Biodiversity and Biogeography of Terrestrial Algae and Cyanobacteria

A special issue of Diversity (ISSN 1424-2818). This special issue belongs to the section "Biogeography and Macroecology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2023) | Viewed by 15284

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Bioecology and Biological Education, M. Akmullah Bashkir State Pedagogical University, 450008 Ufa, Russia
Interests: biodiversity; soil; taxonomy; PCR; heavy metals; Agarose Gel Electrophoresis; DNA Isolation; phylogenetic analysis; water quality; marine ecology

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Guest Editor
Institute of Biology, FRC Komi SC UB RAS, Kommunisticheskaya Street 28, Syktyvkar, 167982, Russia
Interests: ecology; water quality; climate change; rivers; microbiology; ecology and evolution; biodiversity; environmental pollution; soil; environment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Terrestrial algae and cyanobacteria are widespread in terrestrial ecosystems and play an important role in ecosystem functioning. The specific conditions of terrestrial habitats determine the peculiarities of the species diversity of these organisms and their distribution in a wide range of ecological conditions. To date, more than 3000 taxa from different taxonomic groups are known for terrestrial conditions (Gury, 2021), and this list is constantly updated due to the active development of new approaches and methods for studying this group. However, we are still very far from a real assessment of their biodiversity. Many regions of the Earth, unique in their geographic location and natural conditions, remain practically unexplored concerning the diversity of algae and cyanobacteria. This Special Edition introduces new data about the diversity and geographic distribution of algae in natural and anthropogenic terrestrial habitats around the world obtained by traditional and modern methods.

Dr. Lira A. Gaysina
Dr. Elena Patova
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • algae
  • cyanobacteria
  • taxonomy
  • diversity
  • geographic distribution
  • environment
  • polyphasic approach

