Microstructure, Friction and Wear, Hardness Properties and Numerical Simulation of Coatings

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Tribology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 July 2024 | Viewed by 14518

Special Issue Editors

School of Mechanical Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin 132012, China
Interests: microstructure; wear and corrosions; lubricant design; surface coating technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Mechanical Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin 132012, China
Interests: alloy; tribological behavior; surface treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin 132012, China
Interests: metal; hardness

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Energy and Power Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin 132012, China
Interests: coatings

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The coating is a layer on the substrate to protect and enhance the object. In machinery, metallurgy, and other fields, many products have the risk of wear and corrosion. In order to improve the properties of products in harsh work conditions, the performance of coating becomes important. Therefore, we would like to invite you to submit your original research to this Coatings Special Issue entitled “Microstructure, Friction and Wear, Hardness Properties and Numerical Simulation of Coatings”.

The topics of interest for this Special Issue, in particular, include (but are not restricted to):

  • Surface coating technology;
  • Coating microstructure characterization;
  • Coating material design;
  • Friction and wear properties of the coating; Simulation and analysis of coatings;
  • Topics such as magnesium, aluminum, titanium, shape memory alloys and XRD, SEM, and TEM analysis;
  • Other aspects on coating material.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Yu Liu
Dr. Yali Gao
Dr. Dongdong Zhang
Dr. Bingbing Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • surface coating technology
  • microstructure
  • coatings material design
  • simulation analysis
  • numerical simulation

