Modern Trends in Corrosion Protection of Steels

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Corrosion, Wear and Erosion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 March 2022) | Viewed by 44753

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Crop Science, College of Sanghur Life Science, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, South Korea.
Interests: corrosion; electrochemistry and electrochemical techniques for corrosion; surface treatments; surface characterization techniques; environmental protection; DFT; Monte Carlo simulation; and molecular dynamics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Steel materials are important for a variety of applications, from modern structures and buildings to the oil and gas production industry, because of their availability, constructability and relatively low cost. Steel is the world’s most popular metal alloy, and this is not expected to change in the near future. However, its low corrosion resistance reduces the lifetime of various industrial materials and equipment. Today, research into environmentally friendly and nonpolluting corrosion protection processes is one of the major challenges. On the other hand, rapid advances in atomistic modeling techniques have recently led to major progress in understanding the mechanisms of different corrosion protection processes.

This Special Issue of Coatings covers recent progress and new developments in research and atomistic modeling in the corrosion protection of steels, which includes but is not limited to:

  • Design and development of green corrosion inhibitors;
  • Environmentally-friendly protective coatings;
  • The use of sustainable and environmentally-friendly approaches to characterize the corrosion of steels in several media;
  • Atomistic simulation of corrosion protection processes;
  • Density functional theory (DFT) as a tool to decipher the complex corrosion protection mechanisms.

We are looking forward to receiving your contributions in any form, including review articles, regular research articles, and short communications.

Dr. Hassane Lgaz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Green corrosion inhibitors
  • Steels protection by green coatings
  • Atomistic simulation methods
  • Density functional theory
  • Electrochemical methods

