Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Ocular Diagnosis 2.0

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Optical Diagnostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 August 2023) | Viewed by 8522

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Multidisciplinary Department of Medical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi della Campania ‘Luigi Vanvitelli’, via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: retina; OCT; degenerative macular diseases; OCT-A; retinal diagnostics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Multidisciplinary Department of Medical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi della Campania ‘Luigi Vanvitelli’, via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: retina; OCT; hereditary macular diseases; OCT-A; retinal diagnostics

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Multidisciplinary Department of Medical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: glaucoma; cornea; cataract; refractive surgery; IOL calculation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The latest technological developments have radically impacted the daily practice of ophthalmologists thanks to the advent of novel diagnostic tools that facilitate an early diagnosis and provide a better management of ocular disorders. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) have acquired key roles in developing a better understanding of the pathogenesis of several ocular conditions; moreover, they have remarkably changed the diagnostic approach to many ophthalmic and systemic diseases. This Special Issue aims to create a multidisciplinary forum of discussion about the clinical and research applications of these technologies (OCT and OCTA) in the ocular diagnosis of different subfields of ophthalmology. Innovative applications of optical coherence tomography in every ophthalmic field will be very welcome. Submissions of high-quality original research articles showing new developments and innovative findings regarding these topics are especially welcome, but we will also consider high-interest review articles and case series/case report of exceptional merit.

Dr. Claudio Iovino
Dr. Valentina Di Iorio
Dr. Michele Lanza
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • optical coherence tomography
  • optical coherence tomography angiography
  • corneal curvature
  • central corneal thickness
  • glaucoma
  • crystalline lens
  • anterior chamber
  • iris angiography
  • macular thickness
  • choroidal thickness
  • axial length measurement
  • retinal vascular plexuses
  • choroidal vasculature
  • macular surgery

