Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Ocular Diagnosis: From the Tear Film to the Sclera

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Optical Diagnostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 17651

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Multidisciplinary Department of Medical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: glaucoma; cornea; cataract; refractive surgery; IOL calculation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Multidisciplinary Department of Medical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi della Campania ‘Luigi Vanvitelli’, via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: retina; OCT; degenerative macular diseases; OCT-A; retinal diagnostics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Multidisciplinary Department of Medical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi della Campania ‘Luigi Vanvitelli’, via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: retina; OCT; hereditary macular diseases; OCT-A; retinal diagnostics

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Multidisciplinary Department of Medical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi della Campania ‘Luigi Vanvitelli’, via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: retina; OCT; neovascular macular diseases; OCT-A; retinal diagnostics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The latest technological developments have radically impacted the daily practice of ophthalmologists thanks to the advent of novel diagnostic tools that facilitate an early diagnosis and provide a better management of ocular disorders. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and OCT Angiography (OCTA) have acquired key roles in developing a better understanding of the pathogenesis of several ocular conditions, moreover, they have remarkably changed the diagnostic approach to many ophthalmic and systemic diseases. This Special Issue aims to create a multidisciplinary forum of discussion about the clinical and research applications of these technologies (OCT and OCTA) in the ocular diagnosis of different subfields of ophthalmology. Innovative applications of optical coherence tomography in every ophthalmic field will be very welcome. Submissions are welcome primarily for high-quality original research articles showing new developments and innovative findings about these topics. Secondarily, we will consider high-interest review articles and case series of exceptional merit.

Dr. Michele Lanza
Dr. Claudio Iovino
Dr. Valentina Di Iorio
Dr. Raffaella Brunetti Pierri
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Optical coherence tomography
  • Optical coherence tomography angiography
  • Corneal curvature
  • Central corneal thickness
  • Glaucoma
  • Crystalline lens
  • Anterior chamber
  • Iris angiography
  • Macular thickness
  • Choroidal thickness
  • Axial length measurement
  • Retinal vascular plexuses
  • Choroidal vasculature
  • Macular surgery

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 182 KiB  
Editorial
Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Ocular Diagnosis: From the Tear Film to the Sclera
by Claudio Iovino, Valentina Di Iorio, Raffaella Brunetti-Pierri and Michele Lanza
Diagnostics 2022, 12(3), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12030673 - 10 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1610
Abstract
The latest technological developments have radically impacted the daily practice of ophthalmologists, thanks to the advent of novel diagnostic tools that facilitate an early diagnosis and allow a better management of ocular disorders [...] Full article