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

13 pages, 5758 KiB  
Article
Influence of Different Acid on the Interfacial Compatibility between Rusted Steel and Water-Based Coating
by Wenbo Li, Yue Jiang, Dingguo Liu, Jiran Zhu, Yi Xie and Lanlan Liu
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111412 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
We aimed to improve the corrosion resistance of transmission network cabinet equipment in high temperature and humidity environment. In this paper, using acid modified acrylic acid as the main component, the composite conversion agent was obtained by adding phosphoric acid phytic acid and [...] Read more.
We aimed to improve the corrosion resistance of transmission network cabinet equipment in high temperature and humidity environment. In this paper, using acid modified acrylic acid as the main component, the composite conversion agent was obtained by adding phosphoric acid phytic acid and other components. Through the surface morphology, electrochemical test and adhesion force test of rust conversion coating, the versatility and corrosion resistance of rust conversion coating on the substrates were analyzed. Combined with zinc phosphate primer, the effect of rust conversion agent on the adhesion and salt spray corrosion resistance of the commercial primers was studied. The composite conversion agent has good effect on atmospheric corrosion rust layer. The corrosion resistance and adhesion force of the atmospheric corrosion rust layer treated with rust conversion agent were significantly increased. The adhesion of zinc phosphate primer on atmospheric corrosion rust coating with rust conversion was three times higher than that of atmospheric corrosion rust coating without rust conversion, respectively. Composite rust conversion agent has broad versatility, which can be used for rust conversion of atmospheric corrosion rust layer. At the same time, it has a good corrosion resistance, that can obviously improve the corrosion potential of the corroded surface and reduce the corrosion current density. In addition, the composite rust conversion agent can significantly improve the adhesion and corrosion resistance of the primer coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Trends in Corrosion Protection of Steels)
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17 pages, 7579 KiB  
Article
Influence of Duty Cycle and Pulse Frequency on Structures and Performances of Electrodeposited Ni-W/TiN Nanocomposites on Oil-Gas X52 Steels
by Hongbin Zhang, Fafeng Xia, Jindong Wang and Fengxia Xu
Coatings 2021, 11(10), 1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11101182 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
This paper describes the pulse current electrodeposition (PCE) mediated preparation of Ni-W/TiN nanocomposites. Pulse current electrodeposition (PCE) was used to make Ni-W/TiN nanocomposites. The nanoindentation, wear, and corrosion of deposited Ni-W/TiN nanocomposites were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). [...] Read more.
This paper describes the pulse current electrodeposition (PCE) mediated preparation of Ni-W/TiN nanocomposites. Pulse current electrodeposition (PCE) was used to make Ni-W/TiN nanocomposites. The nanoindentation, wear, and corrosion of deposited Ni-W/TiN nanocomposites were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The influence of pulse frequency (PF) and duty ratio on the shape, structure, phase structure, wear, and corrosion resistance of Ni-W/TiN nanocomposites was studied. When the duty cycle (DC) was 10%, the results demonstrated that a considerable number of fine grains were present on the deposited Ni-W/TiN nanocomposites, forming smooth, uniform, and fine organization. Increasing DC decreased the content of TiN nanoparticles in Ni-W/TiN nanocomposites. The content of TiN nanoparticles reduced from 11.3 wt % to 7.3 wt % by increasing the DC from 10% to 50%. In contrast, as the PF was increased, the TiN content in Ni-W/TiN nanocomposites increased. When the PF was increased from 50 Hz to 150 Hz, the TiN content increased from 6.4 wt % to 9.6 wt %, respectively. Furthermore, with a PF of 150 Hz and a DC of 10%, the produced Ni-W/TiN nanocomposites had an average hardness of 934.3 HV with ~39.8 µm of an average thickness. The weight loss of the Ni-W/TiN nanocomposites was just 17.2 mg at a PF of 150 Hz, demonstrating the excellent wear resistance potential. Meanwhile, the greatest impedance was found in Ni-W/TiN nanocomposites made with a DC of 10% and a PF of 150 Hz, indicating the best corrosion resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Trends in Corrosion Protection of Steels)
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17 pages, 48012 KiB  
Article
Anticorrosion Property of Alcohol Amine Modified Phosphoric and Tannic Acid Based Rust Converter and Its Waterborne Polymer-Based Paint for Carbon Steel
by Yang Chen, Shiyu Li, Zhiyong Liu and Zixiao Wang
Coatings 2021, 11(9), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11091091 - 09 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2946
Abstract
Four kinds of alcohol amines were tested to improve the anticorrosion performance of the phosphoric and tannic acid (PTA)-based rust converter. The alcohol amine modified PTA rust converters with the optimum mechanical and functional performances were used to prepare the homogeneous single-component waterborne [...] Read more.
Four kinds of alcohol amines were tested to improve the anticorrosion performance of the phosphoric and tannic acid (PTA)-based rust converter. The alcohol amine modified PTA rust converters with the optimum mechanical and functional performances were used to prepare the homogeneous single-component waterborne rust conversion-based paint. The mechanical properties and the long-term corrosion resistance of the synthesized rust converter-based paint were investigated. The results show that alcohol amine modified PTA rust converter can convert the rust layer into a thick passivation film with iron tannate and iron phosphate as the main components, significantly improving the corrosion resistance of the carbon steel. The alcohol amine D modified PTA rust converter (RC-D) showed the best anticorrosion and rust conversion performances. The waterborne rust conversion-based paint can convert the rust layer of steel into a blue-black and relatively flat passivation film layer. The waterborne polymer-based paint containing 10 wt.% RC-D significantly improves the long-term corrosion resistance of the rusty steel and the mechanical property of paint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Trends in Corrosion Protection of Steels)
