Metals Manufacturing Techniques: Processing, Microstructure and Properties

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Crystalline Metals and Alloys".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 September 2022) | Viewed by 20325

Special Issue Editors


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Department of Applied Sciences, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi G7H 2B1, Canada
Interests: direct chill casting; additive manufacturing of al alloys; metallurgy & engineering of al and al alloys; phase transformations in metals (al alloys and steels); alloy development and microstructure engineering; computational thermodynamics and modeling of materials processing; materials characterization and analysis methods; mechanical properties and deformation process of materials

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Guest Editor
Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Département de Génie Mécanique, Montreal, Canada
Interests: manufacturing processes-materials-mechanical properties; hot deformation processes: forging, rolling, extrusion, superplastic forming; new joining processes: fsw, lfw, ebw, tlp; microstructure characterization and modeling; optimization of mechanical properties; phase transformation, recrystallization and prepcipitation in metallic materials; heat treatment
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Department of Materials Engineering, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz P.O.B: 53714-161, Iran
Interests: friction stir welding/processing; additive manufacturing; high entropy alloys; phase transformation

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Guest Editor
Mechanical Engineering Faculty, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152, USA
Interests: additive manufacturing (am); processing-microstructure-properties relationship in advanced metals and alloys; multi-scale characterization of microstructure and texture of metals and alloys; microstructural evolution and strengthening mechanisms in am materials

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Guest Editor
Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
Interests: friction stir welding; additive Manufacturing; thermomechanical properties of metals and alloys

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although the manufacturing of metallic materials is considered a mature scientific field, spanning over a couple of centuries of scientific research, the need for developing low-carbon-footprint high-performance products has resulted in the discovery of sustainable smart manufacturing technologies, new processing routes, and advanced characterization techniques. Therefore, this Special Issue on “Metals Manufacturing Techniques” is a necessary initiative. Through manufacturing technology, molten metals or semi-finished products can be transformed into various final products. Additive manufacturing, casting followed by downstream deformation processes (e.g., rolling/extrusion), welding, and semi-solid processing are examples of some manufacturing techniques that are widely used. In addition to geometry/design specifications, the main common objective of all these manufacturing techniques is to produce high-performance value-added products. The performance of the products is related to their chemistry, their structure, their mechanical/physical properties, and the processing routes used. Therefore, the relationship between these parameters must be fully understood and exploited.

For this Special Issue on “Metals Manufacturing Techniques”, we welcome reviews and original research works on topics including, but not limited to, the advanced manufacturing of metals and alloys, innovative processing routes, novel value-added alloys created by nanostructured engineering products, advanced microstructure characterization and property analysis techniques, high-strength steels, metal matrix composites, light metal alloys, high-temperature alloys, corrosion-resistant materials, high-entropy alloys, advanced material process simulations, computational modeling for microstructure prediction and the corresponding property evolution, theoretical advances in thermodynamics modeling and precipitation kinetics, and phase equilibria and diffusion modeling in metallics materials.

Dr. Mousa Javidani
Prof. Dr. Mohammad Jahazi
Dr. Akbar Heidarzadeh
Prof. Dr. Amir Hadadzadeh
Dr. Max Hoßfeld
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Advanced manufacturing processes of metallic materials
  • Nano-structured engineering metals
  • Microstructure analysis and mechanical behavior characterization
  • Process–structure–properties relationship
  • Phase transformation
  • Metal matrix composites
  • Thermomechanical processes
  • Innovative design and modeling of metallic materials
  • Computational materials engineering and process modeling
  • Process defects

