Review Research on SARS-CoV-2 Detection

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 3476

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Special Infectious Agents Unit-BSL3, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2. Molecular Biology Department, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom, Menoufia, Egypt
Interests: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; diagnostic tests

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that causes a respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is a member of a large family of viruses called coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2 was first known to infect people in 2019. The virus is thought to spread from person to person through droplets released when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks. Since the clinical manifestations and signs of infected patients (pneumonia, dyspnea, fever, cough, respiratory symptoms) are not definitive, supporting diagnostic and serological tests are essential for the diagnosis of COVID-19.

The aim of this Special Issue on review research on SARS-CoV-2 detection is to present a review for the available methods for the detection and characterisation of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants. The value of diagnostic methods depends on the type of test, the time to get the results, testing accuracy, and the required resources for testing. In other words, the quick identification of suspected individuals is the best strategy to enable appropriate response and limit transmission. Different diagnostic tests have been developed for SARS-CoV-2 based on serological, molecular, and nanotechnology techniques. Detection of viral nucleic acid is frequently performed by high-throughput sequencing, reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), RT-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), where qPCR is recommended as the most effective and direct method by the WHO.

Dr. Mai M. El-Daly
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • SARS-CoV-2
  • COVID-19
  • diagnostic tests
 

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

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16 pages, 1263 KiB  
Review
Advances and Challenges in SARS-CoV-2 Detection: A Review of Molecular and Serological Technologies
by Mai M. El-Daly
Diagnostics 2024, 14(5), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics14050519 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 644
Abstract
The urgent need for accurate COVID-19 diagnostics has led to the development of various SARS-CoV-2 detection technologies. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) remains a reliable viral gene detection technique, while other molecular methods, including nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) and isothermal [...] Read more.
The urgent need for accurate COVID-19 diagnostics has led to the development of various SARS-CoV-2 detection technologies. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) remains a reliable viral gene detection technique, while other molecular methods, including nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) and isothermal amplification techniques, provide diverse and effective approaches. Serological assays, detecting antibodies in response to viral infection, are crucial for disease surveillance. Saliva-based immunoassays show promise for surveillance purposes. The efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection varies, with IgM indicating recent exposure and IgG offering prolonged detectability. Various rapid tests, including lateral-flow immunoassays, present opportunities for quick diagnosis, but their clinical significance requires validation through further studies. Challenges include variations in specificity and sensitivity among testing platforms and evolving assay sensitivities over time. SARS-CoV-2 antigens, particularly the N and S proteins, play a crucial role in diagnostic methods. Innovative approaches, such as nanozyme-based assays and specific nucleotide aptamers, offer enhanced sensitivity and flexibility. In conclusion, ongoing advancements in SARS-CoV-2 detection methods contribute to the global effort in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Research on SARS-CoV-2 Detection)
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14 pages, 36408 KiB  
Review
Features of Myocarditis: Morphological Differential Diagnosis in Post-COVID-19 Children
by Vadim Karev, Anastasia Ya Starshinova, Anzhela Glushkova, Dmitry Kudlay and Anna Starshinova
Diagnostics 2023, 13(15), 2499; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13152499 - 27 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1131
Abstract
Myocarditis is characterized by dysfunction and destruction of cardiomyocytes, infiltrative inflammation, and development of fibrosis. Late diagnosis of myocarditis has been a serious global health problem, especially due to the spread of a new coronavirus infection. The aim of this review is to [...] Read more.
Myocarditis is characterized by dysfunction and destruction of cardiomyocytes, infiltrative inflammation, and development of fibrosis. Late diagnosis of myocarditis has been a serious global health problem, especially due to the spread of a new coronavirus infection. The aim of this review is to identify differences between myocarditis of viral etiology, including SARS-CoV-2 lesions, based on instrumental and pathomorphological findings. Material and Methods: We analyzed publications covering the period from December 2019 to May 2023, published in publicly accessible international databases (“Medline”, “PubMed”, “Scopus”), with queries for the keywords “myocarditis”, “children”, “cardiovascular inflammation”, “COVID-19”, “SARS-CoV-2”, “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2”, “differential diagnosis”. Results: It was found that no unambiguous morphological criteria for the diagnosis of myocarditis coupled to SARS-CoV-2 lesions were identified. However, the detected histopathological changes such as virus-associated degeneration, apoptosis, cardiomyocyte necrosis, moderate interstitial hyperemia, myocardial tissue oedema, and capillary endothelial cell dysfunction were the major markers of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusion: It is necessary further reconsider morphological criteria to diagnose SARS-CoV-2-caused myocarditis, rather than solely relying on detecting viral RNA by PCR as the sole evidence-based criterion. Similar issues accompany diagnostics of myocardial lesions associated with other viral infections. Evidence for an etiological diagnosis of myocarditis can be provided by a comprehensive analysis of the diagnostic criteria obtained, confirming virus exposure, followed by development of distinct clinical symptoms, MRI and CT changes, and morphological criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Research on SARS-CoV-2 Detection)
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15 pages, 2122 KiB  
Systematic Review
Role of Imaging in the Management of Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Lung Involvement Admitted to the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review
by Cesare Maino, Paolo Niccolò Franco, Cammillo Talei Franzesi, Teresa Giandola, Maria Ragusi, Rocco Corso and Davide Ippolito
Diagnostics 2023, 13(11), 1856; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13111856 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1310
Abstract
During the waves of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, emergency departments were overflowing with patients suffering with suspected medical or surgical issues. In these settings, healthcare staff should be able to deal with different medical and surgical scenarios while protecting themselves against the [...] Read more.
During the waves of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, emergency departments were overflowing with patients suffering with suspected medical or surgical issues. In these settings, healthcare staff should be able to deal with different medical and surgical scenarios while protecting themselves against the risk of contamination. Various strategies were used to overcome the most critical issues and guarantee quick and efficient diagnostic and therapeutic charts. The use of saliva and nasopharyngeal swab Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAAT) in the diagnosis of COVID-19 was one of the most adopted worldwide. However, NAAT results were slow to report and could sometimes create significant delays in patient management, especially during pandemic peaks. On these bases, radiology has played and continues to play an essential role in detecting COVID-19 patients and solving differential diagnosis between different medical conditions. This systematic review aims to summarize the role of radiology in the management of COVID-19 patients admitted to emergency departments by using chest X-rays (CXR), computed tomography (CT), lung ultrasounds (LUS), and artificial intelligence (AI). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Research on SARS-CoV-2 Detection)
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