Advanced Coatings and Films for Food Packing and Storage

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Coatings for Food Technology and System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2024 | Viewed by 16632

Special Issue Editors

College of Food Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
Interests: films; coatings; food storage; food preservation
College of Food Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
Interests: films; coatings; food storage; food preservation
College of Life Sciences, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018, China
Interests: food safety
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the increasing demand for food quality and safety, it is urgent to develop efficient packaging strategies for prolonging the shelf life of food. An edible coating is a fine layer made up of an edible material that protects the food underneath from physicochemical and microbiological decomposition, and has various advantages such as edibility, biocompatibility, non-toxicity, non-polluting etc. Additionally, these coatings combine active ingredients such as deoxidizers, antioxidants and antimicrobials in the coating materials, and can release or absorb the active ingredients into the packaged foods or their surrounding environment. The selection of suitable coatings should consider the polymer type of coatings-based materials, the added active ingredients and the physical and chemical properties of the food. The polymers used in coatings can come from synthetic or natural sources. The use of natural biopolymers, mainly composed of proteins, polysaccharides, lipids or their combinations (chitosan, starch, protein isolates, etc.), as the basis of coating materials has become a research hotspot. At the same time, researchers have made considerable efforts to search for natural active ingredients able to extend the shelf life of foods during storage; these include gas scavengers, antimicrobials, and antioxidants. Therefore, advanced coating solutions are constantly expanding.

We invite researchers to contribute their original research results and review articles on the following topics:

  • Discovery of new natural biopolymers (proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, etc.) as the base materials for advanced coatings.
  • Natural biopolymer-based films with improved functionalities, such as oxygen or ethylene scavenging, carbon dioxide emitting, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, etc.
  • Discovery of new manufacturing methods for improving the functional properties of natural biopolymer-based films.
  • Advanced coatings for extending shelf life and maintaining food quality during storage.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Jun Mei
Prof. Dr. Jing Xie
Dr. Biao Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • active ingredients
  • bio-based materials
  • active packaging
  • intelligent/smart packaging
  • shelf life

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1358 KiB  
Article
Paper Coatings Based on Polyvinyl Alcohol and Cellulose Nanocrystals Using Various Coating Techniques and Determination of Their Barrier Properties
Coatings 2023, 13(11), 1975; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13111975 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 780
Abstract
The goal of this work was to improve the barrier properties of selected papers against water, grease and oil or gases (water vapor and oxygen) by covering them with biodegradable commercial coating carriers based on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). The [...] Read more.
The goal of this work was to improve the barrier properties of selected papers against water, grease and oil or gases (water vapor and oxygen) by covering them with biodegradable commercial coating carriers based on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). The aim was also to obtain cellulose recyclable packaging materials with improved barrier characteristics. The properties of paper coatings based on CNCs and PVOH were characterized. Various paper coating techniques (flexographic printing, rotogravure printing and blade printing) were evaluated with respect to the final properties of the surface-modified paper with different starting grammages (40 g/m2, 70 g/m2, 100 g/m2). Functional properties, such as the barrier against oxygen, water vapor, water and grease; mechanical properties; and seal characterization of coated paper were examined. The results of this study demonstrated that the covering of the paper may improve the water, grease and oil barrier and that the best results were obtained for Gerstar 70 g/m2 coated with J12 coatings using the flexographic technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings and Films for Food Packing and Storage)
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32 pages, 18136 KiB  
Article
Antifungal Properties of Ozone Treatment against P. citrinum and R. stolonifera in Fresh-Peeled Garlic
Coatings 2023, 13(11), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13111931 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Garlic is susceptible to decay and presents a potential vehicle for foodborne disease transmission. Ozone treatment has proven to be an effective and innoxious method to provide bacterial resistance in this globally popular pungent vegetable. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects [...] Read more.
