Advances in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Global and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2023) | Viewed by 18743

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Clinical Health Psychology, Rady Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, 1155 Notre Dame Avenue, Winnipeg, MB R3E 3G1, Canada
Interests: FASD; prenatal alcohol exposure; paternal depression; family functioning; parenting; childhood adversity; child and adolescent psychopathology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue ‘Advances in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)’ aims to illuminate the current state of knowledge in research relevant to children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and their families. Specifically, we invite submissions that advance our understanding of FASD mechanistic insights, prevention, epidemiology, diagnosis, developmental trajectories, and interventions. Given international calls to reduce the harms caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, we also welcome submissions that focus on the policy context and service provision for FASD. We also encourage submissions that consider a strengths-based perspective among children with FASD.

Dr. Kristene Cheung
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
  • fetal alcohol syndrome
  • prenatal alcohol exposure
  • FASD
  • partial fetal alcohol syndrome
  • alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder
  • neurodevelopment
  • developmental disability

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

31 pages, 1676 KiB  
Article
Children with FASD—Evolving Patterns of Developmental Problems and Intervention Costs in Ages 0 through 16 in Finland
by Laura Mirjami Jolma, Mikko Koivu-Jolma, Anne Sarajuuri, Paulus Torkki, Ilona Autti-Rämö and Heli Sätilä
Children 2023, 10(5), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10050788 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1966
Abstract
This is a retrospective chart review of 55 persons (mean age 11 years, range 2–28 years) diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in one Finnish central hospital. The aim was to determine typical problems and interventions and estimate their costs during different [...] Read more.
This is a retrospective chart review of 55 persons (mean age 11 years, range 2–28 years) diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in one Finnish central hospital. The aim was to determine typical problems and interventions and estimate their costs during different periods of childhood between ages 0 and 16. During the first year, 29/38 (76.3%) were treated in the neonatal intensive care unit, 29/43 (67.4%) received physiotherapy, 15/43 (34.9%) were diagnosed with congenital malformation, 8/43 (18.6%) had heart defects. Between 1 and 6 years, 39/45 (86.7%) received occupational therapy, 25/45 (55.6%) speech therapy, and 12/45 (26.7%) were diagnosed with strabismus. Between 7 and 12 years, 25/37 (67.6%) were diagnosed with ADHD and special education was recommended for 30/37 (81.1%). Learning disorders and the need for psychiatric care increased with age. Between 13 and 16 years, 12/15 (80%) were treated in the psychiatric unit, and by this age, 8/15 (53.3%) were diagnosed with intellectual disability. Before 16 years, 44/55 (80%) were placed out of home, which caused 78.5% of the estimated cumulative mean extra costs of EUR 1,077,000 in 2022 currency. Except for psychiatric costs, health care costs were highest during early years. Charting typical patterns of problems may help in identifying children with FASD and planning follow-ups, content of assessments, and interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD))
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
Description of Copy Number Variations in a Series of Children and Adolescents with FASD in Reunion Island
by Laëtitia Sennsfelder, Susie Guilly, Sébastien Leruste, Ludovic Hoareau, Willy Léocadie, Pauline Beuvain, Meïssa Nekaa, Maïté Bagard, Stéphanie Robin, Justine Lanneaux, Léa Etchebarren, Marilyn Tallot, Michel Spodenkiewicz, Jean-Luc Alessandri, Godelieve Morel, Maud Blanluet, Paul Gueguen and Bérénice Roy-Doray
Children 2023, 10(4), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10040694 - 07 Apr 2023
Viewed by 966
Abstract
Background: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are the most common cause of neurocognitive impairment and social inadaptation, affecting 1 birth in 100. Despite the existence of precise diagnostic criteria, the diagnosis remains difficult, often confounded with other genetic syndromes or neurodevelopmental disorders. Since [...] Read more.
Background: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are the most common cause of neurocognitive impairment and social inadaptation, affecting 1 birth in 100. Despite the existence of precise diagnostic criteria, the diagnosis remains difficult, often confounded with other genetic syndromes or neurodevelopmental disorders. Since 2016, Reunion Island has been a pilot region for the identification, diagnosis, and care of FASD in France. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and the types of Copy Number Variations (CNV) in FASD patients. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 101 patients diagnosed with FASD in the Reference Center for developmental anomalies and in the FASD Diagnostic Center of the University Hospital was performed. Records of all patients were reviewed to obtain their medical history, family history, clinical phenotype, and investigations, including genetic testing (CGH- or SNP-array). Results: A rate of 20.8% (n = 21) of CNVs was found including 57% (12/21) of pathogenic variants and 29% (6/21) of variants of uncertain signification (VUS). Conclusion: A particularly high number of CNVs was found in children and adolescents with FASD. It reinforces the plea for a multidisciplinary approach for developmental disorders to explore both environmental factors, such as avoidable teratogens and intrinsic vulnerabilities, especially genetic determinants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD))
19 pages, 1033 KiB  
Article
Heated Behaviour in the Classroom for Children with FASD: The Relationship between Characteristics Associated with ADHD, ODD and ASD, Hot Executive Function and Classroom Based Reward Systems
by Andrea Carrick and Colin J. Hamilton
Children 2023, 10(4), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10040685 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3230
Abstract
Possession of characteristics related to Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Oppositional Defiance Disorder, and Autism Spectrum Disorder in children prenatally exposed to alcohol contributes to challenges within the diagnostic pathway for Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). The presentation of these characteristics, though problematic for [...] Read more.