Research

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13 pages, 3995 KiB  
Article
Artificial Intelligence and OCT Angiography in Full Thickness Macular Hole. New Developments for Personalized Medicine
by Stanislao Rizzo, Alfonso Savastano, Jacopo Lenkowicz, Maria Cristina Savastano, Luca Boldrini, Daniela Bacherini, Benedetto Falsini and Vincenzo Valentini
Diagnostics 2021, 11(12), 2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11122319 - 9 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2500 | Correction
Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate the 1-year visual acuity predictive performance of an artificial intelligence (AI) based model applied to optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) vascular layers scans from eyes with a full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). Methods: In this observational cross-sectional, single-center study, 35 eyes [...] Read more.
Purpose: To evaluate the 1-year visual acuity predictive performance of an artificial intelligence (AI) based model applied to optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) vascular layers scans from eyes with a full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). Methods: In this observational cross-sectional, single-center study, 35 eyes of 35 patients with FTMH were analyzed by OCT-A before and 1-year after surgery. Superficial vascular plexus (SVP) and deep vascular plexus (DVP) images were collected for the analysis. AI approach based on convolutional neural networks (CNN) was used to generate a continuous predictive variable based on both SVP and DPV. Different pre-trained CNN networks were used for feature extraction and compared for predictive accuracy. Results: Among the different tested models, the inception V3 network, applied on the combination of deep and superficial OCT-A images, showed the most significant differences between the two obtained image clusters defined in C1 and C2 (best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) C1 = 66.67 (16.00 SD) and BCVA C2 = 49.10 (18.60 SD, p = 0.005). Conclusions: The AI-based analysis of preoperative OCT-A images of eyes affected by FTMH may be a useful support system in setting up visual acuity recovery prediction. The combination of preoperative SVP and DVP images showed a significant morphological predictive performance for visual acuity recovery. Full article
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13 pages, 3820 KiB  
Article
Morphological Changes in Lamellar Macular Holes According to SD-OCT Examination over a Long Observation Period
by Magdalena Kal, Izabela Chojnowska-Ćwiąkała, Mateusz Winiarczyk, Monika Jasielska and Jerzy Mackiewicz
Diagnostics 2021, 11(7), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11071145 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative morphological changes in lamellar macular holes (LMHs) based on SD-OCT examinations and to assess the correlations among minimal retinal thickness (MRT), reading vision (RV), and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) over a [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative morphological changes in lamellar macular holes (LMHs) based on SD-OCT examinations and to assess the correlations among minimal retinal thickness (MRT), reading vision (RV), and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) over a 36-month follow-up period. Methods: A group of 40 patients (44 eyes) with LMH was evaluated, with an average age of 69.87 (SD = 10.14). The quantitative parameters monitored in the follow-up period (at 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months) were tested for normality of distribution by Shapiro–Wilk and Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests. Results: The RV and BCVA values were stable, and no significant changes were found at any of the check-ups during the 36-month follow-up period (BCVA p = 0.435 and RV p = 0.0999). The analysis of individual quantitative LMH parameters during the 36-month follow-up period did not demonstrate statistically significant differences: MRT (p = 0.461), Max RT temporal (p = 0.051), Max RT nasal (p = 0.364), inner diameter (ID) (p = 0.089), and outer diameter (OD) (p = 0.985). Conclusions: The observations at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months revealed moderate and significant correlations between RV and MRT. No significant correlation between BCVA and MRT was observed. Full article
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12 pages, 2595 KiB  
Article
Early Vascular and Functional Changes after Vitreoretinal Surgery: A Comparison between the Macular Hole and Epiretinal Membrane
by Rossella D’Aloisio, Paolo Carpineto, Agbéanda Aharrh-Gnama, Carla Iafigliola, Luca Cerino, Marta Di Nicola, Annamaria Porreca, Lisa Toto and Rodolfo Mastropasqua
Diagnostics 2021, 11(6), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11061031 - 3 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2445
Abstract
(1) Background: The aim of this observational comparative study was to investigate early retinal vascular and functional changes in patients undergoing vitreoretinal surgery for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) or macular hole (MH) using a widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (WSS-OCTA). (2) Methods: [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The aim of this observational comparative study was to investigate early retinal vascular and functional changes in patients undergoing vitreoretinal surgery for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) or macular hole (MH) using a widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (WSS-OCTA). (2) Methods: Forty one diseased eyes were enrolled in the study. Twenty three eyes with iERM diagnosis (ERM group) underwent 25-gauge vitrectomy with inner limiting membrane (ILM) and MER peeling, while eighteen eyes with MH (MH group) underwent 25-gauge vitrectomy with inverted flap technique. Functional and anatomical/perfusion parameters were evaluated pre- and postoperatively in all eyes by means of WSS-OCTA system, microperimetry (MP3), best corrected visual acuity assessment, central macular thickness (CMT) and MH diameter calculation. For each eye, 12 × 12 mm OCTA volume scans were acquired by a retinal specialist and a semi-automated algorithm was used for a quantitative vessel analysis of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP) and choriocapillaris (CC). In detail, perfusion density (PD) of the SCP, DCP and CC was evaluated in four circles (one central in the macular area of 5 mm diameter; three midperiphery circles (temporal, superior and inferior) of 3 mm). In addition, the vessel length density (VLD) of the SCP and DCP for the same circles was quantified. (3) Results: In the MH group, PD of the SCP significantly increased in the macular area (p = 0.018) and in the superior ring (p = 0.016); PD of the DCP significantly increased in the macular area (p = 0.015) and in the superior and inferior ring (p = 0.016) 3 months after surgery. In the ERM group, PD of the SCP and DCP significantly increased in the macular area and superior ring, respectively (p = 0.001; p = 0.032), 3 months after surgery. During follow-up there was a significant improvement in terms of functional (Best corrected visual acuity, p = 0.007 and p = 0.029; microperimetry ((MP3) 10°, p = 0.003 and p = 0.004; MP3 2°, p = 0.028 and p = 0.003 in MH group and ERM group respectively) and anatomical parameters (CMT, p = 0.049 in ERM group; hole complete closure in MH group). (4) Conclusions: After vitreoretinal surgery, early retinal vascular and functional changes can be promptly observed and quantified to monitor and potentially predict surgery outcomes. Widefield OCTA devices allow for a detailed microvasculature analysis of retina and choriocapillaris in the macular area and in the periphery, showing a different behaviour of retinal sectors in two distinct vitreoretinal disorders. Full article