Garlic is susceptible to decay and presents a potential vehicle for foodborne disease transmission. Ozone treatment has proven to be an effective and innoxious method to provide bacterial resistance in this globally popular pungent vegetable. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different ozone treatments (differing in terms of concentration, treatment time and temperature) against Penicillium citrinum and Rhizopus stolonifer in spoiled fresh-peeled garlic. The results have shown that the most inhibitory conditions for in vitro treatments were achieved with an ozone concentration, treatment time and temperature of 6 ppm, for 20 min at 20 °C, respectively, on the P. citrinum and 8 ppm, for 20 min at 25 °C, respectively, on the R. stolonifer. The optimum in vivo ozone treatment conditions for fresh-peeled garlic inoculated with the same two kinds of spoilage molds remained the same for both, consisting of an ozone concentration of 6 ppm, a time of 15 min and a temperature of 20 °C. Following these ozone treatments, the total number of colonies of yeast and mold, as well as the incidence, lesion diameter and depth of spoilage in the fresh-peeled garlic was significantly reduced during storage, with improved bactericidal inhibition effects. In conclusion, this study showed that ozone treatment effectively inhibits the growth of spoilage molds, destroys cell structures, and affects the metabolic and physiological processes of P. citrinum and R. stolonifer. Thus, it provides a protective shield and extends the shelf life of fresh-peeled garlic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings and Films for Food Packing and Storage)
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16 pages, 12496 KiB  
Article
Production and Preliminary Characterization of Linseed Mucilage-Based Films Loaded with Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) and Copaiba (Copaifera officinalis)
Coatings 2023, 13(9), 1574; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13091574 - 09 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1218
Abstract
In this research, developed linseed mucilage (M)-based films loaded with E. cardamom (MCA), C. officinalis (MCO), and co-loaded with both compounds (MCACO) were evaluated. The incorporation of the active compounds modified the color (redness–greenness, and yellowness); however, the thickness remained constant in all [...] Read more.
In this research, developed linseed mucilage (M)-based films loaded with E. cardamom (MCA), C. officinalis (MCO), and co-loaded with both compounds (MCACO) were evaluated. The incorporation of the active compounds modified the color (redness–greenness, and yellowness); however, the thickness remained constant in all treatments (0.0042–0.0052 mm). In addition, the solubilization time of the films (in artificial saliva) to release the active compounds fluctuates between 9 and 12 min. Furthermore, the incorporation of bioactive compounds increased the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS, respectively), mainly in MCA (inhibition of 81.99 and 95.80%, respectively) and MCACO (inhibition of 47.15% and 39.73%, respectively). In addition, the incorporation of these compounds also decreased the hardness (39.50%–70.81%), deformation (49.16%–78.30%), and fracturability (39.58%–82.95%). On the other hand, it did not modify the adhesiveness, except in MCO. Moreover, SEM micrographs showed a more homogeneous structure in the MCO films among the films that contained CA in the formulation (heterogeneous structure with the presence of protuberances). Finally, due to the previously reported pharmacological properties of E. cardamomun and C. officinalis, the films developed in this study could have an application as a wound dressing in dentistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings and Films for Food Packing and Storage)
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16 pages, 11179 KiB  
Article
Development of a Transparent Thermal Reflective Thin Film Coating for Accurate Separation of Food-Grade Plastics in Recycling Process via AI-Based Thermal Image Processing
Coatings 2023, 13(8), 1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13081332 - 28 Jul 2023
Viewed by 732
Abstract
This paper presents the development of a specific thin film coating designed to address the challenge of accurately separating food-grade plastics in the recycling process. The coating, created using a plasma sputtering process, is transparent to the visible spectrum of light while effectively [...] Read more.
