Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Novel Nanoparticles

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Crystalline Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2024) | Viewed by 8822

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Applied Natural Science, Adama Science and Technology University, Adama 1888, Ethiopia
Interests: nanomaterials; synthesis; characterization; renewable energy; water treatment; photovoltaic; photocatalysis; biomedical applications

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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Adama Science and Technology University, Adama 1888, Ethiopia
Interests: nanomaterials; catalysis; environmental chemistry; materials engineering; organic chemistry

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Department of Applied Chemistry, Adama Science and Technology University, Adama 1888, Ethiopia
Interests: nanomaterials; nanocomposites; energy

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Guest Editor
Research Institute of Materials Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
Interests: nanomaterial; catalysis; water splitting

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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan
Interests: nanomaterials; synthesis; multifunctional application of nanomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Kotebe Metropolitan University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Interests: nanomaterials; battery; water splitting

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterials have multiple applications in diverse fields, including drug delivery, therapeutics, biosensors, cancer treatment, environmental protection, renewable energy, batteries, supercapacitors, biomedicine, cosmetics and agriculture. Nanomaterials possess unique characteristics due to their large surface area-to-volume ratio and unusual catalytic activity, electronic properties, optical properties, and antimicrobial activity. Different shapes and types of nanoparticles can be synthesized using various methods. Novel nanomaterials are multifunctional in nature, with flexible physical and chemical properties. They have recently gained great significance due to the easy tunability of their electrical, chemical, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, which can be achieved by altering morphological and microstructural features.

Currently, the green synthesis of nanometals, nanometal oxides, and nanocomposites has received significant attention in the fields of environmental nanotechnology and bio-nanotechnology. As compared to chemical and physical synthesis methods, the synthesis of nanoparticles using green materials is more environmentally friendly, cost-effective and avoids use of toxic chemicals. The use of plants, bacteria, algae and fungi represents an easy and eco-friendly strategy for the green synthesis of nanometal oxides. Different types of nanometal oxides, mainly including transition metal oxides such as titanium dioxide, copper oxide, zinc oxide, cerium dioxide, chromium dioxide, molybdenum trioxide, silver oxide, cobalt oxide and iron oxide, as well as metal nanoparticles such as silver, copper, cobalt, and zinc, have been applied for various environmental applications. Thus, our aim is to attract the attention of the readers to this Special Issue aiming to cover the latest developments in the synthesis, characterization and multifunctional application of novel nanostructures. The Special Issue solicits research and review articles highlighting current research relevant to environmental, catalytic, renewable energy  and biomedical applications of novel nanoparticles.

Dr. Fedlu Kedir Sabir
Dr. Osman Ahmed Zelekew
Dr. Bedasa Abdisa Gonfa
Dr. Lemma Teshome Tufa
Dr. Noto Suzanto Gultom
Dr. Andebet Gedamu Tamirat
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • catalysis
  • biomedical
  • environmental
  • green synthesis
  • plant-mediated synthesis
  • renewable energy
  • environmental protection

