Synthesis and Application of Nanocomposite Materials

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2024) | Viewed by 2332

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Technology, Instruction, and Design in Engineering and Education Research Group (TiDEE.rg), Catholic University of Ávila, 05005 Ávila, Spain
Interests: nanocomposites; nanoparticles; strain sensors; electrical properties; solid polymer electrolytes

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Guest Editor
Materials Science and Engineering Area, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n Mostoles, 28933 Madrid, Spain
Interests: structural health monitoring; carbon nanoparticles; multiscale composites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the realm of material science, the spotlight is now firmly fixed on nanocomposites, captivating the scientific community with their remarkable potential to enhance the intrinsic qualities of polymers while introducing innovative functionalities. Specifically, the use of diverse nanostructures, such as metallic or graphitic nanoparticles, has emerged as a powerful strategy to enhance mechanical (stiffness, resilience, hardness, etc.), electrical (conductivity, Joule's heating capabilities, etc.), thermal (flame resistance, fire-retardant performance, etc.), electrochemical (ionic conductivity, capacitance, etc.) properties, and even providing biological functionalities (antibacterial properties, drug delivery systems, etc.). Nanocomposites can promote novel multifaceted capabilities, broadening their spectrum of applications.

From lightning strain detection to human motion monitoring, from smart robotics to structural health monitoring, and from self-heating materials to shape memory effects, the incorporation of nanostructures has revolutionized the landscape of structural batteries, supercapacitors, biosensors, cancer treatment methodologies, bioimaging techniques, drug delivery systems, water treatment processes, and environmental remediation, among others.

Hence, this Special Issue has been curated to shine a spotlight on the most recent and groundbreaking developments within the world of nanoparticles and nanocomposites, with a particular emphasis on the remarkable multifunctionality that nanostructures bring to a diverse array of applications. Of note are the cutting-edge advances in creating novel strain sensors and solid polymer electrolytes, elevating the performance of structural batteries and supercapacitors, and pioneering biosensors and human motion detectors. Moreover, we eagerly welcome studies that investigate the influence of nanostructures on other aspects, boosting the performance of conventional polymers and polymer matrix composites. Theoretical models focused on the mechanical, electrical, thermal, electrochemical, or biological behavior of nanostructured polymers are also warmly encouraged. This Special Issue aims to attract both academic and industrial researchers in order to foster the current knowledge of nanomaterials and present new ideas for future applications and new technologies.

Dr. Antonio Del Bosque
Dr. Xoan Xosé Fernández Sánchez-Romate
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanocomposites
  • nanostructures
  • multifunctional
  • carbon nanoparticles
  • metallic nanoparticles
  • sensing
  • strain sensors
  • mechanical properties
  • electrical properties
  • smart robotics
  • human motion monitoring
  • structural health monitoring
  • batteries
  • supercapacitors

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 3415 KiB  
Article
ZnO-Au Hybrid Metamaterial Thin Films with Tunable Optical Properties
by Nirali A. Bhatt, Robynne L. Paldi, James P. Barnard, Juanjuan Lu, Zihao He, Bo Yang, Chao Shen, Jiawei Song, Raktim Sarma, Aleem Siddiqui and Haiyan Wang
Crystals 2024, 14(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst14010065 - 6 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
ZnO-Au nanocomposite thin films have been previously reported as hybrid metamaterials with unique optical properties such as plasmonic resonance properties and hyperbolic behaviors. In this study, Au composition in the ZnO-Au nanocomposites has been effectively tuned by target composition variation and thus resulted [...] Read more.
ZnO-Au nanocomposite thin films have been previously reported as hybrid metamaterials with unique optical properties such as plasmonic resonance properties and hyperbolic behaviors. In this study, Au composition in the ZnO-Au nanocomposites has been effectively tuned by target composition variation and thus resulted in microstructure and optical property tuning. Specifically, all the ZnO-Au nanocomposite thin films grown through the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method show obvious vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) structure with the Au nanopillars embedded in the ZnO matrix. Moreover, the average diameter of Au nanopillars increases as Au concentration increases, which also leads to the redshifts in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) wavelength and changes in the hyperbolic behaviors of the films. As a whole, this work discusses how strain-driven tuning of optical properties and microstructure resulted through a novel Au concentration variation approach which has not been previously attempted in the ZnO-Au thin film system. These highly ordered films present great promise in the areas of sensing, waveguides, and nanophotonics to name a few. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Nanocomposite Materials)
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17 pages, 1615 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Temperature on the Surface Energetic Properties of Carbon Fibers Using Inverse Gas Chromatography
by Tayssir Hamieh
Crystals 2024, 14(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst14010028 - 26 Dec 2023
Viewed by 930
Abstract
This paper constitutes an original and new methodology for the determination of the surface properties of carbon fibers in two forms, namely, oxidized and untreated, using the inverse gas chromatography technique at infinite dilution based on the effect of temperature on the surface [...] Read more.
This paper constitutes an original and new methodology for the determination of the surface properties of carbon fibers in two forms, namely, oxidized and untreated, using the inverse gas chromatography technique at infinite dilution based on the effect of temperature on the surface area of various organic molecules adsorbed on the carbon fibers. The studied thermal effect showed a large deviation from the classical methods or models relative to the new determination of the surface properties of carbon fibers, such as the dispersive component of their surface energy, the free surface energy, the free specific energy, and the enthalpy and entropy of the adsorption of molecules on the carbon fibers. It was highlighted that the variations in the London dispersive surface energy of the carbon fibers as a function of the temperature satisfied excellent linear variations by showing large deviations between the values of γsd (T), calculated using different models, which can reach 300% in the case of the spherical model. All models and chromatographic methods showed that the oxidized carbon fibers gave larger specific free enthalpy of adsorption whatever the adsorbed polar molecules. The obtained specific enthalpy and entropy of the adsorption of the polar solvents led to the determination of the Lewis acid–base constants of the carbon fibers. Different molecular models and chromatographic methods were used to quantify the surface thermodynamic properties of the carbon fibers, and the results were compared with those of the thermal model. The obtained results show that the oxidized carbon fibers gave more specific interaction energy and greater acid–base constants than the untreated carbon fibers, thus highlighting the important role of oxidization in the acid–base of fibers. The determination of the specific acid–base surface energy of the two carbon fibers showed greater values for the oxidized carbon fibers than for the untreated carbon fibers. An important basic character was highlighted for the two studied carbon fibers, which was larger than the acidic character. It was observed that the carbon fibers were 1.4 times more acidic and 2.4 times more basic. The amphoteric character of the oxidized fibers was determined, and it was 1.7 times more important than that of the untreated fibers This tendency was confirmed by all molecular models and chromatographic methods. The Lewis acid and base surface energies of the solid surface, γs+ and γs, as well as the specific acid–base surface energy γsAB of the carbon fibers at different temperatures were determined. One showed that the specific surface energy γsAB of the oxidized fibers was 1.5 times larger than that of the untreated fibers, confirming the above results obtained on the strong acid–base interactions of the oxidized carbon fibers with the various polar molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Nanocomposite Materials)
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