This paper presents the development of a specific thin film coating designed to address the challenge of accurately separating food-grade plastics in the recycling process. The coating, created using a plasma sputtering process, is transparent to the visible spectrum of light while effectively reflecting infrared emissions above 1500 nm. Composed of a safe metal oxide formulation with a proprietary composition, the coating is applied to packaging labels. By employing thermal imaging and a computer vision AI model, the coated labels enable precise differentiation of plastics associated with food packaging in the initial stage of plastic recycling. The proposed system achieved a remarkable 100% accuracy in separating food-grade plastics from other types of plastics. This innovative approach holds great potential for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of plastic recycling processes, ensuring the recovery of food-grade plastics for future use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings and Films for Food Packing and Storage)
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13 pages, 3565 KiB  
Article
Fluorine-Free Compound Water- and Oil-Repellent: Preparation and Its Application in Molded Pulp
Coatings 2023, 13(7), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13071257 - 17 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1590
Abstract
Molded pulp is considered an alternative to plastic packaging for its low cost, recyclability and non-pollution characteristics. However, the range of its applications has been limited by hydrophilicity and lipophilicity. Presented herein is a facile and straightforward method for the preparation biodegradable water- [...] Read more.
Molded pulp is considered an alternative to plastic packaging for its low cost, recyclability and non-pollution characteristics. However, the range of its applications has been limited by hydrophilicity and lipophilicity. Presented herein is a facile and straightforward method for the preparation biodegradable water- and oil-repellant for molded pulp. Sodium alginate-based oil repellent and PDMS-based water repellent were prepared by cross-linking and modification. The two were then mixed in various ratios to obtain compound water- and oil-repellent, which was applied to the molded pulp by dip-coating. The coated paper demonstrated excellent oil resistance (with a kit rating of 11/12) and outstanding water resistance (with a water contact angle of 121.9° and water absorption of 25.8%). This novel, eco-friendly, water- and oil-resistant molded pulp coating prepared from biodegradable and food-contactable materials is a potential candidate to replace petroleum-based coatings and has excellent possibilities to be manufactured on a large-scale intended for food and non-food contact applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings and Films for Food Packing and Storage)
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13 pages, 2280 KiB  
Article
Production and Characterization of Active Pectin Films with Olive or Guava Leaf Extract Used as Soluble Sachets for Chicken Stock Powder
Coatings 2023, 13(7), 1253; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13071253 - 16 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
The goal of this study was to improve the functionality of two pectin (PEC) edible films by incorporating olive leaf extract (OLE) or guava leaf extract (GLE). Different concentrations of OLE or GLE (0.1 and 0.2% w/v) were used, and [...] Read more.
The goal of this study was to improve the functionality of two pectin (PEC) edible films by incorporating olive leaf extract (OLE) or guava leaf extract (GLE). Different concentrations of OLE or GLE (0.1 and 0.2% w/v) were used, and 30% glycerol was added as a plasticizer. The obtained films were evaluated for their mechanical properties, antioxidant activity, thickness, color, opacity, permeability to gases and water vapor, moisture content, and moisture uptake. Soluble sachets were then prepared and filled with chicken stock powder. The results indicated that incorporating OLE or GLE into the PEC films significantly increased their opacity, greenness, and antioxidant activity, which increased from 8.5% in the control to 83.9% when 0.2% GLE was added. Additionally, the films had lower water vapor permeability than the control film. The moisture uptake of the films was also significantly increased when GLE was added. Furthermore, the developed sachets were tested in real-life scenarios, mirroring their intended usage in households. After being introduced to boiling water, the sachets rapidly dissolved within seconds. These results suggest that OLE or GLE, as natural additives, can be used to improve the functionality and activity of edible films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings and Films for Food Packing and Storage)
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22 pages, 2801 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Biopolymer Coating Based on Pumpkin Oil Cake Activated with Mentha piperita Essential Oil on the Quality and Shelf-Life of Grape
Coatings 2023, 13(2), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13020299 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1112
Abstract
This work aimed to determine the influence of biopolymer coatings based on pumpkin oil cake, with and without the addition of Mentha piperita essential oil, on the quality and shelf-life of the Afus Ali variety of grapes, stored at room temperature and in [...] Read more.
