Laser-Induced Crystallization

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Crystalline Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021) | Viewed by 23801

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et, des Matériaux d’Orsay, Université Paris-Saclay, bât.410, 91405 Orsay, France
Interests: materials science in glasses, structural defects in glasses; Laser induced material property change; material optical properties changes; Laser induced chemical migration or valence change or luminescence; Non Photochemical Laser Induced transformation including crystallization; Self-organized nanostructure; optical materials; direct laser writing, DLW; ultrafast IR laser or UV ns laser; optical design; Photonics; Integrated optics; Optical fibers; Volume laser machining; Bragg gratings; nano gratings; Optical devices

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Guest Editor
Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, Department of Glass and Glass-Ceramics, Miusskaya pl. 9, 125047 Moscow, Russia
Interests: physics; chemistry and technology of glasses and glass ceramics; glass structure by neutron and x-rays diffraction; small-angle neutron and x-rays scattering; optical glasses; functional glass ceramics; nanostructured glasses and nano-composites; second- and third-order optical non-linearity in glasses; direct laser writing in glasses; space-selective laser-induced crystallization of glasses; glass-based optical data storage

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The laser is a formidable tool for materials science. Lasers are monochromatic and can have a large intensity that can be focused at the ultimate limit, thus making them especially suited to direct laser writing. Furthermore, the femtosecond laser (a laser with pulses of ten to hundreds of 1015 s) is a new laser that became possible thanks to the invention of amplification by Prof. Gérard Amouroux and Donna Strickland (Nobel Prize 2018) Its pulses are so energetic that it is possible to interact with any material, even those that are transparent, such as window glass. The possibilities for lasers in materials science are numerous. Some are already in use in industries for surface machining and shaping materials. Others are well on the way to being used for designing at the micron-scale refractive index (optical waveguides) and birefringence in transparent glasses, while other properties are also being studied. This opens new possibilities in integrated or free optics, rendering possible new applications towards the elaboration of optical devices by optics for optical use and for a safe future.

Here, We invite researchers to contribute to the Special Issue on “Laser-Induced Crystallization”, which will serve as a unique multidisciplinary forum for covering broad aspects of the science of crystallization processes in solids or liquids and minerals or organic compounds, the effects of specially designed new beams such as the vortex beam, and applications involving the design of new properties in a substrate for optical applications.

Prof. Dr. Bertrand Poumellec
Prof. Dr. Vladimir Sigaev
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • laser
  • direct laser writing (DLW)
  • crystallization
  • materials science
  • ultrafast laser
  • optical design
  • non-photochemical laser-induced nucleation (NPLIN)
  • optical materials
  • photonics
  • integrated optics

