Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies

A special issue of Computers (ISSN 2073-431X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 51536

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Distance Education University (UNED), 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: accessibility; b-learning; OER repositories and metadata; MOOCs; digital humanities; quality in e-learning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, e-learning has spread in the field of education and training, becoming more open, easy to achieve and more ubiquitous. It has been necessary to develop a huge amount of innovative technologies such as learning management systems, specifications for standardization, educational content generation tools or sophisticated digital repositories with recommended systems. New technologies are invading the landscape now, mainly based on artificial intelligence techniques—data analysis, big data, cloud computing or internet of things—which will enrich and personalize the e-learning environments of the future.

With all of the above, new lines of work have emerged in the field: learning analytics, gamification, virtual assistants, the use of sensors to assess learning processes, etc. Now, the question arises of how e-learning will evolve due to the influence and the natural integration of these new technologies with the existing software architectures and pedagogical methodologies.

In this Special Issue, we are interested in receiving contributions that will show the integration of learning design and the introduction of innovative technologies to achieve the best, most inclusive and most personalized learning environments.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Sarasa Cabezuelo
Dr. Covadonga Rodrigo San Juan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Computers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • e-learning standards and specifications
  • quality in e-learning
  • instructional design, educational resources repositories
  • artificial intelligence applied to e-learning
  • creation of digital educational content
  • data science for e-learning
  • experiences in e-learning

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 4899 KiB  
Article
Pólya’s Methodology for Strengthening Problem-Solving Skills in Differential Equations: A Case Study in Colombia
by Marcos Chacón-Castro, Jorge Buele, Ana Dulcelina López-Rueda and Janio Jadán-Guerrero
Computers 2023, 12(11), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers12110239 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2979
Abstract
The formation of students is integral to education. Strengthening critical thinking and reasoning are essential for the professionals that today’s world needs. For this reason, the authors of this article applied Pólya’s methodology, an initiative based on observing students’ difficulties when facing mathematical [...] Read more.
The formation of students is integral to education. Strengthening critical thinking and reasoning are essential for the professionals that today’s world needs. For this reason, the authors of this article applied Pólya’s methodology, an initiative based on observing students’ difficulties when facing mathematical problems. The present study is part of the qualitative and quantitative research paradigm and the action research methodology. In this study, the inquiry process was inductive, the sample is non-probabilistic, and the data interpretation strategy is descriptive. As a case study, six students were enrolled onto a differential equations course at the Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga. A didactic process was designed using information and communication technologies (ICTs) in five sequences that address first-order differential equation applications. As a result of the pedagogical intervention, problem-solving skills were strengthened. All this was based on asking the right questions, repeated reading, identifying and defining variables, mathematization, communication, and decomposing the problem into subproblems. This research study seeks to set a precedent in the Latin American region that will be the basis for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies)
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19 pages, 1108 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Learning Personalization in Educational Environments through Ontology-Based Knowledge Representation
by William Villegas-Ch and Joselin García-Ortiz
Computers 2023, 12(10), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers12100199 - 4 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2428
Abstract
In the digital age, the personalization of learning has become a critical priority in education. This article delves into the cutting-edge of educational innovation by exploring the essential role of ontology-based knowledge representation in transforming the educational experience. This research stands out for [...] Read more.
In the digital age, the personalization of learning has become a critical priority in education. This article delves into the cutting-edge of educational innovation by exploring the essential role of ontology-based knowledge representation in transforming the educational experience. This research stands out for its significant and distinctive contribution to improving the personalization of learning. For this, concrete examples of use cases are presented in various academic fields, from formal education to corporate training and online learning. It is identified how ontologies capture and organize knowledge semantically, allowing the intelligent adaptation of content, the inference of activity and resource recommendations, and the creation of highly personalized learning paths. In this context, the novelty lies in the innovative approach to designing educational ontologies, which exhaustively considers different use cases and academic scenarios. Additionally, we delve deeper into the design decisions that support the effectiveness and usefulness of these ontologies for effective learning personalization. Through practical examples, it is illustrated how the implementation of ontologies transforms education, offering richer educational experiences adapted to students’ individual needs. This research represents a valuable contribution to personalized education and knowledge management in contemporary educational environments. The novelty of this work lies in its ability to redefine and improve the personalization of learning in a constantly evolving digital world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies)
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17 pages, 3160 KiB  
Article
Proposal for a System for the Identification of the Concentration of Students Who Attend Online Educational Models
by William Villegas-Ch., Joselin García-Ortiz, Isabel Urbina-Camacho and Aracely Mera-Navarrete
Computers 2023, 12(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers12040074 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2059
Abstract
Currently, e-learning has revolutionized the way students learn by offering access to quality education in a model that does not depend on a specific space and time. However, due to the e-learning method where no tutor can directly control the group of students, [...] Read more.