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 6365 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Vanadium on Modified Z-Phase Characteristics in Austenitic Steels
by Vlastimil Vodárek, Jan Holešinský, Zdeněk Kuboň, Renáta Palupčíková, Kryštof Hradečný, Petra Váňová and Josef Hlinka
Crystals 2023, 13(4), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13040676 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 932
Abstract
In austenitic steels, the tetragonal Z-phase (NbCrN) has frequently been credited with beneficial strengthening effects during dislocation creep. In the modified Z-phase, niobium is partially substituted by vanadium. The basic objective of this contribution is a detailed characterization of the modified Z-phase in [...] Read more.
In austenitic steels, the tetragonal Z-phase (NbCrN) has frequently been credited with beneficial strengthening effects during dislocation creep. In the modified Z-phase, niobium is partially substituted by vanadium. The basic objective of this contribution is a detailed characterization of the modified Z-phase in vanadium bearing austenitic AISI 316LN+Nb+V and HR3C steels. Experimental activities were focused on crystallography, thermodynamic and dimensional stability, kinetics of precipitation (TTP diagram) and solvus temperature of the modified Z-phase in the steels examined. Thermodynamic modelling was used for prediction of stable minor phases and solvus temperature of the modified Z-phase. Kinetics of precipitation of the (Nb,V)CrN phase in the AISI 316LN+Nb+V steel was experimentally investigated in the temperature interval of 550–1250 °C. The kinetics of precipitation of the modified Z-phase in austenitic matrix was fast. Results of diffraction studies on particles of the modified Z-phase confirmed the existence of the tetragonal unit cell already after short-term annealing. The solvus temperature of the modified Z-phase in austenitic steels was determined to be lower than that for the NbCrN phase. The decrease in the solvus temperature is dependent on the vanadium content in austenitic steels. Both thermodynamic calculations and experimental results proved that the thermodynamical stability of the modified Z-phase in austenite was high. More data are needed for evaluation of long-term dimensional stability of the (Nb,V)CrN phase in austenitic steels at temperatures for their engineering applications. Full article
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16 pages, 6876 KiB  
Article
Early Detection of Damage of Inconel 718 with the Use of Strain-Hardening Cross-Effect
by Grzegorz Socha and Maciej Malicki
Crystals 2023, 13(3), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13030429 - 02 Mar 2023
Viewed by 904
Abstract
Indentation tests were used for early detection of deformation-induced damage of Inconel 718. Damage was produced in a controlled manner using specially designed specimens with a variable width of the gage part. Static tension, LCF, and HCF tests were performed to induce material [...] Read more.
Indentation tests were used for early detection of deformation-induced damage of Inconel 718. Damage was produced in a controlled manner using specially designed specimens with a variable width of the gage part. Static tension, LCF, and HCF tests were performed to induce material damage. Accumulated plastic strain intensity was used as the reference measure of deformation-induced damage. Detection of damage progress in its early phase was based on the use of strain-hardening cross-effect. Experimentally determined correlation of hardness and indentation work with reference damage parameter was analyzed. The results of our analysis lead to the conclusion that the proposed experimental procedure is useful for the detection of deformation-induced damage in the early stage of the process. Full article
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11 pages, 2282 KiB  
Article
A Novel Study on the Effect of Tool Offset in Friction Stir Processing for Mg-NiTi Composite
by Nadeem Fayaz Lone, Dhruv Bajaj, Namrata Gangil, Sohail M. A. K. Mohammed, Daolun Chen and Arshad Noor Siddiquee
Crystals 2022, 12(11), 1651; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12111651 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Mg-NiTi-based metal matrix composites are appropriate solutions for the two most important goals of material engineers in the present day, i.e., imparting functional behaviour and the light weighting of metallic structures. In recent years, due to its solid-state nature, the development of Mg-based [...] Read more.
Mg-NiTi-based metal matrix composites are appropriate solutions for the two most important goals of material engineers in the present day, i.e., imparting functional behaviour and the light weighting of metallic structures. In recent years, due to its solid-state nature, the development of Mg-based metal matrix composites has largely benefited from friction stir processing. Despite the great effort of researchers in the domain of friction stir welding and processing, finding optimum process parameters for efficient material mixing and consolidation remains a rigorous and exhaustive challenge. Tool offset variation has been seen to aid the integrity and strength of friction stir welds; however, its effect upon the stir zone structure, material flow, particle distribution, and defect formation has not been investigated for friction stir processing. Therefore, the authors employed Mg as the base metal and NiTi shape memory alloy as the reinforcement to the targeted metal matrix composite. The tool offset was linearly varied by tilting the slotted length with respect to the traverse direction. Friction stir processing performed at a rotational speed of 560 rpm and traverse speed of 80 mm/min revealed crucial changes in defect morphology and area, which has been explicated with the quantified variation in tool offset from the advancing side to the retreating side. For the positive offset conditions, i.e., tool offset towards the advancing side, the shape of the tunnelling defect was chiefly convex from the outward direction. Meanwhile, for the negative offset conditions, i.e., tool offset towards the retreating side, the tunnelling defect exhibited a concave outward shape. A transition from rectangular to triangular morphology was also observed as the tool moved from an offset of 1.75 mm in the advancing side to 1.75 mm in the retreating side. Full article