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15 pages, 2435 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Behavior of Inconel 625 Coating Produced by Laser Cladding
by Mieczyslaw Scendo, Katarzyna Staszewska-Samson and Hubert Danielewski
Coatings 2021, 11(7), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11070759 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 10849
Abstract
Anti-corrosion properties of Inconel 625 (In) laser cladding coatings onto the (S235JR) steel (S) were investigated. The coatings were produced with the use of wire (WIn/S) or powder (PIn/S). The mechanical properties of the Inconel 625 coatings were characterized by microhardness measurements. The [...] Read more.
Anti-corrosion properties of Inconel 625 (In) laser cladding coatings onto the (S235JR) steel (S) were investigated. The coatings were produced with the use of wire (WIn/S) or powder (PIn/S). The mechanical properties of the Inconel 625 coatings were characterized by microhardness measurements. The PIn/S shows the highest hardness. The surface and microstructure of the specimens were observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The surface analysis of the laser cladding coatings by energy-dispersive spectroscope (EDS) indicated that the structure of the WIn, and PIn coatings depend on its production technique. The microstructure of the WIn and PIn coatings have a dendritic columnar character. Corrosion test materials were carried out by using electrochemical methods. The corrosive environment was acidic chloride solution. It turned out that the PIn/S coating, which was produced by laser cladding method with the use of Inconel 625 powder, has the best anti-corrosion properties in an aggressive chloride environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Trends in Corrosion Protection of Steels)
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15 pages, 7972 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Anti-Corrosion Properties of Fluorinated Graphene-Modified Waterborne Epoxy Coatings for Carbon Steel
by Baojie Dou, Hang Xiao, Xiuzhou Lin, Yingjun Zhang, Shixiong Zhao, Song Duan, Xiulei Gao and Zhiwen Fang
Coatings 2021, 11(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020254 - 21 Feb 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3584
Abstract
Waterborne epoxy resin (WEP) has been widely used as an anti-corrosive coating for metals. However, it is still a big challenge to further improve its anti-corrosion performance due to the poor barrier properties to corrosive media. In this study, fluorinated graphene (FG) was [...] Read more.
Waterborne epoxy resin (WEP) has been widely used as an anti-corrosive coating for metals. However, it is still a big challenge to further improve its anti-corrosion performance due to the poor barrier properties to corrosive media. In this study, fluorinated graphene (FG) was used as a filler in WEP to improve its barrier properties, which contributes to corrosion resistance enhancement. The chemical composition and microstructures of FG and FG-modified WEP were systematically analyzed, and its corrosion resistance was also studied. Results reveal that the addition of FG sheet to WEP not only can significantly improve the tensile strength of WEP coating, but also increase the barrier properties of WEP coating and block the penetration of corrosive agent throughout the coating to the interface between coating and substrate. Meanwhile, the results also declare that the F content of FG has a significant effect on mechanical properties and long-term corrosion resistance, and the performance of FG-modified WEP coating will deteriorate with the increase of F content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Trends in Corrosion Protection of Steels)
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27 pages, 8013 KiB  
Article
New 8-Hydroxyquinoline-Bearing Quinoxaline Derivatives as Effective Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in HCl: Electrochemical and Computational Investigations
by Abdelkarim Chaouiki, Maryam Chafiq, Mohamed Rbaa, Hassane Lgaz, Rachid Salghi, Brahim Lakhrissi, Ismat H. Ali, Sheerin Masroor and Youngjae Cho
Coatings 2020, 10(9), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10090811 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3137
Abstract
There has been substantial research undertaken on the role of green synthesized corrosion inhibitors as a substantial approach to inhibit the corrosion of metals and their alloys in acidic environments. Herein, electrochemical studies, surface characterization, and theoretical modeling were adopted to investigate the [...] Read more.
There has been substantial research undertaken on the role of green synthesized corrosion inhibitors as a substantial approach to inhibit the corrosion of metals and their alloys in acidic environments. Herein, electrochemical studies, surface characterization, and theoretical modeling were adopted to investigate the corrosion inhibition proprieties of novel synthesized quinoxaline derivatives bearing 8-Hydroxyquinoline, namely 1-((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl) methyl)-3,6-dimethylquinoxalin-2(1H)-one (Q1) and 1-((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl)methyl) quinoxalin-2(1H)-one (Q2) on mild steel corrosion in 1 mol/L HCl solution. The principal finding of this research was that both inhibitors acted as good corrosion inhibitors with Q1 having the highest performance (96% at 5 × 10−3 mol/L). Electrochemical results obtained via potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques demonstrated that quinoxaline compounds belonged to mixed-type inhibitors; their presence significantly increased the polarization resistance, preventing simultaneously anodic and cathodic reactions. Further, experimental results provided preliminary insights about the interactions mode between studied molecules and the mild steel surface, which followed the Langmuir adsorption model, and physical and chemical interactions assisted their inhibition mechanism. Besides, SEM analyses confirmed the existence of protective film on the metal surface after the addition of 5 × 10−3 mol/L of quinoxalines. In addition, the temperature and immersion time effects on inhibition performances of quinoxalines were investigated to evaluate their performances in different operating conditions. Besides, Density Functional Theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to explore the most reactive sites of quinoxaline inhibitors and their interaction mechanism. Theoretical results revealed that the inhibitor molecule with additional electron-donating functional group strongly interacted with the steel surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Trends in Corrosion Protection of Steels)