Currently, e-learning has revolutionized the way students learn by offering access to quality education in a model that does not depend on a specific space and time. However, due to the e-learning method where no tutor can directly control the group of students, they can be distracted for various reasons, which greatly affects their learning capacity. Several scientific works try to improve the quality of online education, but a holistic approach is necessary to address this problem. Identifying students’ attention spans is important in understanding how students process and retain information. Attention is a critical cognitive process that affects a student’s ability to learn. Therefore, it is important to use a variety of techniques and tools to assess student attention, such as standardized tests, behavioral observation, and assessment of academic achievement. This work proposes a system that uses devices such as cameras to monitor the attention level of students in real time during online classes. The results are used with feedback as a heuristic value to analyze the performance of the students, as well as the teaching standards of the teachers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies)
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18 pages, 963 KiB  
Article
English Language Learning via YouTube: An NLP-Based Analysis of Users’ Comments
by Husam M. Alawadh, Amerah Alabrah, Talha Meraj and Hafiz Tayyab Rauf
Computers 2023, 12(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers12020024 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3932
Abstract
Online teaching and learning has been beneficial in facilitating learning of English as a foreign language (EFL). In online EFL learning, YouTube is one of the most utilized information and communication technology (ICT) tools because of its inherent features that make it a [...] Read more.
Online teaching and learning has been beneficial in facilitating learning of English as a foreign language (EFL). In online EFL learning, YouTube is one of the most utilized information and communication technology (ICT) tools because of its inherent features that make it a unique environment for learners and educators. Many interesting aspects of YouTube-based learning can be beneficial in supplementing conventional classroom methods, and, therefore, such aspects must be identified. Previous scholarly work aimed at improving YouTube learning environment was predominantly conducted manually by gathering learners’ impressions through interviews and questionnaires to analyze the differences between YouTube- and classroom-based EFL learning. However, such methods are tedious and time-consuming and can lead to results that are of less generalizable implications. User comments on YouTube channels are useful in identifying such aspects, as they present a wealth of information related to the quality of the content provided, challenges the targeted audience faces, and areas of potential improvement. Therefore, in our current study, YouTube API is used to collect the comments of three randomly selected and popular YouTube channels. Following a data cleaning process, people’s sentiments about EFL learning were first identified via a TextBlob method. Second, the automated latent semantic analysis (LSA) method of topic finding was used to collect global and open-ended topics of discussion on YouTube-based EFL learning. Users’ sentiments on the most popular topics of discussion are discussed in this paper. Further, based on the results, hypothetical findings on YouTube EFL learning are provided as recommendation for future content, including more variety of the content covered, introduction of the meanings and punctuation following words, the design of the course such that it addresses a multinational audience of any age, and targeted teaching of each variety of English, such as British and American. We also make suggestions for learners of English who wish to utilize online and offline learning, which include finding the course of interest first based on one’s needs which can be discussed with a tutor or any English teacher to optimize the learning experience, participating in fearless educator–learner interaction and engagement, and asking other EFL learners for their previous experiences with learning online in order for the learner to maximize benefit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies)
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21 pages, 2041 KiB  
Article
Portuguese Teachers’ Conceptions of the Use of Microsoft 365 during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Joaquim Escola, Natália Lopes, Paula Catarino and Ana Paula Aires
Computers 2022, 11(12), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers11120185 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1557
Abstract
In 2020, education found itself involved in a whirlwind of metamorphosis, of transformations that required responses to the emergencies dictated by the pandemic. In Portugal, many schools opted for Microsoft 365 as the platform of choice for providing adequate resources for teaching and [...] Read more.
In 2020, education found itself involved in a whirlwind of metamorphosis, of transformations that required responses to the emergencies dictated by the pandemic. In Portugal, many schools opted for Microsoft 365 as the platform of choice for providing adequate resources for teaching and learning processes, while also ensuring remote teaching in an integrated and inclusive way. In this context, we carried out an investigation with the objectives of knowing the opinion of teachers about the use of Microsoft 365 in their classes and identify their degree of satisfaction with its use. The methodology adopted had a descriptive and exploratory nature, following a mixed paradigm. A total of 101 primary and secondary school teachers from schools in Northern Portugal participated in the study. A questionnaire and an interview were used as data collection instruments. The results showed that the most respondents revealed a high level of satisfaction with the use of Microsoft 365, and that its use was accompanied by the employment of active methodologies. Moreover, despite the lack of initial or ongoing training of teachers in the use of this technology and the students’ lack of digital competence, Microsoft 365 proved to be an adequate response to the confinement and ensured students’ learning in a safe environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies)
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11 pages, 515 KiB  
Article
A Framework for a Seamless Transformation to Online Education
by Shanmugam Sivagurunathan and Sudhaman Parthasarathy
Computers 2022, 11(12), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers11120183 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Online education is now widely used in schools and universities as a result of COVID-19. More than 1.6 billion children, or 80% of all school-aged children worldwide, have missed school as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 outbreak has been a [...] Read more.
