Hot Corrosion and Oxidation of Alloys

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Crystalline Metals and Alloys".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2024) | Viewed by 6805

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Inorganic Chemistry, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
Interests: oxidation resistance; hot corrosion; electrochemical corrosion; titanium alloys; high-etropy alloys

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Guest Editor
Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
Interests: oxidation; corrosion; molecular dynamics; aluminum; structure

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Guest Editor
NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135, USA
Interests: high temperature oxidation; alumina scales
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The hot corrosion and oxidation of metals and their alloys are complex phenomena involving the high-temperature (above 500 °C) transformation of metallic materials into oxides, sulphides, or chlorides. Oxidation processes are mainly considered when exposing alloys to air, oxygen, or steam, followed by the formation of oxide layers sometimes accompanied by nitrides. Hot corrosion is an accelerated oxidation that occurs when materials are exposed to air contaminated with sulphurous gases from the combustion of fossil fuels. The interaction between sulphurous gases and sodium chloride usually presents in air close to seawater, resulting in the deposition of sodium chloride and sodium sulphate salt onto the surface of the material, which significantly increases the corrosion rate, especially when the salts are in a liquid state. Therefore, the hot corrosion and oxidation of alloys are affected by many factors, including temperature, atmosphere composition, alloy composition, slat deposit, and the presence of protective coatings as well as substrate surfaces. The study of oxidation and hot corrosion processes mainly concerns alloys applied in gas turbines, aero engines, furnaces, and chemical apparatus used in different processes, e.g., carburization, chlorination, and acid production. The most popular alloys that can be used in such applications are superalloys, stainless steels, titanium alloys, as well as high-entropy alloys. Therefore, we are pleased to invite researchers to contribute to a Special Issue entitled “Hot Corrosion and Oxidation of Alloys”, intending to be a comprehensive review on metals and their alloys working at high temperatures in an oxidizing atmosphere, sometimes in the presence of salt deposits or severe gases. We also welcome submissions of original research papers, short communications, and reviews related to the Special Issue topic.