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 3947 KiB  
Article
Thermal and Electron Plasma Effects on Phase Separation Dynamics Induced by Ultrashort Laser Pulses
by Maxime Cavillon, Jing Cao, Maxime Vallet, François Brisset, Léo Mazerolles, Brahim Dkhil, Matthieu Lancry and Bertrand Poumellec
Crystals 2022, 12(4), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12040496 - 3 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1916
Abstract
During ultrafast laser-induced crystallization from glass with a non-congruent composition, a phase separation occurs. The morphology of the crystallized area, inside the heat-affected zone (HAZ), is spectacular showing a bouquet-like structure, under some specific conditions related to glass chemical composition and laser parameters. [...] Read more.
During ultrafast laser-induced crystallization from glass with a non-congruent composition, a phase separation occurs. The morphology of the crystallized area, inside the heat-affected zone (HAZ), is spectacular showing a bouquet-like structure, under some specific conditions related to glass chemical composition and laser parameters. In this work, we investigate this HAZ along a written line through a set of high-resolution electron microscopy techniques to probe both the morphology and the chemical distribution at the nanoscale. Based on these findings, we demonstrate that the bouquet-like structure arises from poorly textured nanocrystals between two regions that have probably accumulated elastic strain. From that analysis, we also provide insights into the chemical separation process during this complex light-matter transformation in which the induced plasma structure guides the spatial distribution of SiO2 and LiNbO3. We suggest a model based on an electric field modulation produced by the inhomogeneous plasma electron trapping, that modifies the electrochemical potentials of the constituents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Induced Crystallization)
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25 pages, 5437 KiB  
Article
Towards a Rationalization of Ultrafast Laser-Induced Crystallization in Lithium Niobium Borosilicate Glasses: The Key Role of the Scanning Speed
by Elisa Muzi, Maxime Cavillon, Matthieu Lancry, François Brisset, Ruyue Que, Diego Pugliese, Davide Janner and Bertrand Poumellec
Crystals 2021, 11(3), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11030290 - 15 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2618
Abstract
Femtosecond (fs)-laser direct writing is a powerful technique to enable a large variety of integrated photonic functions in glass materials. One possible way to achieve functionalization is through highly localized and controlled crystallization inside the glass volume, for example by precipitating nanocrystals with [...] Read more.
Femtosecond (fs)-laser direct writing is a powerful technique to enable a large variety of integrated photonic functions in glass materials. One possible way to achieve functionalization is through highly localized and controlled crystallization inside the glass volume, for example by precipitating nanocrystals with second-order susceptibility (frequency converters, optical modulators), and/or with larger refractive indices with respect to their glass matrices (graded index or diffractive lenses, waveguides, gratings). In this paper, this is achieved through fs-laser-induced crystallization of LiNbO3 nonlinear crystals inside two different glass matrices: a silicate (mol%: 33Li2O-33Nb2O5-34SiO2, labeled as LNS) and a borosilicate (mol%: 33Li2O-33Nb2O5-13SiO2-21B2O3, labeled as LNSB). More specifically, we investigate the effect of laser scanning speed on the crystallization kinetics, as it is a valuable parameter for glass laser processing. The impact of scanning energy and speed on the fabrication of oriented nanocrystals and nanogratings during fs-laser irradiation is studied.Fs-laser direct writing of crystallized lines in both LNS and LNSB glass is investigated using both optical and electron microscopy techniques. Among the main findings to highlight, we observed the possibility to maintain crystallization during scanning at speeds ~5 times higher in LNSB relative to LNS (up to ~600 µm/s in our experimental conditions). We found a speed regime where lines exhibited a large polarization-controlled retardance response (up to 200 nm in LNSB), which is attributed to the texturation of the crystal/glass phase separation with a low scattering level. These characteristics are regarded as assets for future elaboration methods and designs of photonic devices involving crystallization. Finally, by using temperature and irradiation time variations along the main laser parameters (pulse energy, pulse repetition rate, scanning speed), we propose an explanation on the origin of (1) crystallization limitation upon scanning speed, (2) laser track width variation with respect to scanning speed, and (3) narrowing of the nanogratings volume but not the heat-affected volume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Induced Crystallization)
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10 pages, 2004 KiB  
Article
Ultrafast Laser-Induced Crystallization of Lead Germanate Glass
by Sergey V. Lotarev, Alexey S. Lipatiev, Tatiana O. Lipateva, Elena V. Lopatina and Vladimir N. Sigaev
Crystals 2021, 11(2), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11020193 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2772
Abstract
Laser-induced space-selective crystallization of glass enabling the growth of continuous crystal-in-glass architectures consisting of non-centrosymmetric phases with functional properties is promising, including single-crystal waveguides for the development of integrated optical circuits. In this study, femtosecond laser direct writing of crystalline lines inside lead [...] Read more.
Laser-induced space-selective crystallization of glass enabling the growth of continuous crystal-in-glass architectures consisting of non-centrosymmetric phases with functional properties is promising, including single-crystal waveguides for the development of integrated optical circuits. In this study, femtosecond laser direct writing of crystalline lines inside lead germanate glass with the composition close to Pb5Ge3O11 has been demonstrated. The growth of crystalline lines by the .moving focused laser beam required the preliminary growth of a seed crystal by the fixed beam. Confocal Raman spectroscopy revealed the precipitation of ferroelectric Pb5Ge3O11, which, under certain exposure conditions, could be accompanied by precipitation of the metastable lead germanate phase. Depending on the laser beam parameters, either bilateral growth providing split, horseshoe-shaped morphology of the crystal cross-section, or centered growth resulting in elongated, elliptical cross-section shape occurred. The obtained results are of interest for the fabrication of ferroelectric Pb5Ge3O11-based crystal-in-glass waveguides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Induced Crystallization)
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16 pages, 4038 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional High Spatial Localization of Efficient Resonant Energy Transfer from Laser-Assisted Precipitated Silver Clusters to Trivalent Europium Ions
by Yannick Petit, Gustavo Galleani, Guillaume Raffy, Jean-Charles Desmoulin, Véronique Jubéra, André Del Guerzo, Andrea Simone Stucchi de Camargo, Lionel Canioni and Thierry Cardinal
