Advanced Joining Technologies of Alloys and Composites in the Automotive, Aeronautic and Astronautic Fields

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Surface Characterization, Deposition and Modification".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2022) | Viewed by 17227

Special Issue Editors

School of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310007, China
Interests: mechanical joining; failure mechanism; manufacturing process optimization; numerical modeling; motion controll of numerical control equipment

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Co-Guest Editor
College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
Interests: advanced forming technology ; advanced joining technology in automotive and aerospace fields; Lightweight design of automobile body

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Co-Guest Editor
School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3FB, UK
Interests: coatings; surfaces; interfaces; mechanics of materials; composites; soft materials; polymers; nanomaterials; nanostructures; thin films; adhesion; tribology; wetting; contact mechanics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the automotive, aeronautic and astronautic fields, light weight structures offer an opportunity to build green, efficient, profitable and reliable products at a competitive price. The most commonly used materials for the lightweight structures are aluminum alloy, titanium alloy, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and etc. The connection quality of these structures will directly affect the fatigue performance and service life of the vehicles, aircrafts or spacecrafts. In industry, many effects concerning the joining technologies(e.g., bolting, riveting, adhesive bonding and hybrid joining) of these materials have been made to obtain the required outstanding mechanical performances. As such, the joining process mechanisms and parameters optimization must be thoroughly investigated to provide a scientific basis in this field.

This Special Issue aims to cover new findings in the field of jointing technologies of metal alloys and composites in automotive, aeronautic and astronautic  industries. Manuscripts describing the application of new type of fasteners are also highly welcome in this Issue. The topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

  • Developments of advanced joining processes;
  • Optimization of traditional joining processes;
  • Bolting, riveting, adhesive bonding and hybrid joining and other innovative joining technologies;
  • Monitoring and control of advanced joining processes;
  • Modeling and simulation of joining processes;
  • Innovative fasteners and equipment;
  • Mechanical properties of parts and joints;
  • Fatigue properties and fracture of joints.

We would like to invite you to submit original research articles related to any topics mentioned above.

Dr. Yunbo Bi
Dr. Junjia Cui
Prof. Dr. Vasileios Koutsos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Advanced joining technology
  • Mechanical joining
  • Mechanical properties
  • Fatigue properties
  • Failure mechanisms
  • Numerical modeling
  • Manufacturing process optimization
  • Alloy materials
  • Composite materials