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 6123 KiB  
Article
Diversity of Cyanobacteria and Algae in Biological Soil Crusts of the Northern Ural Mountain Region Assessed through Morphological and Metabarcoding Approaches
by Elena Patova, Irina Novakovskaya, Evgeniy Gusev and Nikita Martynenko
Diversity 2023, 15(10), 1080; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15101080 - 12 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1296
Abstract
In mountain regions, biological soil crusts (BSCs) provide essential ecological services by being involved in primary production and nitrogen fixation. Eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria are important photosynthetic components of these unique cryptogamic communities. Here, we present an overview of the eukaryotic and prokaryotic [...] Read more.
In mountain regions, biological soil crusts (BSCs) provide essential ecological services by being involved in primary production and nitrogen fixation. Eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria are important photosynthetic components of these unique cryptogamic communities. Here, we present an overview of the eukaryotic and prokaryotic diversity of such phototrophs in BSCs in the mountain tundra of the northern Ural Mountains. Such assessment is based on morphological surveys and the first metabarcoding analysis in the region. In total, 166 taxa of Cyanobacteria and 256 eukaryotic algae (including Euglenophyta, Ochrophyta, Dinophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, and Charophyta) were identified. For the first time, 86 taxa new to the BSCs of the high-mountain belt of the region were discovered. Considering species composition, Cyanobacteria and Chlorophyta are the most abundant taxa in all the analyzed BSCs. The genera Nostoc, Coccomyxa, Chlamydomonas, Leptolyngbya, Stenomitos, Pycnacronema, Stigonema, and Eunotia had the highest number of taxonomic units. These groups shape the structure, function, and ecology of the BSC communities in the studied region. Our results show that BSCs in the tundras of the Ural Mountains have a high active and passive biodiversity of terrestrial cyanobacteria and algae. Both implemented methods resulted in similar results with a comparable number of algae and cyanobacteria species per sample. Metabarcoding could be implemented in future in the region to accurately screen photosynthetic organisms in BSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Biogeography of Terrestrial Algae and Cyanobacteria)
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15 pages, 8666 KiB  
Article
Heterochlamydomonas uralensis sp. nov. (Chlorophyta, Chlamydomonadaceae), New Species Described from the Mountain Tundra Community in the Subpolar Urals (Russia)
by Irina Vladimirovna Novakovskaya, Olga Nikolaevna Boldina, Dmitry Mikhailovich Shadrin and Elena Nikolaevna Patova
Diversity 2023, 15(5), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15050673 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
This paper describes a new species from the class Chlorophyceae, Heterochlamydomonas uralensis sp. nov., isolated from the soil of the carex-moss-lichen tundra in the Subpolar Urals Mountains, Russia. The taxon is studied using morphological methods and DNA identification. Heterochlamydomonas uralensis differs from other [...] Read more.
This paper describes a new species from the class Chlorophyceae, Heterochlamydomonas uralensis sp. nov., isolated from the soil of the carex-moss-lichen tundra in the Subpolar Urals Mountains, Russia. The taxon is studied using morphological methods and DNA identification. Heterochlamydomonas uralensis differs from other Heterochlamydomonas spp. by cellular morphology, detected on light and ultrastructural levels, and 18S and ITS2 rDNA sequences. These results support the separation of the species Heterochlamydomonas uralensis sp. nov. This study is important for connecting data from DNA metabarcoding with species described on the basis of morphological characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Biogeography of Terrestrial Algae and Cyanobacteria)
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17 pages, 4141 KiB  
Article
Barranca variabilis sp. nov.—A New Terrestrial Alga of the Genus Barranca (Chaetophorales, Chlorophyta) from the Baikal Region (Russia)
by Irina N. Egorova, Nina V. Kulakova, Olga N. Boldina and Galina S. Tupikova
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040583 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
Filamentous green chaetophoralean algae are distributed mainly in aquatic ecosystems, less known from terrestrial habitats. Many of them have a complicated thalli and complex life cycles that make it difficult to determine these organisms by morphology. Description of new representatives of the Chaetophorales [...] Read more.
Filamentous green chaetophoralean algae are distributed mainly in aquatic ecosystems, less known from terrestrial habitats. Many of them have a complicated thalli and complex life cycles that make it difficult to determine these organisms by morphology. Description of new representatives of the Chaetophorales continues. In this study, we have explored the filamentous green alga IRK–A 341 from soil of the Baikal Region by light and electron microscopy along with molecular phylogeny. Based on the results of morphological, ecological, and molecular phylogenetic analyses (18S–28S rDNA, tufA), we described the studied alga as the new species, Barranca variabilis sp. nov. The study complements the data on the diversity of soils green filamentous algae, and their biogeography. For the first time, the data on the structure of the cell walls and the cell ultrastructure of Barranca were established. The information on the morphology of the reproductive and resting cells is updated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Biogeography of Terrestrial Algae and Cyanobacteria)
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13 pages, 1956 KiB  
Article
Description of a New Species of the Genus Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae: Cryptomonadales), Isolated from Soils in a Tropical Forest
by Nikita Martynenko, Elena Kezlya and Evgeniy Gusev
Diversity 2022, 14(11), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14111001 - 19 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1809
Abstract
A new species, Cryptomonas tropica sp. nov., is described from Cat Tien National Park (Vietnam) based on morphological and molecular data. Strains of the new species were isolated from soil, which is an unusual environment for photosynthetic cryptomonads. This species has elliptical cells [...] Read more.
