Anti-Graffiti Coatings

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (22 September 2017) | Viewed by 47391

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Anti-graffiti materials have attracted a great deal of attention during the last few years because graffiti is increasingly widespread, especially in urban contexts. Degradation and devaluation of the involved areas are often noticed, due to a negative impact in terms of the appearance and lifetime of the affected surfaces. In addition, the high costs of removal cannot be ignored. Therefore, the research of strategies to save sensitive surfaces that might be damaged is a continuous challenge. To this aim, materials applied as protective coatings and appropriate removal methods are being developed. In order to avert irreparable effects to treated surfaces, a deep knowledge of characteristics, properties, and suitability of both coatings and methodologies is necessary.

In this regard, this Special Issue intends to publish original research and review papers, from investigators, in both academia and industry, dealing with recent advances in anti-graffiti treatments. Contributions on the design and synthesis of new products, mechanisms of interaction, and cleaning methods are encouraged. Studies on the durability of anti-graffiti coatings are also welcome.

Dr. Mariateresa Lettieri
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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5511 KiB  
Article
Surfaces Bearing Fluorinated Nucleoperfluorolipids for Potential Anti-Graffiti Surface Properties
by Guilhem Godeau, Frédéric Guittard and Thierry Darmanin
Coatings 2017, 7(12), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7120220 - 4 Dec 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3944
Abstract
Graffiti can sometimes be a problem when put in an inappropriate place. We looked at a means to prevent such inconvenience. In this work, we explore the possibility of developing surfaces with controlled wettability. If the paint does not spread, the graffiti does [...] Read more.
Graffiti can sometimes be a problem when put in an inappropriate place. We looked at a means to prevent such inconvenience. In this work, we explore the possibility of developing surfaces with controlled wettability. If the paint does not spread, the graffiti does not stay. Here, the synthesis and electrodeposition of original 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) with perfluorinated nucleolipids (ante approach) is reported. The elaboration of similar surfaces using post functionalization is also described. All the prepared surfaces were then investigated for their roughness, wettability, and morphology. Highly hydrophobic features are reported (θ = 137°) and oleophobic properties are also reported (θ = 110°) showing real potential for the control of surface wettability and for potential anti-graffiti applications, consequently. The surfaces obtained with the ante approach are rougher and more hydrophobic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Graffiti Coatings)
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5530 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Accelerated Ageing Tests for Metallic and Non-Metallic Graffiti Paints Applied to Stone
by Patricia Sanmartín and Francesca Cappitelli
Coatings 2017, 7(11), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7110180 - 30 Oct 2017
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5944
Abstract
Graffiti are increasingly observed on urban and peri-urban buildings and their removal requires a huge financial outlay by local governments and agencies. Graffiti are not usually removed immediately, but rather over the passage of time, viz. months or even years. In this study, [...] Read more.
Graffiti are increasingly observed on urban and peri-urban buildings and their removal requires a huge financial outlay by local governments and agencies. Graffiti are not usually removed immediately, but rather over the passage of time, viz. months or even years. In this study, which forms part of a wider research project on graffiti removal, different methods (gravimetric analysis, examination of digital images, colour and infrared measurements) were used to evaluate the performance of accelerated ageing tests (involving exposure to humidity, freeze-thawing cycles and NaCl and Na2SO4 salts) for graffiti painted on stone. Silver (metallic) and black (non-metallic) graffiti spray paints were applied to two types of igneous rock (granite and rhyolitic ignimbrite) and one sedimentary rock (fossiliferous limestone, i.e., biocalcarenite). The metallic and non-metallic graffiti spray paints acted differently on the stone surfaces, both chemically and physically. Older graffiti were found to be more vulnerable to weathering agents. The ageing test with NaCl and particularly Na2SO4, both applied to granite, proved the most severe on the paints, yielding more detrimental and faster artificial ageing of the type of material under study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Graffiti Coatings)
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9794 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Anti-Graffiti Properties of Powder Organic Coatings Applied in Train Field
by Stefano Rossi, Michele Fedel, Simone Petrolli and Flavio Deflorian
Coatings 2017, 7(5), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7050067 - 6 May 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5884
Abstract
The widespread prevalence of the phenomenon of graffiti and the growth of the removal cost—in particular in public transport systems—has pushed the research for technical solutions to this problem. Suitable solutions to address graffiti-related concerns are needed in order to reduce the cleaning [...] Read more.
The widespread prevalence of the phenomenon of graffiti and the growth of the removal cost—in particular in public transport systems—has pushed the research for technical solutions to this problem. Suitable solutions to address graffiti-related concerns are needed in order to reduce the cleaning costs as well as the downtime of trains. Graffiti are a big problem for painted metal, because the protective coatings and graffiti have the same chemical nature (polymeric matter). A permanent coating is expected to be able to resist the highest possible number of cleanings of the graffiti without modifying its aesthetic and corrosion protection properties. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodological approach for the characterization of graffiti-resistant organic coatings. For this purpose, a critical review of the existing standards is carried out. The anti-graffiti properties of a polyurethane organic coating were investigated before and after accelerated weathering. In order to understand the behavior of the coatings during cleaning, the aging of the coating in contact with the remover was carried out. The effect on the corrosion protection properties was assessed during the accelerated aging. The resistance of the coating was proved to be strongly affected by the surface finishing. UV exposure modified surface properties and graffiti removal efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Graffiti Coatings)
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11039 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Distribution of a Spray Paint on the Efficacy of Anti-Graffiti Coatings on a Highly Porous Natural Stone Material
by Maurizio Masieri and Mariateresa Lettieri
Coatings 2017, 7(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7020018 - 24 Jan 2017
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 7319
Abstract
Graffiti on facades often has a heavy impact in social and economic terms, particularly when historical and artistic artefacts are affected. To limit the damages to the surfaces, preventive plans are implemented and anti-graffiti coatings are used as a protective measure. In this [...] Read more.
Graffiti on facades often has a heavy impact in social and economic terms, particularly when historical and artistic artefacts are affected. To limit the damages to the surfaces, preventive plans are implemented and anti-graffiti coatings are used as a protective measure. In this study, the distribution of a spray paint inside a highly porous stone, with and without anti-graffiti protection, was investigated. Two commercial sacrificial anti-graffiti systems were used and an acrylic-based paint was applied as staining agent. Environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis were performed to characterise, from the morphological and chemical point of view, the anti-graffiti coatings and the paint. Maps of the main elements were acquired to locate the different products inside the stone. Chemical removers were used to clean the stained surfaces, then the effectiveness of the cleaning was assessed by visual observations and colour measurements, as well as on the basis of percentage of residual stain. The obtained results highlighted that the anti-graffiti efficacy strongly depended on the characteristics of the applied coating. This latter usually acted as a barrier, but good results were obtained only where the stain did not remain as a separate layer, but penetrated the protective coating. Microcracks in the anti-graffiti coating were able to nullify the protective action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Graffiti Coatings)
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4286 KiB  
Article
Weathering of Two Anti-Graffiti Protective Coatings on Concrete Paving Slabs
by Paula M. Carmona-Quiroga, Robert M. J. Jacobs and Heather A. Viles
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7010001 - 22 Dec 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6594
Abstract
The durability of anti-graffiti coatings is of special relevance since, unlike other protective treatments, they are not only affected by environmental factors, but also by often aggressive cleaning procedures. However, little is known about the long-term performance of either permanent or sacrificial coatings. [...] Read more.
The durability of anti-graffiti coatings is of special relevance since, unlike other protective treatments, they are not only affected by environmental factors, but also by often aggressive cleaning procedures. However, little is known about the long-term performance of either permanent or sacrificial coatings. This study explores the durability of two commercial coatings on concrete paving slabs under both natural and artificial ageing tests. The results of this research show that a fluorinated polyurethane and a crystalline micro wax weathered in less than 2000 h in a chamber with UVB radiation and after one year of outdoor exposure in the south of England. The former weathered by getting yellow and dark, and eventually, only under the accelerated ageing test, by losing its adhesion to the concrete slabs, and the latter weathered by getting dark, cracked and by reducing its water repellency under natural conditions. Cleaning efficiency of the protected surfaces from graffiti paints was therefore diminished, particularly when pressurized water spray was used on the polyurethane coated surfaces, since the treatment was partially removed and the concrete surface eroded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Graffiti Coatings)
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Review