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 5568 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of a Robotic End-Effector for Automated Hi-Lok Nut Installation
by Jiefeng Jiang, Fengfeng (Jeff) Xi and Yunbo Bi
Coatings 2022, 12(7), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12070904 - 26 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
The automated installation of hi-lok nuts by the robot is an effective way to replace tedious manual labor. For this purpose, an appropriate end-effector needs to be designed to carry out the feeding, alignment and fastening tasks. According to the installation process of [...] Read more.
The automated installation of hi-lok nuts by the robot is an effective way to replace tedious manual labor. For this purpose, an appropriate end-effector needs to be designed to carry out the feeding, alignment and fastening tasks. According to the installation process of hi-lok nuts, a motor driven fastening tool is designed with two parts: the front nut runner and rear driving shaft. The fastening task is modeled based on the force balances in the nut screwing action, which present the nut runner can rotate the nut as well as feed it axially. Then, a feeding-alignment (FA) device is designed to engage the nut feeding for fastening tool. The alignment action is modeled through the force balance about hi-lok nut involved with the nut gripper and nut runner. Finally, a tool end-effector has been built and integrated with an industrial robot. The successful implementation of automated installation of hi-lok nut demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed installation method and the validation of the designed robotic end-effector. Full article
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17 pages, 7026 KiB  
Article
Fracture Toughness of Different Region Materials from a Dissimilar Metal Welded Joint in Steam Turbine Rotor
by Wenke Wang, Yang Guo, Yuanbo Li and Zhengning Li
Coatings 2022, 12(2), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12020174 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
This study systematically evaluated the fracture toughness of a CrMoV/NiCrMoV dissimilar metal welded joint (DMWJ) with buttering layer technology in a steam turbine rotor. The fracture resistance curves and parameters of base metals (BM-1 and BM-2), weld metal (WM), buttering layer (BL), and [...] Read more.
This study systematically evaluated the fracture toughness of a CrMoV/NiCrMoV dissimilar metal welded joint (DMWJ) with buttering layer technology in a steam turbine rotor. The fracture resistance curves and parameters of base metals (BM-1 and BM-2), weld metal (WM), buttering layer (BL), and heat-affected zones (HAZ-1 and HAZ-2) in the welded joint were all obtained. The characteristic microstructures, carbides, and fracture surfaces were observed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results revealed a different fracture toughness of each region in the DMWJ. The BM-1 showed a brittle fracture mode, mainly related to the directional needle-shaped carbide M3C. However, HAZ-1, BL, WM, HAZ-2, and BM-2 illustrated ductile fracture mode. The tempered microstructure and dispersed carbides increased the toughness of each material. Except for BM-1, the ductile fracture toughnesses of BL and WM were low in DMWJ due to coarse spherical carbide M7C3. The fracture toughness in the middle of HAZs was higher than that of the corresponding BMs owing to the fine tempered martensite and bainite. The fracture toughness along DMWJ appeared uneven. In sum, these findings look promising for the accurate integrity evaluation of DMWJs. Full article
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15 pages, 9707 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study on the Impact of Gap between Sheets on the Quality of Riveted Single-Strap Butt Joints
by Zhenzheng Ke, Yongliang Zhang, Yuchi Liu, Zhengwei Zhong, Chunrun Zhu and Yunbo Bi
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111375 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1554
Abstract
Some controllable process parameters in the riveting process such as the gap between sheets, have an important impact on the quality of a riveted butt joint. In this paper, the finite element model of a riveted single-strap butt joint is established with the [...] Read more.
Some controllable process parameters in the riveting process such as the gap between sheets, have an important impact on the quality of a riveted butt joint. In this paper, the finite element model of a riveted single-strap butt joint is established with the help of ABAQUS analysis software, and the riveting process is simulated under five kinds of gaps between sheets. From the perspectives of rivet upsetting size, rivet interference, radial deformation of sheet, and analysis of residual stress around the hole of sheet, the influence of the gap between sheets on the connection quality of the riveted butt joint is summarized. The results show that the left and right sheets will contact each other and there is extrusion stress between the sheets when the gap is zero. When the applied tensile load continues to increase, due to the influence of the secondary bending, the strap sheet responsible for the connection produces warping deformation, and there will be no further contact between the sheets. When the gap between sheets increases from 0 to 2 mm, the maximum deformation of strap sheets increases from 0.876 to 0.927 mm, which proves that the gap between sheets have no significant effect on the deformation of the strap sheet. Full article
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12 pages, 4081 KiB  
Article
A Novel Method for Joining Steel/Al Tube Parts Based on Electromagnetic Force by Flat Coil
by Quanxiaoxiao Liu, Yuanheng Yao, Zehua Xia, Guangyao Li, Junjia Cui and Hao Jiang
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111356 - 03 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
Electromagnetic joining technology is an effective technique to join tubes with dissimilar materials. In this paper, a new approach for steel/Al tube parts joined by electromagnetic crimping using a flat coil was investigated. Electromagnetic crimping process experiments with different discharge energies (12, 14, [...] Read more.