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17 pages, 4182 KiB  
Article
Naproxen-Based Hydrazones as Effective Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in 1.0 M HCl
by Maryam Chafiq, Abdelkarim Chaouiki, Mustafa R. Al-Hadeethi, Ismat H. Ali, Shaaban K. Mohamed, Karima Toumiat and Rachid Salghi
Coatings 2020, 10(7), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10070700 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2385
Abstract
The corrosion-inhibiting performance of (E)-N’-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) propanehydrazide (BPH) and (E)-N’-(4-(dimethylamino) benzylidene)-2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) propanehydrazide (MPH) for mild steel (MS) in 1.0 M HCl was investigated using electrochemical methods, weight loss measurements, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX) analysis. Raising the [...] Read more.
The corrosion-inhibiting performance of (E)-N’-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) propanehydrazide (BPH) and (E)-N’-(4-(dimethylamino) benzylidene)-2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) propanehydrazide (MPH) for mild steel (MS) in 1.0 M HCl was investigated using electrochemical methods, weight loss measurements, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX) analysis. Raising the concentration of both inhibitors towards an optimal value of 5 × 10−3 M reduced the corrosion current density (icorr) and the corrosion rate of mild steel. The inhibitory effect of MPH, which showed the highest inhibition efficiency, was explored under a range of temperatures between 303 and 333 K. The inhibitory performance of both compounds significantly improved when the inhibitor concentration increased. The main result that flowed from potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) tests was that both compounds acted as mixed-type inhibitors, with a predominance cathodic effect. The adsorption of both compounds follows the Langmuir isotherm. SEM/EDX confirmed the excellent inhibition performance of tested compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Trends in Corrosion Protection of Steels)
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17 pages, 2851 KiB  
Article
Green Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel by Hydrazone Derivatives in 1.0 M HCl
by Abdelkarim Chaouiki, Maryam Chafiq, Hassane Lgaz, Mustafa R. Al-Hadeethi, Ismat H. Ali, Sheerin Masroor and Ill-Min Chung
Coatings 2020, 10(7), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10070640 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 2897
Abstract
In the present study, the inhibition performance of two synthesized hydrazone derivatives (HDZs), namely, (E)-N′-(2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) propanehydrazide (HYD-1) and N′-cyclohexylidene-2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) propanehydrazide (HYD-2) on mild steel (MS) in 1.0 M HCl was investigated using weight loss measurements, electrochemical techniques, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled [...] Read more.
In the present study, the inhibition performance of two synthesized hydrazone derivatives (HDZs), namely, (E)-N′-(2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) propanehydrazide (HYD-1) and N′-cyclohexylidene-2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) propanehydrazide (HYD-2) on mild steel (MS) in 1.0 M HCl was investigated using weight loss measurements, electrochemical techniques, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The experimental data suggested that the hydrazone derivatives exhibited a high inhibition performance, which increases with increasing their concentrations. HYD-1 and HYD-2 presented maximum inhibition efficiencies of 96% and 84%, respectively, at an optimal concentration of 5 × 10–3 M. The principal observations that resulted from electrochemical studies are that HYDs affected both anodic and cathodic reactions (mixed inhibitors). Their adsorption, which is a combination of chemisorption and physisorption, obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model. Furthermore, the temperature effect was carried out at various temperatures ranging from 303 to 333 K to verify the corrosion inhibition performance of HYD-1 at higher temperatures. Moreover, SEM-EDX analysis confirmed that HYDs can ensure remarkable prevention against corrosion through the adsorption onto the metal surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Trends in Corrosion Protection of Steels)
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14 pages, 4685 KiB  
Article
Study on the Chloride Threshold and Risk Assessment of Rebar Corrosion in Simulated Concrete Pore Solutions under Applied Potential
by Hongze An, Guozhe Meng, Yanqiu Wang, Junyi Wang, Bin Liu and Fuhui Wang
Coatings 2020, 10(5), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10050505 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2719
Abstract
The pitting corrosion behavior of HRB400 steel in various simulated concrete environments was investigated by the combination of polarization curves and statistical method. The results indicated that the chloride concentration threshold ([Cl]th) for pitting of the steel was greatly [...] Read more.
The pitting corrosion behavior of HRB400 steel in various simulated concrete environments was investigated by the combination of polarization curves and statistical method. The results indicated that the chloride concentration threshold ([Cl]th) for pitting of the steel was greatly affected by pH when the applied potential exists, which is always caused by random stray current. The interaction of applied potential and chloride concentration on the pitting behavior was discussed. Finally, pitting-risk-evaluation diagrams were built up, which could be easily used to assess the pitting risk of reinforcing bars under the chloride-containing environment with stray current. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Trends in Corrosion Protection of Steels)
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Review