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12053 KiB  
Review
On the Durability and Wear Resistance of Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings
by Ilker S. Bayer
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7010012 - 18 Jan 2017
Cited by 115 | Viewed by 16067
Abstract
Transparent liquid repellent coatings with exceptional wear and abrasion resistance are very demanding to fabricate. The most important reason for this is the fact that majority of the transparent liquid repellent coatings have so far been fabricated by nanoparticle assembly on surfaces in [...] Read more.
Transparent liquid repellent coatings with exceptional wear and abrasion resistance are very demanding to fabricate. The most important reason for this is the fact that majority of the transparent liquid repellent coatings have so far been fabricated by nanoparticle assembly on surfaces in the form of films. These films or coatings demonstrate relatively poor substrate adhesion and rubbing induced wear resistance compared to polymer-based transparent hydrophobic coatings. However, recent advances reported in the literature indicate that considerable progress has now been made towards formulating and applying transparent, hydrophobic and even oleophobic coatings onto various substrates which can withstand certain degree of mechanical abrasion. This is considered to be very promising for anti-graffiti coatings or treatments since they require resistance to wear abrasion. Therefore, this review intends to highlight the state-of-the-art on materials and techniques that are used to fabricate wear resistant liquid repellent transparent coatings so that researchers can assess various aptitudes and limitations related to translating some of these technologies to large scale stain repellent outdoor applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Graffiti Coatings)
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