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 8455 KiB  
Article
Insight into Microstructure Evolution and Corrosion Mechanisms of K2ZrF6/Al2O3-Doped Hot-Dip Aluminum/Micro-Arc Oxidation Coatings
by Shuliang Wang, Xiaofei Peng, Yi Yang, Shidong Wang, Mingyu Wu, Ping Hu and Chunyan Fu
Coatings 2023, 13(9), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13091543 - 04 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the impact of K2ZrF6/Al2O3 composite additives on the microstructure evolution and corrosion behavior of ceramic coatings formed through micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment on hot-dip aluminum-coated 316L stainless steel surfaces. Our findings [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the impact of K2ZrF6/Al2O3 composite additives on the microstructure evolution and corrosion behavior of ceramic coatings formed through micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment on hot-dip aluminum-coated 316L stainless steel surfaces. Our findings revealed the successful preparation of micro-arc oxidation ceramic coatings, presenting a dual-layer structure consisting of a porous micro-arc oxidation ceramic outer layer and a relatively dense/thick hot-dip aluminum inner layer. The incorporation of K2ZrF6/Al2O3 composite additives induced a self-sealing effect on the ceramic coating surface. Optimal coating performance was achieved with a composite additive concentration of 7.5 g/L, resulting in remarkable improvements not only in thickness, hardness, and surface smoothness but also in corrosion resistance. This research introduces a pioneering investigation of K2ZrF6/Al2O3 composite additives in the context of micro-arc oxidation technology, offering fresh perspectives and methodologies for the development of highly corrosion-resistant materials. Full article
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11 pages, 18606 KiB  
Article
Influence of Laser Power on Microstructure and Properties of Al-Si+Y2O3 Coating
by Yali Gao, Pengyong Lu, Sicheng Bai, Baolong Qin and Dongdong Zhang
Coatings 2023, 13(7), 1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13071289 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
Al-Si/7.5 wt.%Y2O3 coatings were prepared on Mg alloy with laser cladding to enhance the wear and corrosion resistance of substrate. The influence of laser power on the microstructure and properties of the coating were discussed. The results uncovered that the [...] Read more.
Al-Si/7.5 wt.%Y2O3 coatings were prepared on Mg alloy with laser cladding to enhance the wear and corrosion resistance of substrate. The influence of laser power on the microstructure and properties of the coating were discussed. The results uncovered that the coatings consisted primarily of Mg2Si, Mg17Al12, Mg2Al3, Al4MgY, and α-Mg phases. Through calculation, it was observed that the crystal size decreased with the decrease in the laser power. Y2O3 gave the coating a better strengthening effect due to the fine-grain strengthening and hard-phase strengthening. The average hardness of the coating with laser power of 1100 W achieved 312 HV, which was approximately 4.2 times that of the substrate. The wear volume of the coating was 22.2% that of the substrate. Compared with Mg alloy, the self-corrosion potential of the coating increased by 1.09 V, and the self-corrosion current density decreased by three orders of magnitude. Full article
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12 pages, 18818 KiB  
Article
Abrasive Wear and Physical Properties of In-Situ Nano-TiCx Reinforced Cu–Cr–Zr Composites
by Dongdong Zhang, Pengyong Lu, Xiya He and Yali Gao
Coatings 2023, 13(7), 1263; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13071263 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
Cu–Cr–Zr alloys reinforced in situ with TiCx nanoparticles were prepared via combustion synthesis and electromagnetic stirring casting. The microstructure of TiCx/Cu-Cr-Zr composites with various contents was analyzed. The microhardness and Brinell hardness of the composites were determined; the average volumetric [...] Read more.
Cu–Cr–Zr alloys reinforced in situ with TiCx nanoparticles were prepared via combustion synthesis and electromagnetic stirring casting. The microstructure of TiCx/Cu-Cr-Zr composites with various contents was analyzed. The microhardness and Brinell hardness of the composites were determined; the average volumetric abrasive wear rate and worn surface of the composites were investigated; and the electrical, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficients of the materials were discussed. The results indicated that the addition of TiCx particles transformed the Cu–Cr–Zr matrix alloy microstructure from a dendritic to an equiaxed crystal, and the grain size was significantly refined as the amount added was increased. The composites with high TiCx content possessed higher hardness and abrasive wear resistance. The addition of TiCx particles reduced the electrical and thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficients of the materials. Full article
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10 pages, 5415 KiB  
Article
Effect of Powder Recycling on the Organization and Mechanical Properties of GH4169 Alloy by Laser Metal Deposition
by Haibo Zhang, Jieshuai Li and Yingqiu Li
Coatings 2023, 13(3), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13030659 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to prepare GH4 169 alloy specimens by laser metal deposition, by investigating the changes in powder morphology, powder particle size, and elemental content during the cycling process. As well as the pore defects and microstructure of deposited [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research is to prepare GH4 169 alloy specimens by laser metal deposition, by investigating the changes in powder morphology, powder particle size, and elemental content during the cycling process. As well as the pore defects and microstructure of deposited samples prepared from recycled powder, we analyzed the changes in powder properties during the cycling process and the effects of using recycled powder on the organization and properties of LMD-deposited specimens. It was shown that the average particle size of the powder increased with the increase in the size of powder recycling, from 59.861 µm in the original powder to 64.144 µm after four cycles, with the phenomenon of powder burnout and satellite ball. The elemental content of the powder changed with the increase in the number of cycles, among which the elemental content of Nb increased significantly from 4.31 wt% of the original powder to 7.97 wt% after four cycles, the proportion of Laves phase in the deposited samples increased, the porosity and pore size increased, the tensile strength of the specimen decreased from 1046 MPa of the original powder to 936 MPa, the tensile strength decreased by 10.5%, and the elongation was increased to 27% from 11% of the original powder. Powder recycling can lead to powder aging and reduce the mechanical properties of the laser metal deposited formed parts. Full article
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12 pages, 7071 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Microstructure and Wear Properties of Laser Clad Al-Si Coatings Containing Different Y2O3 Contents
by Dongdong Zhang, Xiya He, Yali Gao and Baolong Qin
Coatings 2023, 13(2), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13020308 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
Y2O3-reinforced Al-Si alloy coatings were prepared on the surface of a Mg alloy by the laser cladding technique. The microstructure, hardness, and wear resistance of the coatings were analyzed using an X-ray diffractometer, a scanning electron microscope, an energy [...] Read more.
Y2O3-reinforced Al-Si alloy coatings were prepared on the surface of a Mg alloy by the laser cladding technique. The microstructure, hardness, and wear resistance of the coatings were analyzed using an X-ray diffractometer, a scanning electron microscope, an energy spectrometer, a Vickers hardness tester, and a friction wear tester. The effect of different additions of Y2O3 on the microstructure and properties of the coatings was investigated. The results indicate that the addition of Y2O3 leads to a significant refinement of the grain size and a denser microstructure of the coatings. Coatings with a high Y2O3 content provide superior hardness and wear resistance. With a Y2O3 content of 7.5 wt.%, the coating exhibits the finest grain size, highest hardness, and smallest wear volume. Excessive amounts of Y2O3, however, cause a reduction in the surface properties of the coating. Full article
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13 pages, 4340 KiB  
Article
Study on Anti-Scale and Anti-Corrosion of Polydopamine Coating on Metal Surface
by Xu-Liang Yu, Bing-Bing Wang, Zhi-Ming Xu and Wei-Mon Yan
Coatings 2023, 13(2), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13020306 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Some surface coatings can protect metal surfaces and reduce scale deposition. Based on that, the biomimetic material polydopamine (PDA) can form a stable coating on many material surfaces; therefore, we propose an efficient one-step electroplating method for preparing anti-scale PDA coatings with high [...] Read more.