Online education is now widely used in schools and universities as a result of COVID-19. More than 1.6 billion children, or 80% of all school-aged children worldwide, have missed school as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 outbreak has been a significant concern for educational institutions since 2020 and has interfered with regular academic and evaluation practices. Organizational preparedness for online education must be assessed by institutions. To assist them, we present a case study carried out at an Indian educational institution that highlights the drawbacks and advantages of online education and that outlines a framework for its change. Additionally, we assessed the system and offered suggestions to improve the online instruction provided by institutions. We think that the proposed methodology will assist organizations in identifying challenges prior to launching online learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies)
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13 pages, 1410 KiB  
Article
Heuristic Evaluation of Microsoft Teams as an Online Teaching Platform: An Educators’ Perspective
by Lamis Al-Qora’n, Omar Al Sheik Salem and Neil Gordon
Computers 2022, 11(12), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers11120175 - 4 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2338
Abstract
The way that education is delivered changed significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic to be completely online in many countries for many institutions. Despite the fact that they are not online teaching platforms, virtual meeting platforms were utilized to deal with this transformation. One [...] Read more.
The way that education is delivered changed significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic to be completely online in many countries for many institutions. Despite the fact that they are not online teaching platforms, virtual meeting platforms were utilized to deal with this transformation. One of the platforms Philadelphia University utilized for the unplanned shift to online teaching was Microsoft Teams. This paper examines how heuristic evaluation may be used to guide the evaluation of online meeting platforms for teaching and focuses on the use of heuristic evaluation to assess the level of usability of Microsoft Teams. The level of Zoom’s usability is also evaluated using heuristic evaluation in order to compare it to that of Microsoft Teams and to assess Microsoft Teams’ overall usability in comparison to other platforms being used for the same purpose. Microsoft Teams was identified as having a few issues that need to be addressed. Additionally, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to Microsoft Teams’ usability were assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies)
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18 pages, 2277 KiB  
Article
Learning from Peer Mistakes: Collaborative UML-Based ITS with Peer Feedback Evaluation
by Sehrish Abrejo, Hameedullah Kazi, Mutee U. Rahman, Ahsanullah Baloch and Amber Baig
Computers 2022, 11(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers11030030 - 22 Feb 2022
Viewed by 2407
Abstract
Collaborative Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) use peer tutor assessment to give feedback to students in solving problems. Through this feedback, the students reflect on their thinking and try to improve it when they get similar questions. The accuracy of the feedback given by [...] Read more.
Collaborative Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) use peer tutor assessment to give feedback to students in solving problems. Through this feedback, the students reflect on their thinking and try to improve it when they get similar questions. The accuracy of the feedback given by the peers is important because this helps students to improve their learning skills. If the student acting as a peer tutor is unclear about the topic, then they will probably provide incorrect feedback. There have been very few attempts in the literature that provide limited support to improve the accuracy and relevancy of peer feedback. This paper presents a collaborative ITS to teach Unified Modeling Language (UML), which is designed in such a way that it can detect erroneous feedback before it is delivered to the student. The evaluations conducted in this study indicate that receiving and sending incorrect feedback have negative impact on students’ learning skills. Furthermore, the results also show that the experimental group with peer feedback evaluation has significant learning gains compared to the control group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies)
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12 pages, 2890 KiB  
Article
Enriching Mobile Learning Software with Interactive Activities and Motivational Feedback for Advancing Users’ High-Level Cognitive Skills
by Christos Troussas, Akrivi Krouska and Cleo Sgouropoulou
Computers 2022, 11(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers11020018 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3402
Abstract
Mobile learning is a promising form of digital education to access learning content through modern handheld devices. Through mobile learning, students can learn using smartphones, connected to the Internet, without having restrictions posed by time and place. However, such environments should be enriched [...] Read more.