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14 pages, 5648 KiB  
Article
Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of 7075 Aluminium Alloy during Semi-Solid Compression Deformation
by Kai Wang, Shengqing Hu, Tianhao Wang, Wenlong Xie, Tong Guo, Fuguo Li and Rong Luo
Crystals 2022, 12(8), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12081119 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2335
Abstract
Aluminium alloys are becoming increasingly popular due to the demands for high-performance lightweight components, and semi-solid metal processing (SSM) is a technique for forming near-net-shape and complex components with far fewer defects associated with turbulent filling. The deformation mechanisms of semi-solid 7075 aluminium [...] Read more.
Aluminium alloys are becoming increasingly popular due to the demands for high-performance lightweight components, and semi-solid metal processing (SSM) is a technique for forming near-net-shape and complex components with far fewer defects associated with turbulent filling. The deformation mechanisms of semi-solid 7075 aluminium alloy were studied through the direct partial re-melting method using as-extruded billets. It is found that inter-granular and intra-granular deformation occur simultaneously during compression under the semi-solid condition; the deformation of solid primary α-Al grains can compensate for the shrinkage of inter-granular liquid and increase the integrity of shaped parts. The intra-granular deformation at the final stage of SSM can change the morphology of spherical solid grains and induces sub-grain boundaries. Full article
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15 pages, 5341 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Dimple Overlap on Wettability and Corrosion Resistance of Laser-Textured Stainless Steel
by Deyuan Lou, Enkang Liang, Pengjian Chen, Guodong Jiang, Lishi Wang, Laiqing Guan, Yutao Wang and Dun Liu
Crystals 2022, 12(5), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12050695 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1756
Abstract
During the laser surface texturing process, scanning overlap is usually misused, because it cannot only be dimple overlap, but also can be laser spot overlap. Experiments were conducted to investigate the relationship between laser spot overlap and dimple overlap during laser surface texturing. [...] Read more.
During the laser surface texturing process, scanning overlap is usually misused, because it cannot only be dimple overlap, but also can be laser spot overlap. Experiments were conducted to investigate the relationship between laser spot overlap and dimple overlap during laser surface texturing. Moreover, the effect of dimple overlap on the laser textured microstructures, wettability, and corrosion performances of stainless steel was analyzed. The results have shown that, due to changing radiation conditions, the dimple diameter and dimple overlap varied in a non-linear way with the increase in laser spot overlap. Furthermore, the variation of dimple overlap rather than laser spot overlap had a direct effect on roughness, wettability, and corrosion resistance. When the dimple overlap was greater than 55%, the surface reached the superhydrophobic state and the maximum apparent contact angle was 162.6°. When the dimple overlap was 83.52%, due to passivation layer formed by laser remelting deposition and oxides compaction, corrosion current density was 2.8 × 10−8 A·cm−2, which was 4% of the original value. Consequently, it was determined that it is easier to control the surface roughness, wettability, and corrosion resistance via dimple overlap rather than laser spot overlap in laser surface texturing process. Full article
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13 pages, 5431 KiB  
Article
Revealing Microstructural Evolution and Deformation Mechanism of Pure Titanium through a Quasi In Situ Compression Method at High Strain Rate
by Yumeng Luo, Wenqi Guo, Boya Wang and Rui Wei
Crystals 2022, 12(5), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12050677 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
In this paper, a quasi in situ method is established to study the microstructural evolution and deformation mechanism transition behavior of pure Ti under a high strain rate of 4000 s−1. The main deformation mechanism is found to be influenced by [...] Read more.
In this paper, a quasi in situ method is established to study the microstructural evolution and deformation mechanism transition behavior of pure Ti under a high strain rate of 4000 s−1. The main deformation mechanism is found to be influenced by deformation strain level. In the strain range from 0 to 0.05, {101¯2} and {112¯2} twinning is proved to be the main mechanism, while the grains without any deformation twin (about 32% of the whole grains) are deformed by dislocation slip. When the strain increases from 0.05 to 0.10, the growth of twins, secondary twinning, and dislocation movement are proved to be the main deformation mechanism. In the strain range from 0.10 to 0.15, dislocation movement becomes the dominant deformation mechanism. Compared with the traditional observation method, the new quasi in situ method effectively permits observing the microstructure evolution and recording the deformation behavior progressively step by step, which is more suitable to reveal the deformation mechanism of materials at high strain rates. Full article
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20 pages, 18243 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Microstructural Damage and Failure Mechanisms in C45E Structural Steel under Compressive Load