Crystals 2021, 11(2), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11020148 - 1 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
We report on the 3D precipitation, using a direct laser writing approach, of highly fluorescent silver clusters in a Eu3+-doped silver-containing zinc phosphate glass. Micro-spectroscopy of fluorescence emission shows the ability to continuously adjust the local tri-chromatic coordinates in the CIE [...] Read more.
We report on the 3D precipitation, using a direct laser writing approach, of highly fluorescent silver clusters in a Eu3+-doped silver-containing zinc phosphate glass. Micro-spectroscopy of fluorescence emission shows the ability to continuously adjust the local tri-chromatic coordinates in the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage) chromaticity diagram between red and white colors, thanks to the laser-deposited dose and resulting tunable combination of emissions from Eu3+ and silver clusters. Moreover, continuous-wave and time-resolved FAST-FLIM spectroscopies showed a significant enhancement of the fluorescence emission of Eu3+ ions while being co-located with UV-excited laser-inscribed silver clusters. These results demonstrate the ability to perform efficient resonant non-radiative energy transfer from excited silver clusters to Eu3+, allowing such energy transfer to be highly localized on demand thanks to laser inscription. Such results open the route to 3D printing of the rare earth ions emission in glass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Induced Crystallization)
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11 pages, 3686 KiB  
Article
Effect of Laser Beam Profile on Rotating Lattice Single Crystal Growth in Sb2S3 Model Glass
by Courtney Au-Yeung, Dmytro Savytskii, Keith Veenhuizen, Volkmar Dierolf and Himanshu Jain
Crystals 2021, 11(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11010036 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2615
Abstract
Laser heating of chalcogenide glasses has successfully produced rotating lattice single crystals through a solid-solid transformation. To better understand the nature of complex, orientation-dependent lattice rotation, we designed heat profiles of the continuous wave laser by beam shaping, fabricated larger Sb2S [...] Read more.
Laser heating of chalcogenide glasses has successfully produced rotating lattice single crystals through a solid-solid transformation. To better understand the nature of complex, orientation-dependent lattice rotation, we designed heat profiles of the continuous wave laser by beam shaping, fabricated larger Sb2S3 crystal dots in Sb2S3 glass, and investigated the lattice rotation where the crystal could grow in all radial directions under a circular thermal gradient. The results show that the rate of lattice rotation is highly anisotropic and depends on crystallographic direction. The nature of this rotation is the same in crystals of different orientation relative to the surface. The growth directions that align with the slip planes show the highest rate of rotation and the rotation rate gradually decreases away from this direction. Additionally, the presence of multiple growth directions results in a complicated rotation system. We suggest that the growth front influences the density of dislocations introduced during growth under confinement and thus affects the lattice rotation rate in these crystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Induced Crystallization)
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13 pages, 2023 KiB  
Article
Femtosecond Laser-Induced Self-Assembly of Ce3+-Doped YAG Nanocrystals
by Yasuhiko Shimotsuma, Kotaro Tomura, Tatsuya Okuno, Masahiro Shimizu and Kiyotaka Miura
Crystals 2020, 10(12), 1142; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10121142 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2620
Abstract
Direct three-dimensional laser writing of crystallization inside glass has been intensely studied as an attractive technique for fabricating photonic devices. In particular, polarization-dependent periodic nanostructures composed of the partial crystallization in glass can be self-assembled through focused irradiation of femtosecond pulses. Here, we [...] Read more.
Direct three-dimensional laser writing of crystallization inside glass has been intensely studied as an attractive technique for fabricating photonic devices. In particular, polarization-dependent periodic nanostructures composed of the partial crystallization in glass can be self-assembled through focused irradiation of femtosecond pulses. Here, we report on the Y3Al5O12 (YAG) crystal precipitation in nanoscale by femtosecond laser irradiation inside Al2O3-Y2O3 glass. Furthermore, we focus on the white emission by Ce: YAG in which a part of Y3+ site was replaced by Ce3+, the effect on photoluminescence (PL) characteristics by changing of ligand field induced by nanostructure formation was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Induced Crystallization)
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13 pages, 3242 KiB  
Article
Space-Selective Control of Functional Crystals by Femtosecond Laser: A Comparison between SrO-TiO2-SiO2 and Li2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 Glasses
by Xuan He, Qiming Liu, Matthieu Lancry, François Brisset and Bertrand Poumellec
Crystals 2020, 10(11), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10110979 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
We report on space-selective crystallization of congruent and polar Sr2TiSi2O8 crystals in a stoichiometric SrO-TiO2-SiO2 glass induced by (1030 nm, 300 fs) femtosecond laser irradiation. This allows us to compare with non-congruent laser-induced crystallization of [...] Read more.
We report on space-selective crystallization of congruent and polar Sr2TiSi2O8 crystals in a stoichiometric SrO-TiO2-SiO2 glass induced by (1030 nm, 300 fs) femtosecond laser irradiation. This allows us to compare with non-congruent laser-induced crystallization of polar LiNbO3 in non-stoichiometric Li2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass and gain information on the mechanism of nanocrystals orientation with the laser polarization that we pointed out previously. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), second harmonic generation (SHG), and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), we studied the laser-induced crystallization according to the laser processing parameters (pulse energy, pulse repetition rate, scanning speed). We found (1) a domain where the laser track is filled with crystals not perfectly textured (low energy), (2) a domain where an amorphous volume remains surrounded by a crystallized shell (high energy). This arises from Sr out-diffusion and may give rise to the crystallization of both SrTiO3 and Sr2TiSi2O8 phases at low speed. In the one-phase domain (at higher speed), the possibility to elaborate a tube with a perfect Fresnoite texture is found. A significant difference in size and morphology whereas the crystallization threshold remains similar is discussed based on glass thermal properties. Contrarily to Li2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 (LNS) glass, no domain of oriented nanocrystallization controlled by the laser polarization has been found in SrO-TiO2-SiO2 (STS) glass, which is attributed to the larger crystallization speed in STS glass. No nanogratings have also been found that is likely due to the congruency of the glass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Induced Crystallization)
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Review