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9 pages, 1684 KiB  
Article
Choroidal Vascularity Map in Unilateral Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: A Comparison with Fellow and Healthy Eyes
by Niroj Kumar Sahoo, Sumit Randhir Singh, Oliver Beale, Gideon Nkrumah, Mohammed Abdul Rasheed, Asiya Jabeen, Kiran Kumar Vupparaboina, Mohammed Nasar Ibrahim, Filippo Tatti, Khushboo Chandra, Michele Lanza, Claudio Iovino, Enrico Peiretti and Jay Chhablani
Diagnostics 2021, 11(5), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11050861 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2067
Abstract
Background: To map the choroidal vascularity index and compare two eyes in patients with unilateral central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study performed in patients with unilateral CSCR. Choroidal thickness (CT) and Choroidal vascularity index (CVI) were measured and [...] Read more.
Background: To map the choroidal vascularity index and compare two eyes in patients with unilateral central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study performed in patients with unilateral CSCR. Choroidal thickness (CT) and Choroidal vascularity index (CVI) were measured and mapped in various zones according to the early treatment diabetic retinopathy (ETDRS) grid. Results: A total of 20 CSCR patients (20 study and 20 fellow eyes) were included in the study. Outer nasal region CT was seen to be significantly lower than central CT (p = 0.042) and inner nasal CT (p = 0.007); outer ring CT was significantly less than central (p = 0.04) and inner ring (p = 0.01) CT in CSCR eyes. On potting all the CVI values against the corresponding CT values, a positive correlation was seen in CSCR eyes (r = 0.54, p < 0.01), which was slightly weaker in fellow eyes (r = 0.3, p < 0.01) and a negative correlation was seen in healthy eyes (r = −0.262, p < 0.01). Conclusions: Correlation between CVI and CT was altered in CSCR eyes as compared to fellow and normal eyes with increasing CVI towards the center of the macula and superiorly in CSCR eyes. Full article
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8 pages, 817 KiB  
Article
Retinal and Optic Disc Vascular Changes in Patients Using Long-Term Tadalafil: A Prospective Non-Randomized Matched-Pair Study
by Marco Capece, Daniela Montorio, Chiara Comune, Achille Aveta, Alberto Melchionna, Giuseppe Celentano, Ciro Imbimbo, Felice Crocetto, Gianluigi Califano and Gilda Cennamo
Diagnostics 2021, 11(5), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11050802 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2760
Abstract
Retinal, choroidal and optic disc vascularity has never been evaluated in patients taking PDE5is long-term. The aim of our study was to evaluate the neurostructural and vascular changes after long-term use of tadalafil, using spectral domain (SD)-optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence [...] Read more.
Retinal, choroidal and optic disc vascularity has never been evaluated in patients taking PDE5is long-term. The aim of our study was to evaluate the neurostructural and vascular changes after long-term use of tadalafil, using spectral domain (SD)-optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). In the present clinical trial, 27 patients who have been taking tadalafil 20 mg on alternate days (OAD) for at least 6 months (Group A) were enrolled. The matched group consisted of 27 healthy men (Group B). Both groups of patients underwent SD-OCT to study ganglion cell complex (GCC), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and choroidal thickness and OCTA for the evaluation of superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), choriocapillaris (CC) and radial peripapillary capillary (RPC). A reduction in SCP, DCP and RPC vessel density was found in patients using tadalafil long-term. Retinal and optic disc toxicity may be detected using modifications of capillary vessel density. Further studies are needed to investigate the possibility of a causal association. Full article
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9 pages, 1000 KiB  
Article
Choroidal Vascularity Features in Patients with Choroideremia and Cystoid Spaces
by Claudio Iovino, Valentina Di Iorio, Francesco Testa, Viviana Bombace, Paolo Melillo, Kiran Kumar Vupparaboina, Jay Chhablani and Francesca Simonelli
Diagnostics 2021, 11(3), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11030382 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1561
Abstract
Cystoid spaces (CSs) are a common retinal finding in choroideremia (CHM) patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the vascular features of the choroid associated with the presence of CSs in patients with confirmed genetic diagnosis of CHM. A total of [...] Read more.
Cystoid spaces (CSs) are a common retinal finding in choroideremia (CHM) patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the vascular features of the choroid associated with the presence of CSs in patients with confirmed genetic diagnosis of CHM. A total of 33 patients (33 eyes) were enrolled in this retrospective cross-sectional study and divided into two groups based on the presence (17 eyes) or absence (16 eyes) of CSs. Choroidal features were evaluated on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography including subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT), total choroidal area (TCA), luminal choroidal area (LCA), and stromal choroidal area (SCA). The choroidal vascularity index (CVI) was then calculated in all study eyes. All structural choroidal parameters were calculated both on the entire length of the B-scan and in the central subfoveal 1500 μm. The average age was 37.3 ± 11.6 and 31.4 ± 16.7 years (p = 0.25) and mean logMAR best-corrected visual acuity was 0.11 ± 0.20 and 0.20 ± 0.57 (p = 0.54) in the CHM groups with and without CSs, respectively. There were no significant differences in subfoveal CT, and TCA, LCA, SCA, and CVI evaluated on either the entire scan or in the central 1500 μm (all p > 0.05). All choroidal vasculature parameters exhibited no significant differences between CHM eyes with and without CSs. Our results suggest that the choroid may not be involved in the development of CSs in patients with CHM. Full article
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Other

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2 pages, 168 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Rizzo et al. Artificial Intelligence and OCT Angiography in Full Thickness Macular Hole. New Developments for Personalized Medicine. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 2319
by Stanislao Rizzo, Alfonso Savastano, Jacopo Lenkowicz, Maria Cristina Savastano, Luca Boldrini, Daniela Bacherini, Benedetto Falsini and Vincenzo Valentini
Diagnostics 2022, 12(7), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12071593 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
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