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 6453 KiB  
Article
A Phenomenological Study of Chromium Impurity Effects on Lattice Microstrains of SnO2 Nanoparticles Prepared Using Sol–Gel Technique
by Leili Motevalizadeh and Masoud Tahani
Crystals 2023, 13(6), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13060919 - 07 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
In this study, the effect of chromium impurities on the crystal structure and lattice microstrains of tin oxide nanoparticles was investigated. Pure SnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized and subjected to calcination at different temperatures. Additionally, various concentrations (5%, 8%, 10% and 15%) of [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of chromium impurities on the crystal structure and lattice microstrains of tin oxide nanoparticles was investigated. Pure SnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized and subjected to calcination at different temperatures. Additionally, various concentrations (5%, 8%, 10% and 15%) of Cr-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were prepared using the sol–gel technique and subsequently calcined at 550 °C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were utilized to examine the structure and morphology of the doped nanoparticles. The XRD patterns of tin oxide nanoparticles with different percentages of chromium impurities showed a tetragonal structure without any additional phase. The TEM images of pure SnO2 nanoparticles showed a uniform distribution of size and shape, with relatively smaller sizes compared to Cr-doped nanoparticles. To investigate the peak broadening of Cr-doped SnO2 nanoparticles, the Halder–Wagner method and Williamson–Hall models were employed to examine the effects of crystallite sizes and lattice strain. The results showed that increasing the impurity has a dual effect on nanoparticle sizes. Increasing the chromium impurity up to 8% led to an increase in compressive stress caused by the substitution of Sn ions with Cr ions on the crystal structure of rutile, resulting in an increase in the magnitude of lattice strain. However, when the chromium impurity was increased up to 15%, interstitial doping was preferred over substitutional doping. The compressive stress was subsequently converted to tensile stress, requiring the system to spend some of its energy to overcome the compressive stress, with the remaining energy reflected in the form of tensile stress. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were obtained for all of the samples, confirming the XRD analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Novel Nanoparticles)
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12 pages, 6486 KiB  
Article
Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Room Temperature Long Persistent Luminescent Materials and Their Imaging Applications
by Yong Shen, Yunfei Xia, Ping Li, Shuo Zhang, Linlin Li, Die Hu, Dongfang Shi and Kai Song
Crystals 2023, 13(4), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13040705 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 975
Abstract
In this study, we utilized a simple and efficient microwave heating method with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and phosphate as raw materials to synthesize room temperature persistent luminescence (RTPL) materials that emit phosphorescent light for up to 10 s. Our investigation revealed that the optimal [...] Read more.
In this study, we utilized a simple and efficient microwave heating method with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and phosphate as raw materials to synthesize room temperature persistent luminescence (RTPL) materials that emit phosphorescent light for up to 10 s. Our investigation revealed that the optimal synthesis conditions were a microwave radiation power of 560 W and a heating time of 5 min. The synthesized RTPL materials had an average particle size of 2 nm and exhibited excellent RTPL performance, with optimal excitation and emission wavelengths of 360 nm and 544 nm, respectively. Additionally, these materials displayed good water solubility. We conducted mapping experiments and in situ phosphorescent imaging of plants to showcase the potential applications of RTPL materials in the fields of biological imaging and anti-counterfeiting. Overall, our findings demonstrate the promising potential of these RTPL materials as versatile tools for various practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Novel Nanoparticles)
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11 pages, 3085 KiB  
Article
Morphology Evolution of Mg2SiO4 Particles Synthesized by Spray Pyrolysis from Precursor Solution
by Temesgen Yiber Animut, Henni Setia Ningsih, Wen-Ling Yeh and Shao-Ju Shih
Crystals 2023, 13(4), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13040639 - 08 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Forsterite (Mg2SiO4) materials have been used in the industrial applications of refractory materials, bone grafting materials, and microwave dielectric materials. In order to avoid the formation of the secondary phase of MgO or MgSiO3, spray pyrolysis with [...] Read more.