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29 pages, 3260 KiB  
Review
Laser Floating Zone Growth: Overview, Singular Materials, Broad Applications, and Future Perspectives
by Francisco Rey-García, Rafael Ibáñez, Luis Alberto Angurel, Florinda M. Costa and Germán F. de la Fuente
Crystals 2021, 11(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11010038 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5340
Abstract
The Laser Floating Zone (LFZ) technique, also known as Laser-Heated Pedestal Growth (LHPG), has been developed throughout the last several decades as a simple, fast, and crucible-free method for growing high-crystalline-quality materials, particularly when compared to the more conventional Verneuil, Bridgman–Stockbarger, and Czochralski [...] Read more.
The Laser Floating Zone (LFZ) technique, also known as Laser-Heated Pedestal Growth (LHPG), has been developed throughout the last several decades as a simple, fast, and crucible-free method for growing high-crystalline-quality materials, particularly when compared to the more conventional Verneuil, Bridgman–Stockbarger, and Czochralski methods. Multiple worldwide efforts have, over the years, enabled the growth of highly oriented polycrystalline and single-crystal high-melting materials. This work attempted to critically review the most representative advancements in LFZ apparatus and experimental parameters that enable the growth of high-quality polycrystalline materials and single crystals, along with the most commonly produced materials and their relevant physical properties. Emphasis will be given to materials for photonics and optics, as well as for electrical applications, particularly superconducting and thermoelectric materials, and to the growth of metastable phases. Concomitantly, an analysis was carried out on how LFZ may contribute to further understanding equilibrium vs. non-equilibrium phase selectivity, as well as its potential to achieve or contribute to future developments in the growth of crystals for emerging applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Induced Crystallization)
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