by Milija Kraišnik, Robert Čep, Karel Kouřil, Sebastian Baloš, Aco Antić and Mladomir Milutinović
Crystals 2022, 12(3), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12030426 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3374
Abstract
In this paper, the microstructural damage evolution of a steel with a ferrite–pearlite microstructure (C45E) was investigated during the process of cold upsetting. The development and the accumulation of microstructural damage were analyzed in different areas of samples that were deformed at different [...] Read more.
In this paper, the microstructural damage evolution of a steel with a ferrite–pearlite microstructure (C45E) was investigated during the process of cold upsetting. The development and the accumulation of microstructural damage were analyzed in different areas of samples that were deformed at different strain levels. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that various mechanisms of nucleation of microcavities occurred during the upsetting process. In quantitative terms, microcavities were predominantly generated in pearlite colonies due to the fracture of cementite lamellae. In addition, the mechanism of decohesion had a significant influence on the development of a macroscopic crack, since a high level of microcracks, especially at higher degrees of deformation, was observed at the ferrite/pearlite or ferrite/ferrite interfaces. It was found that the distribution of microcavities along the equatorial plane of the sample was not uniform, as the density of microcavities increased with increasing strain level. The influence of stress state, i.e., stress triaxiality, on the nucleation and distribution of microcracks, was also analyzed. Full article
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18 pages, 6453 KiB  
Article
The Performance Prediction of Electrical Discharge Machining of AISI D6 Tool Steel Using ANN and ANFIS Techniques: A Comparative Study
by Hamed H. Pourasl, Mousa Javidani, Vahid M. Khojastehnezhad and Reza Vatankhah Barenji
Crystals 2022, 12(3), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12030343 - 02 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2314
Abstract
AISI-D6 steel is widely used in the creation of dies and molds. In the present paper, first the electrical discharge machining (EDM) of the aforementioned material is performed with a testing plan of 32 trials. Then, artificial neural networks (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy [...] Read more.
AISI-D6 steel is widely used in the creation of dies and molds. In the present paper, first the electrical discharge machining (EDM) of the aforementioned material is performed with a testing plan of 32 trials. Then, artificial neural networks (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) were applied to predict the outputs. The effects of some significant operational parameters—specifically pulse on-time (Ton), pulse current (I), and voltage (V)—on the performance measures of EDM processes such as the material removal rate (MRR), tool wear ratio (TWR), and average surface roughness (Ra) are extracted. To lead the process operators, process plans (i.e., parameter–effect correlations) are created. The outcomes exposed the upper values of pulse on-time caused by higher amounts of MRR and Ra, and likewise lower volumes of TWR. Furthermore, growing the pulse current resulted in upper volumes of the material removal rate, tool wear ratio, and surface roughness. Besides, the higher input voltage resulted in a lower amount of MRR, TWR, and Ra. The estimation models developed by using experimental data recounting MRR, TWR, and Ra. The root means the square error was used to determine the error of training models. Furthermore, the estimated outcomes based on the models have been proven with an unseen validation set of experiments. They are found to be in decent agreement with the experimental issues. The investigation shows the powerful learning capability of an ANFIS model and its advantage in terms of modeling complex linear machining processes. Full article
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11 pages, 9735 KiB  
Article
Unraveling the Relationship between Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir-Welded Copper Joints by Fuzzy Logic Neural Networks
by Mousa Javidani, Akbar Heidarzadeh, Reza Vatankhah Barenji, Moslem Paidar and Hamid Reza Jafarian
Crystals 2022, 12(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12020216 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
In this study, fuzzy logic neural networks were employed to optimize the friction stir welding (FSW) process parameters in the joining of copper plates. The FSW parameters were considered as the input variables, for which micro-hardness, nano-hardness, and yield strength of the joints [...] Read more.
In this study, fuzzy logic neural networks were employed to optimize the friction stir welding (FSW) process parameters in the joining of copper plates. The FSW parameters were considered as the input variables, for which micro-hardness, nano-hardness, and yield strength of the joints were the responses. The micro-hardness and nano-hardness were measured by Vickers hardness and nanoindentation tests, respectively. The microstructure and substructure of the joints were evaluated by optical, scanning electron, and orientation imaging microscopes. The optimum process parameters through which the maximum strength was achieved were the tool rotational rate of 560 rpm, tool traverse speed of 175 mm/min, and tool axial force of 2.27 kN. The low heat input joints, owing to the finer grain sizes, high density of dislocations, and larger Taylor factors, indicated greater strength relative to the high input joints. Microstructure characterization revealed that dominant strengthening mechanisms of the joints were dislocation density, texture effect, and grain boundary hardening. Full article
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Review