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 1653 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Automated Keratometer and Scheimpflug Tomography for Predicting Refractive Astigmatism in Pseudophakic Eyes
by Kyung-Sun Na, Giacomo Savini, Woong-Joo Whang and Kristian Næser
Diagnostics 2023, 13(24), 3687; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13243687 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Purpose: To analyse the correspondence between refractive astigmatism and corneal astigmatism in pseudophakic eyes with non-toric intraocular lenses. Setting: Yeouido St. Mary hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Design: Evaluation of a diagnostic test instrument. Methods: This retrospective study included 95 eyes of 95 [...] Read more.
Purpose: To analyse the correspondence between refractive astigmatism and corneal astigmatism in pseudophakic eyes with non-toric intraocular lenses. Setting: Yeouido St. Mary hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Design: Evaluation of a diagnostic test instrument. Methods: This retrospective study included 95 eyes of 95 patients. Corneal astigmatism was measured with an automated keratometer (RK-5, Canon) and Scheimpflug tomography (Pentacam HR, Oculus). Refractive astigmatism was compared to keratometric astigmatism (based on anterior corneal measurements only), equivalent K-reading, and total corneal astigmatism (both based on anterior and posterior corneal measurements). Vector analysis was carried out by Næser’s polar value method. The accuracy was defined as the average magnitude of the vectorial difference in astigmatism (DA). Each corneal measurement was optimized in retrospect by a multiple linear regression equation between refractive and corneal astigmatism. Results: Keratometric astigmatism overestimated with-the-rule (WTR) refractive astigmatism and underestimated against-the-rule (ATR) refractive astigmatism. Several measurements based on both corneal surfaces’ values did not show any statistically significant difference with respect to refractive astigmatism. The mean corneal astigmatism by total corneal refractive power (TCRP) at 4.0 mm (zone/pupil) produced the lowest mean arithmetic DA and the highest percentage of eyes with a DA ≤ 0.50 dioptre. After optimization, the accuracies of automated KA and TCRP 4.0 mm (zone/pupil) were similar. Conclusions: Total corneal astigmatism measured by Scheimpflug tomography at a 4.0 mm zone centered on the pupil accurately reflects the refractive astigmatism in pseudophakic eyes. However, the accuracy of total corneal astigmatism is not different from automated KA after optimization. Full article
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18 pages, 13880 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Fusion of High-Resolution and Ultra-Widefield OCTA Acquisitions for the Automatic Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy
by Yihao Li, Mostafa El Habib Daho, Pierre-Henri Conze, Rachid Zeghlache, Hugo Le Boité, Sophie Bonnin, Deborah Cosette, Stephanie Magazzeni, Bruno Lay, Alexandre Le Guilcher, Ramin Tadayoni, Béatrice Cochener, Mathieu Lamard and Gwenolé Quellec
Diagnostics 2023, 13(17), 2770; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13172770 - 26 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) can deliver enhanced diagnosis for diabetic retinopathy (DR). This study evaluated a deep learning (DL) algorithm for automatic DR severity assessment using high-resolution and ultra-widefield (UWF) OCTA. Diabetic patients were examined with 6×6 mm2 high-resolution [...] Read more.
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) can deliver enhanced diagnosis for diabetic retinopathy (DR). This study evaluated a deep learning (DL) algorithm for automatic DR severity assessment using high-resolution and ultra-widefield (UWF) OCTA. Diabetic patients were examined with 6×6 mm2 high-resolution OCTA and 15×15 mm2 UWF-OCTA using PLEX®Elite 9000. A novel DL algorithm was trained for automatic DR severity inference using both OCTA acquisitions. The algorithm employed a unique hybrid fusion framework, integrating structural and flow information from both acquisitions. It was trained on data from 875 eyes of 444 patients. Tested on 53 patients (97 eyes), the algorithm achieved a good area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for detecting DR (0.8868), moderate non-proliferative DR (0.8276), severe non-proliferative DR (0.8376), and proliferative/treated DR (0.9070). These results significantly outperformed detection with the 6×6 mm2 (AUC = 0.8462, 0.7793, 0.7889, and 0.8104, respectively) or 15×15 mm2 (AUC = 0.8251, 0.7745, 0.7967, and 0.8786, respectively) acquisitions alone. Thus, combining high-resolution and UWF-OCTA acquisitions holds the potential for improved early and late-stage DR detection, offering a foundation for enhancing DR management and a clear path for future works involving expanded datasets and integrating additional imaging modalities. Full article
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11 pages, 29358 KiB  
Article
Choroidal and Retinal Vascular Findings in Patients with COVID-19 Complicated with Pneumonia: Widefield Imaging
by Rossella D’Aloisio, Maria Ludovica Ruggeri, Giada D’Onofrio, Federico Formenti, Matteo Gironi, Marta Di Nicola, Annamaria Porreca, Lisa Toto and Rodolfo Mastropasqua
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061114 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1404
Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze choroidal and retinal vascular alterations of both the macula and midperiphery areas in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection complicated with pneumonia within 30 days from discharge. Methods: A total of 46 eyes of 23 [...] Read more.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze choroidal and retinal vascular alterations of both the macula and midperiphery areas in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection complicated with pneumonia within 30 days from discharge. Methods: A total of 46 eyes of 23 subjects with a history of symptomatic COVID-19 infection and recent hospitalization for pneumonia were enrolled in this observational study. Patients had not been previously vaccinated against COVID-19. A group of patients homogenous for age and sex was enrolled as controls. Microvascular retinal and choroidal features of the enrolled patients were studied with widefield optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Perfusion parameters in terms of the vessel density (VD) of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) and the choroidal vascularity index (CVI) on enhanced depth imaging (EDI) mode OCT scans were analyzed. Results: Our cohort of patients showed a trend of reduction in VD, significantly in the SCP VD of the superior and inferior midperiphery sectors, whereas the CVI did not show significant differences between the cases and controls. Moreover, a positive correlation between CVI and vessel density in the deep capillary plexus in the macular area (VD-DCP-MAC) was found. Conclusion: The systemic disease due to COVID-19 can also involve the retina and choroid with multiple mechanisms: ischemic and inflammatory. Our study showed changes in perfusion occurring in the eyes of patients with a recent hospitalization for COVID-19 complicated with pneumonia and without any possible ocular effect due to the vaccines. There is still the need to better comprise how long COVID-19 actually affects vascular changes in the eye. Full article
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22 pages, 4153 KiB  
Article
Changes in Macular Thickness after Cataract Surgery in Patients with Open Angle Glaucoma
by Giedre Pakuliene, Neda Rylskyte, Loreta Kuzmiene, Brent Siesky, Alice Verticchio, Alon Harris and Ingrida Januleviciene
Diagnostics 2023, 13(2), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13020244 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1494
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in IOP, total macular and RNFL, ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness, and aqueous humour flare in open angle glaucoma (OAG) patients before and 6 months after cataract surgery. Methods: This was a [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in IOP, total macular and RNFL, ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness, and aqueous humour flare in open angle glaucoma (OAG) patients before and 6 months after cataract surgery. Methods: This was a prospective observational case–control age- and gender-matched study. Groups: 40 subjects in a controlled OAG (OAGc) group, 20 subjects in an uncontrolled OAG (OAGu) group, and 60 control group subjects. Examination: complete ophthalmic evaluation, IOP measurement, anterior and posterior segment Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), and laser flare photometry before and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Six months postoperatively IOP decreased in all groups. An increase in macular thickness was found postoperatively in all groups. Preoperative aqueous humour flare was higher in the OAGc group than in the control group. After cataract surgery, aqueous humour flare was higher in the control group compared to the preoperative result. Conclusions: Changes in IOP following cataract surgery were strongly negatively correlated with preoperative IOP. An increase in macular thickness was observed 6 months postoperatively in all groups. Aqueous humour flare did not differ in OAGc and OAGu groups pre- and postoperatively but significantly increased in the control group postoperatively. Full article
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Review