This work aimed to determine the influence of biopolymer coatings based on pumpkin oil cake, with and without the addition of Mentha piperita essential oil, on the quality and shelf-life of the Afus Ali variety of grapes, stored at room temperature and in the refrigerator. Furthermore, a 10% (w/w) aqueous solution of composite pumpkin oil cake (PuOC) with the addition of 30% glycerol was prepared at 60 °C and pH 10. The active biopolymer coating was prepared similarly by adding 1% (v/v) Mentha piperita essential oil. The quality of packed grapes was tested by determining the dry matter content, total sugar content, total acidity, alcohol content, total phenolic compounds content, and total flavonoid content, as well as by determining the antioxidant activity, through the application of the DPPH, FRAP and ABTS tests. Additionally, microbiological parameters were investigated: total aerobic microbial count, yeasts, and molds. The obtained results proved that in all tested samples, over a certain period of time, the content of dry matter, content of phenolic and flavonoids substances and sugar content decreased as a consequence of the spoilage of grapes, that is, the consumption of sugar for the production of alcohol, which consequently leads to the total acidity increasing. The application of lower storage temperatures and active coating (with Mentha piperita essential oil) had a positive effect on all inevitable reactions. Grapes’ antioxidant potential may be enhanced or maintained by applying PuOC coating with or without Mentha piperita essential oil, which is best observed in the case of the DPPH test. The uncoated sample stored at room temperature had the largest decrease in DPPH values during storage, with changes ranging from 2.119 mg/g to 1.471 μmol mg/g. The samples, coated with PuOC and PuOC with the addition of essential oil, had uniform DPPH values throughout the entire storage period. Additionally, regarding phenolic content, at the end of storage period the highest phenolic content was observed in samples with active coating stored at room temperature (734.746 ± 2.462) and at refrigerator temperature (680.827 ± 0.448) compared with untreated samples and with samples with plain PuOC coating. The presence of active essential oil in the applied coating significantly affected the microbiological profile of grapes during the storage period. Besides the positive impact of the applied lower storage temperature, the effectiveness of the applied active packaging is even greater (microbiological results were in the order of PuOC+essential oil < PuOC < Control). The developed artificial neural networks were found to be adequate for modeling the microbiological profile, antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoid content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings and Films for Food Packing and Storage)
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13 pages, 1520 KiB  
Article
Effect of Storage Conditions on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Bilayer Edible Films Based on Iron Yam–Pea Starch Blend and Corn Zein
Coatings 2022, 12(10), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12101524 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
Edible iron yam–pea starch-based bilayer films with a water and oil proof layer of corn zein were prepared by casting method and stored under normal temperature (25 °C; relative humidity (RH): 43%, 54%, 65%), refrigeration (4 °C) and freezing (−17 °C) for 150 [...] Read more.
Edible iron yam–pea starch-based bilayer films with a water and oil proof layer of corn zein were prepared by casting method and stored under normal temperature (25 °C; relative humidity (RH): 43%, 54%, 65%), refrigeration (4 °C) and freezing (−17 °C) for 150 days. The mechanical properties, scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs, oxygen and water vapor permeability, color, transmittance, haze, water content were systematically evaluated after 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. The transmittance, haze, and water content of bilayer films changed greatly within 150 days, which indirectly indicated the changes of the internal microstructure of the film matrix. The results were further verified by SEM analysis. Water and oxygen resistance gradually become worse. At 25 °C and 54% RH, the barrier performances were relatively strong. Films had relatively good tensile strength at normal temperature and high humidity, and relatively good elongation at break at low temperature and high humidity. SEM observation showed that there was no interlayer separation during storage. The internal network structure disappeared and reappeared again. The changes of internal microstructure also verified the changes of barrier and mechanical properties of bilayer films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings and Films for Food Packing and Storage)
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Review

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29 pages, 4753 KiB  
Review
Progress in Fruit and Vegetable Preservation: Plant-Based Nanoemulsion Coatings and Their Evolving Trends
Coatings 2023, 13(11), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13111835 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1143
Abstract
Innovative technologies in the food industry are focused on integrated approaches to improve the sustainability of the food system that cover the whole supply chain. Huge post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables and the use of synthetic chemical preservatives for this purpose are [...] Read more.