Mobile learning is a promising form of digital education to access learning content through modern handheld devices. Through mobile learning, students can learn using smartphones, connected to the Internet, without having restrictions posed by time and place. However, such environments should be enriched with sophisticated techniques so that the learners can achieve their learning goals and have an optimized learning experience. To this direction, in this paper, presents a mobile learning software which delivers interactive activities and motivational feedback to learners with the aim of advancing their higher level cognitive skills. In more detail, the mobile application employs two theories, namely Bloom’s taxonomy and the taxonomy of intrinsic motivations by Malone and Lepper. Bloom’s taxonomy is used for the design of interactive activities that belong to varying levels of complexity, i.e., remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating. Concerning motivational feedback, the taxonomy of intrinsic motivations by Malone and Lepper is used, which identifies four major factors, namely challenge, curiosity, control, and fantasy, and renders the learning environment intrinsically motivating. As a testbed for our research, the presented mobile learning system was designed for the teaching of a primary school course; however, the incorporated taxonomies could be adapted to the tutoring of any course. The mobile application was evaluated by school students with very promising results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies)
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12 pages, 2175 KiB  
Article
A Cognitive Diagnostic Module Based on the Repair Theory for a Personalized User Experience in E-Learning Software
by Akrivi Krouska, Christos Troussas and Cleo Sgouropoulou
Computers 2021, 10(11), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers10110140 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2100
Abstract
This paper presents a novel cognitive diagnostic module which is incorporated in e-learning software for the tutoring of the markup language HTML. The system is responsible for detecting the learners’ cognitive bugs and delivering personalized guidance. The novelty of this approach is that [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel cognitive diagnostic module which is incorporated in e-learning software for the tutoring of the markup language HTML. The system is responsible for detecting the learners’ cognitive bugs and delivering personalized guidance. The novelty of this approach is that it is based on the Repair theory that incorporates additional features, such as student negligence and test completion times, in its diagnostic mechanism; also, it employs a recommender module that suggests students optimal learning paths based on their misconceptions using descriptive test feedback and adaptability of learning content. Considering the Repair theory, the diagnostic mechanism uses a library of error correction rules to explain the cause of errors observed by the student during the assessment. This library covers common errors, creating a hypothesis space in that way. Therefore, the test items are expanded, so that they belong to the hypothesis space. Both the system and the cognitive diagnostic tool were evaluated with promising results, showing that they offer a personalized experience to learners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies)
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34 pages, 11895 KiB  
Article
Development of an Educational Application for Software Engineering Learning
by Antonio Sarasa-Cabezuelo and Covadonga Rodrigo
Computers 2021, 10(9), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers10090106 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2250
Abstract
Software engineering is a complicated subject for computer engineering students since the explained knowledge and necessary competencies are more related to engineering as a general knowledge area than to computer science. This article describes a software engineering learning application that aims to provide [...] Read more.
Software engineering is a complicated subject for computer engineering students since the explained knowledge and necessary competencies are more related to engineering as a general knowledge area than to computer science. This article describes a software engineering learning application that aims to provide a solution to this problem. Two ideas are used for this. On the one hand, to facilitate its use it has been implemented as an Android app (in this way it can be used anywhere and at any time). In addition, and on the other hand, a gamification system has been implemented with different learning paths that adapt to the learning styles of each student. In this way, the student is motivated by competing with other classmates, and on the other hand, the application adapts to the way of learning that each one has. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies)
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12 pages, 898 KiB  
Article
Motivation, Stress and Impact of Online Teaching on Italian Teachers during COVID-19
by Giusi Antonia Toto and Pierpaolo Limone
Computers 2021, 10(6), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers10060075 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 7779
Abstract
The use of digital technology as the only communication and relationship channel in work, school and social contexts is bringing out dynamics that are sometimes in contrast with each other. The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of digital technology [...] Read more.
The use of digital technology as the only communication and relationship channel in work, school and social contexts is bringing out dynamics that are sometimes in contrast with each other. The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of digital technology on teachers’ school practices in the context of COVID-19. This impact was studied in relation to the constructs of motivation, perceived stress, sense of self-efficacy and resistance to/acceptance of technologies. This study examined the role played by the massive and coercive use of digital technologies (and the relationship with innovation and change) in predicting motivation and perceived stress among teachers. To this end, the impact of digital technologies on motivation and perceived stress were explored in the sample. A questionnaire consisting of three scales was administered to 688 Italian school teachers of all educational levels (from childhood to upper-secondary school), who completed a socio-demographic section, a section on the scale of the impact of technology and distance learning, a perceived stress scale and items on motivation and professional development. Descriptive and inferential analyses were applied to the data. Key findings indicated that the impact of digital technologies during the pandemic negatively correlates with both perceived stress and motivation. Practical implications were suggested to help teachers develop functional coping styles to cope with technological changes in work and life contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies)
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15 pages, 1726 KiB  
Article
Educational Challenges for Computational Thinking in K–12 Education: A Systematic Literature Review of “Scratch” as an Innovative Programming Tool
by Hugo Montiel and Marcela Georgina Gomez-Zermeño
Computers 2021, 10(6), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers10060069 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 6076
Abstract
The use of information and communications technologies (ICTs) has emerged as an educational response amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, providing students the technological tools that enable them to acquire or strengthen the necessary digital skills to develop computational knowledge. The purpose of this study [...] Read more.