Some surface coatings can protect metal surfaces and reduce scale deposition. Based on that, the biomimetic material polydopamine (PDA) can form a stable coating on many material surfaces; therefore, we propose an efficient one-step electroplating method for preparing anti-scale PDA coatings with high stability. The scale deposition test showed that the deposition weight of calcium carbonate on the coating is less than that of carbon steel after immersing in a supersaturated solution of calcium carbonate for 12 h at 70 °C and 90 °C, with a coating scale-inhibition efficiency of 55.02% and 66.96%, respectively. By using molecular dynamics simulation, it was found that water adsorption layers exist near the metal’s surface, and the existence of water adsorption layers on the hydrophilic surface is the main reason for the initial deposition of calcium carbonate. The interaction energy between the PDA molecular layer and water is weaker (−5.69 eV) for the surface with the PDA coating, and there is no dense water adsorption layer on the coating, which leads to the low probability of calcium carbonate adsorption on the PDA coating surface. Therefore, PDA coating can inhibit the deposition of calcium carbonate on the surface. Full article
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25 pages, 7115 KiB  
Article
Laser Ablation of Copper Alloy under Varying Environmental Conditions to Achieve Purpose-Built Surface Structures
by Asadullah Dawood, Naveed Ahmed, Shazia Bashir, Asma Hayat, Syed Muhammad Abouzar Sarfraz and Ambreen Ayub
Coatings 2022, 12(12), 1972; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12121972 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
In the manufacturing industry, surface structures and surface topographies present at functional areas of the mechanical parts play a vital role in various performance characteristics, such as corrosion resistance, weldability, and wear behaviors, etc. Copper–zinc alloys are extensively used in the manufacturing industry. [...] Read more.
In the manufacturing industry, surface structures and surface topographies present at functional areas of the mechanical parts play a vital role in various performance characteristics, such as corrosion resistance, weldability, and wear behaviors, etc. Copper–zinc alloys are extensively used in the manufacturing industry. Laser ablation has the potential to create a variety of surface structures on the ablated substrate. The size and geometry of such structures largely depend on the selection of process parameters and the ablation environment. In the present study, a copper–zinc alloy (95% Cu and 5% Zn) has been laser ablated under different gaseous and magnetic environments to realize a variety of micro-structuring at the ablation surfaces. The effect of plasma plume pressure on the geometry of the structures is deeply investigated through optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By analytically evaluating thermal beta (βt), directional beta (βd), and containment radii (Rs) for the plasma of the Cu–Zinc alloy, the validity of magnetic confinement has been proven. In general, five types of microstructures are produced: micro-sized spherical cones, mounted ablated networks, cavities, pores, ridges, and ablation channels with uplifted cones. Moreover, it has been found that, under a magnetic environment, the geometry of the structures is distinct and well-defined compared to those structures achieved when the ablation is carried out without applying a magnetic field. Full article
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15 pages, 22745 KiB  
Article
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ni-Based Alloy Composite Coating on Cr12MoV by Laser Cladding
by Yali Gao, Yan Tong, Li Guohui, Pengyong Lu and Dongdong Zhang
Coatings 2022, 12(11), 1632; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12111632 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1452
Abstract
Cr12MoV has been widely used in the manufacture of stamping and drawing dies. In the present study, an attempt was made to improve the mechanical properties of Cr12MoV by laser cladding Ni60 alloy reinforced by WC. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), [...] Read more.
Cr12MoV has been widely used in the manufacture of stamping and drawing dies. In the present study, an attempt was made to improve the mechanical properties of Cr12MoV by laser cladding Ni60 alloy reinforced by WC. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a microhardness tester, and a friction and wear test prototype were used to analyze the macroscopic morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the coating. The results showed that the coating mainly was composed of Cr-Fe-Ni, γ-(Fe, Ni), Cr23C6, Cr7C3, and W2C phases. The cladding layer presented the dendritic eutectic structure enriched Cr, Fe, and Ni. Zigzag-shaped dendrites with thicknesses of 50~80 μm of the bonding zone ensured the strong metallurgical bonding. Due to solid solution strengthening, dispersion hardening, and grain refinement, the hardness of the coating reached 745 HV, which was 3.5 times that of the substrate. The wear volume of the coating was 14 × 10−3 mm3, which was 48% lower than that of the substrate (27 × 10−3 mm3). The coating had the abrasive wear; however, the substrate had the adhesive wear besides the abrasive wear. Full article
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12 pages, 8720 KiB  
Article
Research on Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Ni60-WC Coating Fabricated by Laser on the Preheated Copper Alloy
by Yu Liu, Tianhao Xu and Guohui Li
Coatings 2022, 12(10), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12101537 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
The copper alloy is widely used to prepare pipes in ocean engineering. The surface is washed and corroded by seawater for a long time, which gradually shortens the service life of the condenser tube. In order to improve the wear and corrosion resistance [...] Read more.
The copper alloy is widely used to prepare pipes in ocean engineering. The surface is washed and corroded by seawater for a long time, which gradually shortens the service life of the condenser tube. In order to improve the wear and corrosion resistance of copper alloy, a Ni60-WC coating was fabricated on a preheated copper alloy by laser cladding. Experiments on the Ni60-WC coatings were carried out by SEM, XRD, Vickers-microhardness meter, wear tester and electrochemical workstation. The microstructure, phases, hardness, wear and corrosion resistance were investigated. The results show that from the top to bottom, the microstructures were columnar dendrites, dendritic crystals and grains, respectively. The wear rate of the Ni60-WC coating was only 4.9 × 10−5 mm3·N−1·m−1, which was only 1.14% of copper substrate. In addition, the corrosion current density was 2.34 × 10−7 mA·mm−2, which was much lower than that of copper alloy substrate (1.14 × 10−6 mA·mm−2). The experimental results show that this Ni60-WC coating has a good metallurgical bonding and hardness, and it also has good wear and corrosion resistance, which is helpful to improve the service life of the condenser tube. Full article
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24 pages, 80652 KiB  
Article
Surface Structuring and Thin Film Coating through Additive Concept Using Laser Induced Plasma of Mg Alloy: A Comparison between the Presence and Absence of Transverse Magnetic Field (TMF)
by Asadullah Dawood, Shazia Bashir, Naveed Ahmed, Asma Hayat, Abdullah Yahia AlFaify, Syed Muhammad Abouzar Sarfraz, Shahab Ahmed Abbasi and Ateekh Ur Rehman
Coatings 2022, 12(9), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12091316 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1702
Abstract
In the present study, the influence of a 1.1 tesla Transverse Magnetic Field (TMF) on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) of Mg-alloy plasma has been explored. The Mg plasma was produced using an Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns) at an intensity of [...] Read more.
In the present study, the influence of a 1.1 tesla Transverse Magnetic Field (TMF) on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) of Mg-alloy plasma has been explored. The Mg plasma was produced using an Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns) at an intensity of 2 GW/cm2. Inert gases of Ar, Ne, and He were filled as environmental gases at pressures ranging from 1 to 100 Torr. Optical emission spectra from laser-produced plasma were detected with the help of a spectrometer, and plasma parameters such as excitation temperature (Texc) and electron number density (ne) were evaluated. Enhancement in the Mg plasma’s Texc and ne in the presence of TMF was noticed under all experimental conditions, including different ambient gases with varying pressures and time delays (0.42 µs–9.58 µs). Plasma confinement by applied TMF was analytically evaluated through thermal beta (βt) values, which were <1 under all circumstances. The highest Texc and ne values (17,259 K and 11.5 × 1017 cm−3) for Mg-alloy plasma were obtained with ambient Ar in TMF, while the lowest values (8793 K and 1.0 × 1017 cm−3) were obtained in presence of He gas in the absence of TMF. SEM analysis was used to determine the surface structure of laser-ablated Mg alloy in the presence and absence of TMF. It revealed that the formation of cones, cavities, and non-uniform melting are characteristic features of ambient Ar, while spikes and cavities are prominent features in Ne gas environments. Conical spikes and dendrites are distinct features when ambient He is present. In comparison with the field-free condition, distinct and well-defined structures were observed in the presence of TMF. By controlling LPP parameters, the surface structuring of Mg alloy can be controlled. The optimization and enhancement of LPP parameters make it a highly useful tool for thin film deposition, coatings of multilayers, and ion implantation/doping. Full article
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Review