Electromagnetic joining technology is an effective technique to join tubes with dissimilar materials. In this paper, a new approach for steel/Al tube parts joined by electromagnetic crimping using a flat coil was investigated. Electromagnetic crimping process experiments with different discharge energies (12, 14, and 16 kJ) and property tests were carried out. Meanwhile, the deformation characteristics of the outer tube under different discharging energies were discussed to study the fittability of the joining zone. The quality of the crimped joint was analyzed by microstructure characterization. The results show that the proposed approach was able to obtain torque joints and was potentially for tubular parts manufacturing. Moreover, higher discharging energy would result in better fittability degree and torque strength but might cause some cracks in the necking area. Combining the results of torsion tests with the microstructure observation, the comprehensive performance of the joint formed under a moderate discharge energy (14 kJ) was optimal. Full article
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13 pages, 2603 KiB  
Article
Design of a Fast Temporary Fastener with the Labor-Saving and Reversible Ability
by Wei Tang, Xincheng Xie, Yukang Ye and Weiwei Qu
Coatings 2021, 11(9), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11091101 - 12 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
Aircraft panel assembly mainly includes the pre-joining process and the riveting process. In addition, the traditional pre-joining process is mainly executed by bolts, which has problems such as the large tightening torque, inconvenient bilateral tightening, heavy workload, and inconvenient loading and unloading. To [...] Read more.
Aircraft panel assembly mainly includes the pre-joining process and the riveting process. In addition, the traditional pre-joining process is mainly executed by bolts, which has problems such as the large tightening torque, inconvenient bilateral tightening, heavy workload, and inconvenient loading and unloading. To solve the above-mentioned problems, a research of new temporary fastener is performed deeply from three levels of quick installation, labor-saving, and reversible ability. This involves (a) employing the lever mechanism and the rapid expansion anchor to implement the rapid clamping and disassembly of working processes by labor-saving; (b) integrating the adjusting spring to overcome the tolerances of parts; and (c) building up the space-cross slide rails to provide the axial clamping forces and the reversible forces. The application of designed fasteners was employed into the production of aircraft panel, and the error between theoretical and experimental values was less than 10%. Besides this, the result showed the good effect in panel clamping and the reliable processes of loading and unloading installation, and will greatly reduce the complexity of pre-joining process, the difficulty of installation, and the comprehensive cost. Full article
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20 pages, 15478 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation and Parameter Analysis of Electromagnetic Riveting Process for Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Rivet
by Yangfan Qin, Yuxuan Liao, Guangyao Li, Junjia Cui and Hao Jiang
Coatings 2021, 11(8), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11080878 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1956
Abstract
Electromagnetic riveting process (EMR) is a high-speed impact connection technology with the advantages of fast loading speed, large impact force and stable rivet deformation. In this work, the axisymmetric sequential and loose electromagnetic-structural coupling simulation models were conducted to perform the electromagnetic riveting [...] Read more.
Electromagnetic riveting process (EMR) is a high-speed impact connection technology with the advantages of fast loading speed, large impact force and stable rivet deformation. In this work, the axisymmetric sequential and loose electromagnetic-structural coupling simulation models were conducted to perform the electromagnetic riveting process of a Ti-6Al-4V titanium rivet, and the parameter analysis of the riveting setup was performed based on the sequential coupled simulation results. In addition, the single-objective optimization problem of punch displacement was conducted using the Hooke–Jeeves algorithm. Based on the adaptive remeshing technology adopted in air meshes, the deformation calculated in the structural field was well transferred to the electromagnetic field in the sequential coupled model. Thus, the sequential coupling simulation results presented higher accuracy on the punch speed and rivet deformation than the loose coupling numerical model. The maximum relative difference of electromagnetic force (EMF) on driver plate and radial displacement in the rivet shaft was 34.86% and 13.43%, respectively. The parameter analysis results showed that the outer diameter and the height of the driver plate had a significant first-order effect on the response of displacement, while the platform height, transition zone height, angle, and transition zone width of the amplifier presented a strong interaction effect. Using the obtained results on the optimal structural parameters, the punch speed was effectively improved from 6.13 to 8.12 m/s with a 32.46% increase. Furthermore, the displacement of the punch increasing from 3.38 to 3.81 mm would lead to an 80.55% increase in the maximum radial displacement of the rivet shaft. This indicated that the deformation of the rivet was efficiently improved by using the optimal rivet model. Full article
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14 pages, 3444 KiB  
Article
Tensile Load Distribution Improvement of Three-Row Riveted Lap Joint Based on Different Squeezing Displacement Combinations
by Changyi Lei, Qinggai Huang and Yunbo Bi
Coatings 2021, 11(7), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11070856 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2520
Abstract
Many previous studies have mainly focused on the effects of riveting parameters on single-row riveted lap joints. Little attention has been paid to multi-row riveted lap joints. The outer rows of a normal multi-row riveted lap joint usually bear a larger part of [...] Read more.