Forsterite (Mg2SiO4) materials have been used in the industrial applications of refractory materials, bone grafting materials, and microwave dielectric materials. In order to avoid the formation of the secondary phase of MgO or MgSiO3, spray pyrolysis with the precursors of magnesium nitrate hydrate and tetraethyl orthosilicate has been applied to synthesized Mg2SiO4 powders. In this study, three typical morphologies of smooth solid sphere, rough hollow sphere, and concaved hollow sphere were observed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results suggested that morphology and particle size distribution are strongly influenced by the calcination temperature. Finally, the corresponding powder formation mechanisms were proposed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Novel Nanoparticles)
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17 pages, 5068 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Effective Co-SnO2/SGCN Photocatalysts for the Removal of Organic Pollutants and Pathogen Inactivation
by Mohsin Javed, Sana Iqbal, Muhammad Azam Qamar, Mohammad Shariq, Inas A. Ahmed, Amal BaQais, Hanan Alzahrani, Syed Kashif Ali, N. A. Masmali, Talal M. Althagafi and Mohd. Shakir Khan
Crystals 2023, 13(2), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13020163 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1860
Abstract
Substantial improvement is needed in efficient and affordable decolorization and disinfection methods to solve the issues caused by dyes and harmful bacteria in water and wastewater. This work involves the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) as well as gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria [...] Read more.
Substantial improvement is needed in efficient and affordable decolorization and disinfection methods to solve the issues caused by dyes and harmful bacteria in water and wastewater. This work involves the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) as well as gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by cobalt-doped tin oxide (Co-SnO2) nanoparticles (NPs) and Co-SnO2/SGCN (sulfur-doped graphitic carbon nitride) nanocomposites (NCs) under sunlight. The coprecipitation approach was used to synthesize the photocatalysts. Maximum methylene blue (MB) photocatalytic degradation was seen with the 7% Co-SnO2 NPs compared to other (1, 3, 5, and 9 wt.%) Co-SnO2 NPs. The 7% Co-SnO2 NPs were then homogenized with different amounts (10, 30, 50, and 70 weight %) of sulfur-doped graphitic carbon nitride (SGCN) to develop Co-SnO2/SGCN heterostructures with the most significant degree of MB degradation. The synthesized samples were identified by modern characterization methods such as FT-IR, SEM, EDX, UV-visible, and XRD spectroscopies. The Co-SnO2/50% SGCN composites showed a significant increase in MB degradation and degraded 96% of MB after 150 min of sunlight irradiation. Both gram-negative (E. coli) and gram-positive (B. subtiles) bacterial strains were subjected to antibacterial activity. All samples were shown to have vigorous antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, but the Co-SnO2/50% SGCN composites exhibited the maximum bactericidal action. Thus, the proposed NC is an efficient organic/inorganic photocatalyst that is recyclable and stable without lowering efficiency. Hence, Co-SnO2/50% SGCNNC has the potential to be employed in water treatment as a dual-functional material that simultaneously removes organic pollutants and eradicates bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Novel Nanoparticles)
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19 pages, 3789 KiB  
Article
Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of rGO-ZnO/CuO Nanocomposites for Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants
by Aklilu Guale Bekru, Lemma Teshome Tufa, Osman Ahmed Zelekew, Juyong Gwak, Jaebeom Lee and Fedlu Kedir Sabir
Crystals 2023, 13(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13010133 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2944
Abstract
Nanomaterial-based catalytic conversion of hazardous organic pollutants into benign substances is one of the green methods employed for wastewater treatment. This study demonstrates the fabrication of (rGO-ZnO)/CuO nanocomposites (NCs) via a microwave (MW)-assisted method for (photo)catalytic application. The crystal structure, optical, morphological, and [...] Read more.
Nanomaterial-based catalytic conversion of hazardous organic pollutants into benign substances is one of the green methods employed for wastewater treatment. This study demonstrates the fabrication of (rGO-ZnO)/CuO nanocomposites (NCs) via a microwave (MW)-assisted method for (photo)catalytic application. The crystal structure, optical, morphological, and electrochemical characteristics were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectroscopic, microscopic, and electrochemical techniques. The analysis indicated that rod-like (rGO-ZnO)/CuO NCs having a nanoscale diameter with enhanced light absorption and well-matched band positions between rGO-ZnO and CuO were formed. Furthermore, the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) tests showed remarkable results with rate constants of 0.468 min−1 for 4-NP reduction within 8 min and 0.02213 min−1 for MB degradation within 105 min. Thus, the artful decoration of ZnO nanorods (NRs) with CuO into the (rGO-ZnO)/CuO NCs interface is an effective strategy for fabricating highly efficient photocatalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Novel Nanoparticles)
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