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11 pages, 12070 KiB  
Review
Investigation of the Change in Roughness and Microhardness during Laser Surface Texturing of Copper Samples by Changing the Process Parameters
by Risham Singh Ghalot, Lyubomir Lazov, Emil Yankov and Nikolay Angelov
Coatings 2023, 13(11), 1970; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13111970 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 700
Abstract
The aim of this research is to achieve a high-quality and long-lasting laser marking of ammunition, which is of interest to the defense industry. The study is about the effects of speed, raster pitch and power on the roughness and microhardness of the [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to achieve a high-quality and long-lasting laser marking of ammunition, which is of interest to the defense industry. The study is about the effects of speed, raster pitch and power on the roughness and microhardness of the marked areas of copper samples. The experiments were carried out with a fiber laser and a copper bromide laser—modern lasers widely used in industrial production. Laser power, scan speed and raster step were varied to determine their effects on the resulting microhardness and surface roughness. The lasers operate in different wavelength ranges, with the optical laser operating at 1064 nm in the near-infrared region and the copper bromide laser at 511 nm and 578 nm in the visible region, allowing the influence of wavelengths on the process to be investigated. The roughness and microhardness velocity dependence for three powers and two pulse durations for the fiber laser were obtained from the experimental data. The dependence of roughness and microhardness on the raster step for both types of lasers was also demonstrated. Full article
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