A new species, Cryptomonas tropica sp. nov., is described from Cat Tien National Park (Vietnam) based on morphological and molecular data. Strains of the new species were isolated from soil, which is an unusual environment for photosynthetic cryptomonads. This species has elliptical cells in ventral view and a single plastid notched into several irregular lobes without microscopically visible pyrenoids. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from nuclear-encoded SSU, LSU, ITS2 rDNA and psbA cpDNA show that the new species forms an independent branch on the phylogenetic tree of the genus Cryptomonas. In all phylogenetic analyses, this lineage was sister to clades containing other small-celled, pyrenoid-less species: Cryptomonas erosa, C. parmana, C. macilenta, C. obovoidea and C. commutata. C. tropica has been observed in two distant localities in Cat Tien National Park. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Biogeography of Terrestrial Algae and Cyanobacteria)
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23 pages, 6358 KiB  
Article
Review of the Cyanobacterial Genus Phormidesmis (Leptolyngbyaceae) with the Description of Apatinema gen. nov.
by Denis Davydov and Anna Vilnet
Diversity 2022, 14(9), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14090731 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2527
Abstract
Cyanobacteria are crucial components of biological soil crusts of polar landscapes and carry out many functions in subaerial environments. Simple untapered filamentous cyanobacteria are typically in the terrestrial biotopes. They appear to be a group with an abundance of cryptic taxa. We isolated [...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria are crucial components of biological soil crusts of polar landscapes and carry out many functions in subaerial environments. Simple untapered filamentous cyanobacteria are typically in the terrestrial biotopes. They appear to be a group with an abundance of cryptic taxa. We isolated 23 strains of cyanobacteria from the different habitats of the Arctic and temperate zone, from 10 locations in order to characterize their morphological and genotypic diversity. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on the 16S and 16S–23S ITS rRNA gene regions using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood. A morphological comparison of the isolated strains with similar known species, as well as its phylogenetic analyses, revealed that they belong to three species of the genus Phormidesmis (P. nigrescens, P. pristley, and P. communis)—and to the previously unknown genus of Leptolyngbyaceae. Using an integrative approach, we provide here a description of a new taxon Apatinema gen. nov. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Biogeography of Terrestrial Algae and Cyanobacteria)
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16 pages, 3633 KiB  
Article
Roholtiella volcanica sp. nov., a New Species of Cyanobacteria from Kamchatkan Volcanic Soils
by Lira A. Gaysina, Jeffrey R. Johansen, Aniket Saraf, Rezeda Z. Allaguvatova, Sagarika Pal and Prashant Singh
Diversity 2022, 14(8), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14080620 - 02 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2547
Abstract
During a study of biodiversity of cyanobacteria in Gorely volcano soils (Kamchatka Peninsula), a strain of heterocytous, a false branching cyanobacterium with gradually tapered filaments, was isolated. Prominent features of the strain were purplish-grey trichomes and firm, distinct multilayered sheaths. Based on the [...] Read more.
During a study of biodiversity of cyanobacteria in Gorely volcano soils (Kamchatka Peninsula), a strain of heterocytous, a false branching cyanobacterium with gradually tapered filaments, was isolated. Prominent features of the strain were purplish-grey trichomes and firm, distinct multilayered sheaths. Based on the results obtained from the morphological, ecological, and phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA and 16S–23S ITS region, 16S–23S ITS secondary structure analysis, comparison of flanking regions of BoxB and V3 helices, and the p-distance between the 16S–23S ITS region, we describe our strain K7 as a novel species of the genus Roholtiella with the name Roholtiella volcanica sp. nov., in accordance with the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. This work continues the rapid expansion of the description of new taxa of cyanobacteria, and particularly demonstrates a coming phase in cyanobacterial taxonomy in which the discovery of new species in recently described genera rapidly increases our understanding of the diversity in this phylum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Biogeography of Terrestrial Algae and Cyanobacteria)
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23 pages, 3010 KiB  
Article
Study of Biodiversity of Algae and Cyanobacteria of Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes Soils (Kamchatka Peninsula) Using a Polyphasic Approach
by Rezeda Z. Allaguvatova, Arthur Yu. Nikulin, Vyacheslav Yu. Nikulin, Veronika B. Bagmet and Lira A. Gaysina
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050375 - 07 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3113
Abstract
Volcanic activity has a significant influence on the development of terrestrial ecosystems, including the Kamchatka Peninsula. We aimed to study the terrestrial algoflora of the Mutnovsky and Gorely volcanoes based on the use of clonal cultures of algae and cyanobacteria, and phenotypic and [...] Read more.
Volcanic activity has a significant influence on the development of terrestrial ecosystems, including the Kamchatka Peninsula. We aimed to study the terrestrial algoflora of the Mutnovsky and Gorely volcanoes based on the use of clonal cultures of algae and cyanobacteria, and phenotypic and molecular genetic analyses. A total of 48 taxa were identified: 9 cyanobacteria, 32 Chlorophyta (11 Chlorophyceae, 21 Trebouxiophyceae), 3 Ochrophyta, and 4 Charophyta. In soils of the Mutnovsky volcano, 30 taxa were found, and in soils of the Gorely volcano, 24 were observed. In the studied area, small coccoid or mucilage-producing algae, which belong to cosmopolitan species, were identified, including representatives of the genera Bracteacoccus, Chlorococcum, Coccomyxa, Coelastrella, Klebsormidium, Neocystis, and Vischeria. Certain taxa were detected for the first time in the studied region, including Bracteacoccus bullatus, Chlorococcum hypnosporum, Chlorococcum lobatum, Coccomyxa subellipsoidea, Klebsormidium nitens, Leptosira obovata, Lobosphaera incisa, Parietochloris pseudoalveolaris, Stenomitos tremulus, and Vischeria magna. Our analysis of the algal communities at different altitudes reveals expansion in species richness with increasing distance from the tops of the volcanoes. The obtained data allowed us to estimate the real biodiversity of terrestrial algae and cyanobacteria of Kamchatkan volcanic soils, as well as the ecologies of these microorganisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Biogeography of Terrestrial Algae and Cyanobacteria)
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