Innovative technologies in the food industry are focused on integrated approaches to improve the sustainability of the food system that cover the whole supply chain. Huge post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables and the use of synthetic chemical preservatives for this purpose are a matter of grave concern for any country. High demands for safe and healthy food have contributed to maximizing efforts to investigate post-harvest technology. Since fruits and vegetables are extremely perishable foods, they require the best post-harvest methods to maintain their storage stability and increase shelf-life. A solution for this emerging problem was found in the application of nanoemulsion edible coatings, described as thin-layered edible coatings or films with the possibility to provide additional benefits such as antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. These coatings provide protection against moisture loss, respiration, gaseous exchange, microbial spoilage, etc., offering promising results to safeguard the physicochemical during the time of storage and transportation of fruits and vegetables. This review summarizes the newest studies of nanoemulsion coatings on fresh products, providing valuable information regarding preparation and application methods and applied polymers and bioactives. Moreover, it gives a detailed description of the influence of nanoemulsion coating application (shelf-life, weight loss, colour, etc.) on fresh fruits and vegetables during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings and Films for Food Packing and Storage)
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16 pages, 4558 KiB  
Review
Application of Plant Waxes in Edible Coatings
Coatings 2023, 13(5), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13050911 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3547
Abstract
The aim of the paper is to present edible coatings based on lipids and their application in the food industry. Therefore, this paper discusses the following: different types of plant waxes; the need for plant waxes; the advantages and disadvantages of edible coatings [...] Read more.
The aim of the paper is to present edible coatings based on lipids and their application in the food industry. Therefore, this paper discusses the following: different types of plant waxes; the need for plant waxes; the advantages and disadvantages of edible coatings based on plant waxes; edible coatings based on lipids applied in the food industry; application of the most popular Carnauba wax; Candelilla Wax in the composition of edible coatings. Plant waxes are presented with their specific characteristics. Moreover, the cuticle waxes obtained from waste peels of fresh fruits and vegetables are presented; their properties and application in the composition of edible coatings are based on plant waxes. In this regard, an effective and applicable method for the industrial extraction/separation of plant wax from the cuticle and waste peels of fresh fruits and vegetables before their processing (production of wine, high-alcohol beverages, fruit-sugar preserves, vegetable preserves, juices, etc.) is proposed. Properties and possible applications of the isolated cuticle plant waxes are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings and Films for Food Packing and Storage)
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18 pages, 369 KiB  
Review
Innovations in the Packaging of Meat and Meat Products—A Review
Coatings 2023, 13(2), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13020333 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2557
Abstract
This study aims to systematize the knowledge about innovative solutions to understand the composition of packaging materials and bioactive substances used in the packaging processes of meat and meat products, given the contemporary trends and consumer expectations. In edible packaging, the application of [...] Read more.
This study aims to systematize the knowledge about innovative solutions to understand the composition of packaging materials and bioactive substances used in the packaging processes of meat and meat products, given the contemporary trends and consumer expectations. In edible packaging, the application of natural and renewable biopolymers is gaining popularity as, unlike petroleum-based plastic packaging materials, they do not cause environmental problems. Packaging using active compounds further extends the shelf life of food products compared with traditional packaging by reducing the adverse effects during storage, such as oxidation, microbial growth, and moisture loss. On the other hand, the inclusion of natural bioactive substances in packaging provides an opportunity to increase the shelf life of food products and/or decrease the use of preservatives. This direction offers a wide field for research due to the multitude of substances, their impact, and the properties of the packaged product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings and Films for Food Packing and Storage)
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