVID-19 impacted undergraduate research experiences (URE), the current study examined how student outcomes changed over time among biomedical science majors. In addition, this study describes how a Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity (BUILD) Promoting Opportunities for Diversity in Education and Research (PODER) URE program shifted entirely online in response to COVID-19. Biomedical science majors at a university in Southern California completed surveys in 2019 and 2020 and rated their science identity, science self-efficacy, and academic self-concept. We examined how scores changed over time by comparing: (1) BUILD and non-BUILD students and (2) students from underrepresented groups (URG) and non-URG students. Sense of belonging scores from 2020 were also compared among BUILD and non-BUILD students. BUILD students reported a significant increase in science self-efficacy scores, unlike non-BUILD participants. BUILD students also increased their science identity scores, unlike non-BUILD participants. Differences in sense of belonging were not significant, and differences between URG and non-URG students were not significant. Given the importance of science self-efficacy and science identity in a student’s academic trajectory, our results indicate that UREs such as BUILD PODER were able to improve or maintain critical student outcomes during a pandemic. These results highlight the importance of URE participation among biomedical science majors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychological and Educational Effects of COVID-19: Now and Then)
9 pages, 229 KiB  
Article
Teachers’ Reactions to Educational Television Programs during the Pandemic and Their Implied Images of Mathematics Teaching
by Konstantinos Tatsis and Bożena Maj-Tatsis
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050454 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1118
Abstract
In this paper, we discuss the images of mathematics and its teaching, as expressed by mathematics teachers, in reaction to educational programs broadcasted by Polish public television channels during the first lockdown in 2020. For our analysis, we deployed a theoretical framework mostly [...] Read more.
In this paper, we discuss the images of mathematics and its teaching, as expressed by mathematics teachers, in reaction to educational programs broadcasted by Polish public television channels during the first lockdown in 2020. For our analysis, we deployed a theoretical framework mostly drawn from the work of Paul Ernest. Our data came from a variety of sources such as educational fora, social networks, websites and email exchanges. Our results, based on an interpretative analysis, revealed four overarching images of mathematics and its teaching which, although related to the specificities of television, resembled images found by other relevant studies. The first image of mathematics views it as an unambiguous discipline in which there is no room for more than one point of view. The second image refers to the teacher as a presenter who is expected to possess particular verbal and non-verbal skills, especially given the fact that the television programs did not involve any live audiences. The third image refers to the unappealing nature of the broadcasted lessons, while the fourth image refers to the underlying approach of crude memorization associated with ‘traditional’ mathematics teaching. Our study’s contribution is twofold: in the improvement of televised educational programs (and possibly online courses) and in the improvement of the public’s image of mathematics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychological and Educational Effects of COVID-19: Now and Then)
16 pages, 693 KiB  
Article
Mathematics Teacher Educators’ Decisions in a Time of Crisis: Self-Reflections as a Basis for Community Inquiry
by Esther S. Levenson, Ruthi Barkai and Michal Tabach
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050453 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 913
Abstract
A time of crisis is a time of uncertainty, when many decisions need to be made. This study combines self-reflection, along with community inquiry, as three mathematics teacher educators recount a lesson that they taught in the past and how it was changed [...] Read more.
A time of crisis is a time of uncertainty, when many decisions need to be made. This study combines self-reflection, along with community inquiry, as three mathematics teacher educators recount a lesson that they taught in the past and how it was changed due to the COVID-19 crisis. Decisions were analyzed in terms of goals, orientations, and resources. The findings showed that the key issue was the immediate requirement to change one’s regular routine. For some, resources were replaced. For others, dominant orientations receded to the background, and new goals were set. A final reflection conducted after returning to the classroom revealed how challenges during the crisis led to change and the adoption of new goals both during and after the crisis, clarifying our values and leading to the use of additional resources today. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychological and Educational Effects of COVID-19: Now and Then)
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20 pages, 1102 KiB  
Article
Teaching and Learning during a Global Pandemic: Perspectives from Elementary School Teachers and Parents
by Karrie E. Godwin, Freya Kaur and Susan Sonnenschein
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040426 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
COVID-19 has had a major impact on education, with many children attending school online for more than a year. To understand the implications of online learning for U.S. teachers (Study 1; N = 49) and families (Study 2; N = 189) of elementary [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has had a major impact on education, with many children attending school online for more than a year. To understand the implications of online learning for U.S. teachers (Study 1; N = 49) and families (Study 2; N = 189) of elementary school students, we administered a survey in spring 2021, about one year into the pandemic. Participants answered questions about the instructional modality and format, challenges managing instruction, and children’s attention and learning. Comparing virtual to in-person instruction (pre-COVID-19) showed: (1) teachers reported the quantity of virtual instruction was less than in-person instruction and children were more off-task; (2) parents reported greater stress managing virtual instruction with fewer than half the children completing online lessons independently; and (3) parents reported that children exhibited mild-frustration during both virtual and in-person instruction, but children enjoyed learning in-person more. Understanding teachers’ and families’ experiences with virtual instruction will help elucidate potential factors contributing to pandemic-related learning losses, enabling more targeted support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychological and Educational Effects of COVID-19: Now and Then)
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11 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
Elementary-School Students’ Use of Digital Devices at Home to Support Learning Pre- and Post-COVID-19
by Susan Sonnenschein, Michele Lee Stites, Hatice Gursoy and Jeniffer Khorsandian
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13020117 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3347
Abstract
As access to digital devices has grown, children in the United States are increasingly making use of digital devices at home. This paper reports two studies with data from two samples, one collected in 2017 and one in 2022, documenting how families of [...] Read more.
As access to digital devices has grown, children in the United States are increasingly making use of digital devices at home. This paper reports two studies with data from two samples, one collected in 2017 and one in 2022, documenting how families of elementary-aged children make use of digital devices at home to support their children’s learning in reading, writing, mathematics, and science. Of particular interest was whether parents have reported an increased use of digital devices since COVID-19. Data were collected both times via an online questionnaire, in which parents described their child’s access to devices, amount of use, subject-specific use, and their own confidence and beliefs about device use. Most children made use of digital devices to support learning, but the extent of use varied by subject. Children’s reported use of digital devices and parents’ confidence assisting their children’s learning with such devices reportedly increased from pre- to post-COVID. These findings can inform the efforts of researchers exploring the use of digital devices as a tool in the home learning environment and educators working with families already making use of these devices at home. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychological and Educational Effects of COVID-19: Now and Then)
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