Dr. Marzena Mitoraj-Królikowska
Dr. Marcela E. Trybula
Dr. James L. Smialek
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • high-temperature oxidation
  • hot corrosion phenomena
  • coatings for oxidation and hot corrosion protection
  • development of advanced high-temperature corrosion-resistant alloys
  • oxidation of thin films
  • kinetics of oxidation
  • effect of material composition and microstructure on oxidation and hot corrosion behaviour
  • investigation of the oxidation and hot corrosion mechanism
  • molecular dynamics simulation, DFT, machine learning in oxidation, and hot corrosion study
  • corrosion simulation calculation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 10770 KiB  
Communication
A Study of the Hot Salt Corrosion Behavior of Three Nickel-Based Single-Crystal Superalloys at 900 °C
by Qianyi Li, Feng Liu, Yixin Li, Jian Yao, Jingyu Yang, Liming Tan, Zi Wang, Lan Huang and Yong Liu
Crystals 2024, 14(4), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst14040307 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 621
Abstract
A study of the hot salt corrosion behavior of three nickel-based single-crystal superalloys at 900 °C was conducted. We discovered that the corrosion layer on each alloy was distinctly enriched with Mo, Ni, S, and O, primarily comprising sulfides and oxides. Notably, variations [...] Read more.
A study of the hot salt corrosion behavior of three nickel-based single-crystal superalloys at 900 °C was conducted. We discovered that the corrosion layer on each alloy was distinctly enriched with Mo, Ni, S, and O, primarily comprising sulfides and oxides. Notably, variations in oxygen distribution across the alloys revealed that the elemental composition plays a pivotal role in their corrosion resistance. These insights not only advance our understanding of the mechanisms driving thermal corrosion in nickel-based single-crystal superalloys but also lay the groundwork for designing alloys with enhanced durability tailored to high-temperature applications. This research marks a significant step toward the optimal design and utilization of superalloys in sectors demanding exceptional material stability under thermal stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hot Corrosion and Oxidation of Alloys)
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19 pages, 5560 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of the Evolution of Creep-Resistant Steel’s High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior
by Gabriela Baranová, Mária Hagarová, Miloš Matvija, Dávid Csík, Vladimír Girman, Jozef Bednarčík and Pavel Bekeč
Crystals 2023, 13(6), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13060982 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 987
Abstract
This study shows that in an atmosphere containing water vapor, the oxide layer on the surface of the 9CrNB steel MarBN (Martensitic 9Cr steel strengthened by Boron and MX Nitrides) was formed by an outer layer of hematite Fe2O3 and [...] Read more.
This study shows that in an atmosphere containing water vapor, the oxide layer on the surface of the 9CrNB steel MarBN (Martensitic 9Cr steel strengthened by Boron and MX Nitrides) was formed by an outer layer of hematite Fe2O3 and Cr2O3 and an inner two-phase layer of Fe3O4 and Fe3O4 + (Fe, Cr)2O4, which was confirmed by XRD analysis. Part of the layer consisted of nodules and pores that were formed during the increase in oxides when the present H2O(g) acted on the steel surface. The diffusion mechanism at temperatures of 600 and 650 °C and at longer oxidation times supported the “healing process” with a growing layer of Fe oxides and the presence of Cr and minor alloying elements. The effects of alloying elements were quantified using a concentration profile of the oxide layer based on quantitative SEM analysis, as well as an explanation of the mechanism influencing the structure and chemical composition of the oxide layer and the steel-matrix–oxide interface. In addition to Cr, for which the content reached the requirement of exceeding 7.0 wt. % in the inner oxide layer, W, Co, Mn, and Si were also found in increased concentrations, whether in the form of the present Fe-Cr spinel oxide or as part of a continuously distributed layer of Mn2O3 and SiO2 oxides at the steel-matrix–oxide interface. After long-term high-temperature oxidation, coarser carbides of the M23C6 type (M = Fe,W) significantly depleted in Cr were formed at the oxide-layer/matrix interface. In the zone under the oxide layer, very fine particles of MC (M = V, Nb, and to a lesser extent also Cr in the particle lattice of the given phase) were observed, with a higher number of particles per unit area compared to the state before oxidation. This fact was a consequence of Cr diffusion to the steel surface through the subsurface zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hot Corrosion and Oxidation of Alloys)
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16 pages, 23446 KiB  
Article
Processing, Characterization, and Oxidation Resistance of Glass-Ceramic Coating on CoSb3
by Kinga M. Zawadzka, Fabiana D’Isanto, Krzysztof Mars, Federico Smeacetto and Milena Salvo
Crystals 2023, 13(6), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13060880 - 27 May 2023
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Abstract
Power generation based on thermoelectric (TE) materials is very attractive due to its low environmental impact and waste heat recovery. Thermoelectric materials based on cobalt triantimonide CoSb3 exhibit one of the highest energy conversion efficiencies, revealing thermoelectric figures of merit, ZTs > [...] Read more.
Power generation based on thermoelectric (TE) materials is very attractive due to its low environmental impact and waste heat recovery. Thermoelectric materials based on cobalt triantimonide CoSb3 exhibit one of the highest energy conversion efficiencies, revealing thermoelectric figures of merit, ZTs > 1, but undergo oxidation above 380 °C and sublimation above 500 °C. In this work, a glass-ceramic coating was chosen to match the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the TE substrate 9.2 × 10−6 K−1 (200–400 °C), deposition temperature (max. 700 °C), and maximum working temperature (600 °C). Coating processing involved the production of glass powder and glass-ceramic sintering. The glass-ceramic and the coating/CoSb3 interface were systematically investigated by means of dilatometry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. As a result, a coating with good substrate coverage and adherence was developed. Finally, oxidation tests were carried out at 500 and 600 °C in order to assess the protective properties of the glass-ceramic. Microstructural and chemical composition analysis indicated limited protective properties of the coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hot Corrosion and Oxidation of Alloys)
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19 pages, 11182 KiB  
Article
Oxidation and Electrical Property Studies on Ferritic Steels as Potential Interconnects in Electrochemical Devices for Energy Conversion
by Jarosław Dąbek, Richard Gaweł, Michał Pyzalski and Tomasz Brylewski
Crystals 2023, 13(6), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13060862 - 24 May 2023
Viewed by 889
Abstract
This work presents the results of oxidation studies on commercially available Nirosta 4016/1.4016 ferritic steel, which contains 16.3 wt.% chromium, as well as the electrical properties of steel/scale layer systems in order to determine the usefulness of this steel for constructing metallic interconnects [...] Read more.
This work presents the results of oxidation studies on commercially available Nirosta 4016/1.4016 ferritic steel, which contains 16.3 wt.% chromium, as well as the electrical properties of steel/scale layer systems in order to determine the usefulness of this steel for constructing metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) stacks. The E-Brite ferritic steel, consisting of up to 26 wt.% chromium, was chosen as a reference material. High-temperature isothermal oxidation kinetics studies were carried out on both steels at 1073 K for 255, 505, 760 and 1010 h in air atmosphere. These conditions are representative of those present in the cathode compartment of a SOFC and the anode compartment of a SOEC. Area specific resistance (ASR) measurements were performed on steel/scale layer systems, obtained after the previous oxidation of both steels in the above-mentioned conditions, in the air in the temperature range of 573–1073 K using the pseudo-DC four-probe method. On the basis of these studies, complemented by morphology observations, as well as chemical and phase composition analysis of the oxidation products, the usefulness of Nirosta 4016/1.4016 ferritic steel for manufacturing interconnects in energy conversion electrochemical devices operating at 1073 K was confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hot Corrosion and Oxidation of Alloys)
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Review

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21 pages, 2926 KiB  
Review
Review on the Corrosion Behaviour of Nickel-Based Alloys in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide under High Temperature and Pressure
by Yiyao Kang, Xuesong Leng, Lin Zhao, Bowen Bai, Xiaoya Wang and Hongsheng Chen
Crystals 2023, 13(5), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13050725 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2169
Abstract
Supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) has the advantages of amphoteric liquid and gas, which possesses many unique characteristics, such as good compressibility, high density, high solubility, good fluidity and low viscosity. The Brayton cycle with S-CO2 is considered to have many [...] Read more.
Supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) has the advantages of amphoteric liquid and gas, which possesses many unique characteristics, such as good compressibility, high density, high solubility, good fluidity and low viscosity. The Brayton cycle with S-CO2 is considered to have many promising applications, especially for power conversion industries. However, the corrosion and degradation of structural materials hinder the development and application of the Brayton cycle with S-CO2. Nickel-based alloys have the best corrosion resistance in S-CO2 environments compared to austenitic stainless steels and ferritic/martensitic steels. Thus, the present article mainly reviews the corrosion behaviour of nickel-based alloys in S-CO2 under high temperature and pressure. The effect of alloying elements and environment parameters on the corrosion behaviour of different nickel-based alloys are systematically summarized. The conclusion and outlook are given at the end. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hot Corrosion and Oxidation of Alloys)
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