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40 pages, 15480 KiB  
Review
Friction Stir Welding of Non-Heat Treatable Al Alloys: Challenges and Improvements Opportunities
by Behrouz Abnar, Samaneh Gashtiazar and Mousa Javidani
Crystals 2023, 13(4), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13040576 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2733
Abstract
Friction stir welding (FSW) is an effective solid-state joining process that has the potential to overcome common problems correlated with conventional fusion welding processes. FSW is used for the joining of metallic materials, in particular Al alloys (non-heat-treatable and heat-treatable). The heat produced [...] Read more.
Friction stir welding (FSW) is an effective solid-state joining process that has the potential to overcome common problems correlated with conventional fusion welding processes. FSW is used for the joining of metallic materials, in particular Al alloys (non-heat-treatable and heat-treatable). The heat produced by the friction between the rotating tool and the workpiece material generates a softened region near the FSW tool. Although the heat input plays a crucial role in producing a defect-free weld metal, it is a serious concern in the FSW of work-hardened non-heat-treatable Al alloys. In this group of alloys, the mechanical properties, including hardness, tensile properties, and fatigue life, are adversely affected by the softening effect because of grain growth and reduced dislocation density. Considering this challenge, work-hardened Al alloys have been limited in their industrial use, which includes aerospace, shipbuilding, automotive, and railway industries. The current comprehensive review presents the various approaches of available studies for improving the quality of FSW joints and expanding their use. First, the optimization of welding parameters, including the tool rotational and traverse speeds, tool design, plunge depth, and the tilt angle is discussed. Second, the incorporation of reinforcement particles and then underwater FSW are stated as other effective strategies to strengthen the joint. Finally, some supplementary techniques containing surface modification, bobbin tool FSW, copper backing, and double-sided FSW in relation to strain-hardened Al alloys are considered. Full article
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