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21 pages, 1208 KiB  
Review
Early Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarkers for Selected Retinal Diseases—A Review
by Ewa Goździewska, Małgorzata Wichrowska and Jarosław Kocięcki
Diagnostics 2023, 13(14), 2444; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13142444 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1262
Abstract
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, easily accessible imaging technique that enables diagnosing several retinal diseases at various stages of development. This review discusses early OCT findings as non-invasive imaging biomarkers for predicting the future development of selected retinal diseases, with emphasis [...] Read more.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, easily accessible imaging technique that enables diagnosing several retinal diseases at various stages of development. This review discusses early OCT findings as non-invasive imaging biomarkers for predicting the future development of selected retinal diseases, with emphasis on age-related macular degeneration, macular telangiectasia, and drug-induced maculopathies. Practitioners, by being able to predict the development of many conditions and start treatment at the earliest stage, may thus achieve better treatment outcomes. Full article
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Other

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29 pages, 7773 KiB  
Systematic Review
Keratoconus Diagnosis: From Fundamentals to Artificial Intelligence: A Systematic Narrative Review
by Sana Niazi, Marta Jiménez-García, Oliver Findl, Zisis Gatzioufas, Farideh Doroodgar, Mohammad Hasan Shahriari and Mohammad Ali Javadi
Diagnostics 2023, 13(16), 2715; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13162715 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2139
Abstract
The remarkable recent advances in managing keratoconus, the most common corneal ectasia, encouraged researchers to conduct further studies on the disease. Despite the abundance of information about keratoconus, debates persist regarding the detection of mild cases. Early detection plays a crucial role in [...] Read more.
The remarkable recent advances in managing keratoconus, the most common corneal ectasia, encouraged researchers to conduct further studies on the disease. Despite the abundance of information about keratoconus, debates persist regarding the detection of mild cases. Early detection plays a crucial role in facilitating less invasive treatments. This review encompasses corneal data ranging from the basic sciences to the application of artificial intelligence in keratoconus patients. Diagnostic systems utilize automated decision trees, support vector machines, and various types of neural networks, incorporating input from various corneal imaging equipment. Although the integration of artificial intelligence techniques into corneal imaging devices may take time, their popularity in clinical practice is increasing. Most of the studies reviewed herein demonstrate a high discriminatory power between normal and keratoconus cases, with a relatively lower discriminatory power for subclinical keratoconus. Full article
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