The use of information and communications technologies (ICTs) has emerged as an educational response amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, providing students the technological tools that enable them to acquire or strengthen the necessary digital skills to develop computational knowledge. The purpose of this study was to analyze Scratch, a programming language used to foster the teaching of computational thinking, particularly in K–12 education. A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted, identifying 30 articles on the topic of Scratch and computational thinking in the database ProQuest Central from January 2010 to May 2020. These articles were analyzed to identify the use of Scratch worldwide and the educational impact it has on computational thinking, specifically in K–12 education. The results highlight the following: (1) countries which incorporated Scratch into their teachers’ study plans (curricula); (2) the transformation of learning environments that Scratch promotes; and (3) the importance of incorporating tools like Scratch in the current curricula and, more importantly, developing the framework for innovative ICTs capable of transforming education. Full article
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17 pages, 8363 KiB  
Article
Development of Life Skills Program for Primary School Students: Focus on Entry Programming
by Nam-gyeong Gim
Computers 2021, 10(5), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers10050056 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4681
Abstract
There are areas where the competencies obtained through computer coding activities substantially overlap with life skills components. Studies of these common competencies have suggested the possibility of including these contents in a life skills program. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to [...] Read more.
There are areas where the competencies obtained through computer coding activities substantially overlap with life skills components. Studies of these common competencies have suggested the possibility of including these contents in a life skills program. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a program through the Entry program that elementary school students could use online to improve their life skills, given the need to increase contactless online classes due to COVID-19. Eight elementary school teachers with 20 years of experience and two curriculum experts participated in the program’s development. For data collection, 360 data points were collected from eight elementary schools located in each Korean province, including urban and rural areas. SPSS 21.0 was used to analyze the data. Upon completing the 8-week program, the difference in life skills between groups was confirmed using variance analysis based on the number of implementation times, and post-hoc testing was conducted. The study’s results confirmed the difference between the groups conducted for two weeks (M = 3.22), four weeks (M = 3.25), and six weeks (M = 3.67), and the group conducted for eight weeks (M = 3.83). In other words, as the number of weeks of participation in the life skills program increased, there was a difference between groups. These findings suggest a life skills program could be included as part of Entry based computer coding activities for elementary school students through a backward curriculum. In conclusion, this study showed the possibility of using contactless online classes with free Entry-based websites to improve the life skills of elementary school students struggling at home due to COVID-19. It also showed that each elementary school teacher could operate the life skills programs as a contactless learning method using a free coding platform and manual. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies)
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Review

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19 pages, 2588 KiB  
Review
Literature Review on MOOCs on Sensory (Olfactory) Learning
by Pierpaolo Limone, Sandra Pati, Giusi Antonia Toto, Raffaele Di Fuccio, Antonietta Baiano and Giuseppe Lopriore
Computers 2022, 11(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers11030032 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3647
Abstract
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been described as a “next development of networked learning”, and they have the potential to mediate sensory learning. To understand this phenomenon, the present systematic review examines the research techniques, subjects, and trends of MOOC research on [...] Read more.
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been described as a “next development of networked learning”, and they have the potential to mediate sensory learning. To understand this phenomenon, the present systematic review examines the research techniques, subjects, and trends of MOOC research on sensory learning, in order to provide a thorough understanding of the MOOC relevant to sensory (olfactory) learning phenomena by evaluating 65 (four studies are about multisensorial learning and 61 are about multisensorial empirical MOOCs researches) empirical MOOC studies published between 2008 and 2021 by searching through databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. The results indicated that most studies were based on quantitative research methods followed by mixed research methods and the qualitative research approaches; most of the studies were surveys, followed by platform databases and interviews; almost half of the studies were conducted using at least two methods for data collection: survey and interviews; most were replicated. The most highlighted subjects included student retention, learning experience, social learning, and engagement. Implications and studies into the future have been considered in order to obtain a more evolved understanding of the acquisition of knowledge through the senses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies)
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