Many previous studies have mainly focused on the effects of riveting parameters on single-row riveted lap joints. Little attention has been paid to multi-row riveted lap joints. The outer rows of a normal multi-row riveted lap joint usually bear a larger part of the tensile load. However, none of the studies relate the phenomenon to the squeezing displacement combination of a multi-row riveted lap joint. To improve the performance of a three-row riveted lap joint, this paper aims to reveal the internal relation between tensile load distribution, structural deformation and squeezing displacement combination. Theoretical discussion, numerical simulation and an experimental test have been conducted. Four different squeezing displacement combinations have been studied. The result indicates that an appropriate squeezing displacement combination can effectively make tensile load distribution more homogeneous. Each rivet can take approximately 33% tensile load. Structural deformation magnitude can be reduced as well. Compared with the worst situation, at the region most sensitive to tensile load, the max strain value can reduce about 53.22–79.76%. A suitable squeeze displacement combination is a simple approach for the performance enhancement of a three-row riveted lap joint. It can be practically applied in aircraft manufacturing without any additional equipment or skill learning. Full article
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13 pages, 48336 KiB  
Article
Multivariate Quadratic Nonlinear Regression Model of the Ultimate Pull-Out Load of Electrohydraulic Expansion Joints Based on Response Surface Methodology
by Da Cai, Chenyu Jin, Jie Liang, Guangyao Li and Junjia Cui
Coatings 2021, 11(6), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11060689 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
Electrohydraulic expansion joining has great potential for joining the light weight and high strength thin-walled pipes due to its high strain rate. Based on the central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology, multiple experiments of electrohydraulic expansion joining process were performed. The [...] Read more.
Electrohydraulic expansion joining has great potential for joining the light weight and high strength thin-walled pipes due to its high strain rate. Based on the central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology, multiple experiments of electrohydraulic expansion joining process were performed. The multivariate quadratic nonlinear regression model between process parameters (discharge voltage, wire length, and wire diameter) and the ultimate pull-out load of the joints was established. The results revealed that discharge voltage, wire length and wire diameter all had a significant effect on the ultimate pull-out load. The discharge voltage had the most significant effect. The interaction between the discharge voltage and the wire diameter had a significant effect on the ultimate pull-out load. The optimal parameter combination (discharge voltage = 6 kV, wire length = 10 mm, wire diameter = 0.833 mm) was obtained and verified through the experiments. This study would provide guidance for the choice of the process parameters in real applications. Full article
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22 pages, 12752 KiB  
Article
Effect of Riveting Angle and Direction on Fatigue Performance of Riveted Lap Joints
by Qingxiao Liang, Tianpeng Zhang, Chunrun Zhu and Yunbo Bi
Coatings 2021, 11(2), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020236 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3185
Abstract
Riveting is the most commonly used connection method in aircraft assembly, and its quality has a crucial effect on the fatigue performance of aircraft. Many factors affect the riveting quality, among which the influence of the riveting angle and direction is not clear. [...] Read more.
Riveting is the most commonly used connection method in aircraft assembly, and its quality has a crucial effect on the fatigue performance of aircraft. Many factors affect the riveting quality, among which the influence of the riveting angle and direction is not clear. In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element model of single-rivet lap joints is established and verified by the driven head geometry and the riveting force data obtained from the riveting experiments. Then, by adjusting the angle and direction of the punch in the finite element model, the riveting process is simulated at the angles of 0°, 1°, 2°, and 3° and the directions of 0° and 180° to investigate the deformation of the lap joints, the stress distribution around the hole, and the stress distribution of the rivet. Finally, the fatigue tests of the single-rivet lap joints are performed and the influence of the riveting angle and direction on the connection quality and fatigue performance of the riveting joints is analyzed. Full article
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14 pages, 8204 KiB  
Article
Continuous Numerical Analysis of Slug Rivet Installation Process Using Parameterized Modeling Method
by Changyi Lei, Yunbo Bi and Jiangxiong Li
Coatings 2021, 11(2), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020189 - 06 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
The slug rivet installation process is complex. A lot of parameters are included during the riveting deformation process. The workload and time cost of a traditional simulation study is very high since a traditional numerical model should be modified manually time by time [...] Read more.
The slug rivet installation process is complex. A lot of parameters are included during the riveting deformation process. The workload and time cost of a traditional simulation study is very high since a traditional numerical model should be modified manually time by time when riveting parameters change. The data processing after simulation is another complex work. To improve the situation, this paper presents a parameterized modeling method. The modeling process and data processing algorithm can be developed using Python script. The parameterized model can automatically and continuously re-build without any manual intervention according to the riveting parameter auto-update condition. The post-processing analysis can be automatically conducted and saved as well. Then this paper conducts continuous analysis to illustrate the impact of riveting parameters on riveting quality. The parameterized model keeps running 41 times until the riveting parameter is out of range. The parameterized modeling method is a useful method for a simulation study. The study will pave the way for further investigations. Full article
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