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29 pages, 3637 KiB  
Review
A Review of Green Scale Inhibitors: Process, Types, Mechanism and Properties
by Mohammad A. Jafar Mazumder
Coatings 2020, 10(10), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10100928 - 28 Sep 2020
Cited by 70 | Viewed by 10290
Abstract
In the present time, more often, it has been seen that scaling has grown as widely and caused problems in the oilfield industry. Scaling is the deposition of various salts of inorganic/organic materials due to the supersaturation of salt-water mixtures. Many works have [...] Read more.
In the present time, more often, it has been seen that scaling has grown as widely and caused problems in the oilfield industry. Scaling is the deposition of various salts of inorganic/organic materials due to the supersaturation of salt-water mixtures. Many works have been proposed by researchers using different methods to solve the problem, of which scale inhibition is one of them. The scale inhibitors, particularly for antiscaling, have derived from natural and synthetic polymers. Among different polymers, inorganic and organic compounds (polyphosphates, carboxylic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), etc.) can effectively manage the oilfield scales of which many are toxic and expansive. Scale inhibitors of alkaline earth metal carbonate and sulfates and transition metal sulfide are commonly used in oilfield applications. Scale inhibition of metallic surfaces is an essential activity in technical, environmental, economic, and safety purposes. Scale inhibitors containing phosphorus appear to have significant achievements in the inhibition process despite its toxicity. However, phosphorus-based inhibitors can serve as supplements prompting eutrification difficulties. Besides these increasing environmental concerns, green scale inhibitors are renewable, biodegradable, and ecologically acceptable that has been used to prevent, control, and retard the formation of scale. Considering the facts, this review article summarized the concept of scale, various green scale inhibitors, types, mechanisms, comparative performance, significance, and future aspects of green scale inhibitors, which will shed light and be helpful for the professionals working in the oil and gas industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Trends in Corrosion Protection of Steels)
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