Possession of characteristics related to Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Oppositional Defiance Disorder, and Autism Spectrum Disorder in children prenatally exposed to alcohol contributes to challenges within the diagnostic pathway for Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). The presentation of these characteristics, though problematic for the children affected, may not result in referral for diagnosis; focusing on diagnostic thresholds masks the dimensional nature of these characteristics. Children with traits which are undiagnosed may not receive effective support and are often identified as exhibiting challenging behaviour. In the UK, children with undiagnosed Special Educational Needs (SEN) are more likely to experience school exclusion. Common across each condition are challenges to executive function associated with emotional regulation (hot-executive function). This study explored the relationship between characteristics of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Oppositional Defiance Disorder, Autistic-Like Traits, and hot executive functions on the helpfulness of reward-based interventions for children with suspected or diagnosed FASD. Data were collected online using caregiver referral questionnaire screeners for each measure (Child Autism Quotient Questionnaire, Vanderbilt ADHD Parental Rating Scale and The Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory) for children aged 6–12 years with suspected or diagnosed FASD (n = 121). Between-group comparisons showed no significant difference in the reporting of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder characteristics, Oppositional Defiance Disorder characteristics, Autistic-Like Traits, and executive function, regardless of diagnostic state. Multiple regression analyses indicated that these personality characteristics and executive functions were associated with the perception of the reward system helpfulness. However, this pattern was qualified by both the type of hot executive function challenged (significant for Regulation not Inhibition) and whether the child had an FASD diagnosis. Thus, a dimensional approach may strengthen our understanding of the child’s classroom experience and help overcome barriers to effective intervention and support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD))
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
Concerns and Strengths: Caregiver Perceptions of Their Infant/Toddler with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
by Misty Pruner, Tracy Jirikowic, Carolyn Baylor and Susan Astley Hemingway
Children 2023, 10(3), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030544 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1618
Abstract
Caregiver-reported assessments provide opportunities for caregivers to share concerns and identify the strengths of their infant/toddler regarding prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). These insights may reveal under-recognized concerns and inform a strengths-based approach to early intervention. The purpose of this study was to describe [...] Read more.
Caregiver-reported assessments provide opportunities for caregivers to share concerns and identify the strengths of their infant/toddler regarding prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). These insights may reveal under-recognized concerns and inform a strengths-based approach to early intervention. The purpose of this study was to describe the type and frequency of caregiver-reported concerns and strengths in a sample of infants/toddlers at the time of their fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) diagnostic evaluation. Caregivers’ concerns and strengths were identified in the context of two parent-report questionnaires, the Infant Toddler Sensory Profile and Child Behavior Checklist/1½-5. By using content analysis, caregivers’ open-ended responses were identified, coded, and analyzed. The frequencies of all the coded concerns and strengths were counted. The data were compared across the two age groups (<2 years and ≥2 years) and caregiver status. Caregivers (n = 117) identified numerous concerns and strengths across multiple categories. The most frequently reported concerns were related to aggressive behavior, language/communication, and sensory processing. The most frequently reported strengths were related to happiness, sociability, and love. The type of concerns and strengths reported were relatively consistent across age and caregiver status. These findings reinforce the value of caregivers’ perspectives and offer a reminder to practitioners that infants/toddlers with PAE and their caregivers have many strengths that can be harnessed, in addition to a range of challenges that must be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD))
10 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Difference in Neuropsychological Profiles of Individuals with FASD Based on the Number of Sentinel Facial Features: A Service Evaluation of the FASD UK National Clinic Database
by Bethany M. Webster, Alexandra C. S. Carlisle, Alexandra C. Livesey, Lucy R. Deeprose, Penny A. Cook and Raja A. S. Mukherjee
Children 2023, 10(2), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020266 - 31 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2292
Abstract
(1) It might be implied that those with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) with fewer sentinel facial features have a “milder” neuropsychological presentation, or present with fewer impairments than those with more sentinel facial features. The aim of this service evaluation was to [...] Read more.
(1) It might be implied that those with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) with fewer sentinel facial features have a “milder” neuropsychological presentation, or present with fewer impairments than those with more sentinel facial features. The aim of this service evaluation was to compare the neuropsychological profile of people with FASD with varying numbers of sentinel facial features. (2) A clinical sample of 150 individuals with FASD, aged between 6 and 37 years, completed various standardised assessments as part of their diagnostic profiling. These included the documented level of risk of prenatal alcohol exposure (4-Digit Diagnostic Code), sensory needs (Short Sensory Profile), cognition (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—4th Edition; WISC-IV), and communication and socialisation adaptive behaviours (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale—2nd Edition; VABS-II). As FASD has high comorbidity rates of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), these were also reviewed. The profiles of the ‘FASD with 2 or 3 sentinel facial features’ group (n = 41; 28 male, 13 female) were compared with the ‘FASD with 0 or 1 sentinel facial features’ group (n = 109; 50 male, 59 female) using Chi² tests, independent sample t-tests, and Mann-Whitney U analyses (where appropriate). (3) There were no significant differences between the two comparison groups across any measure included in this service evaluation. (4) Whilst sentinel facial features remain an important aspect in recognising FASD, our service evaluation indicates that there is no significant relationship between the number of sentinel facial features and the neuropsychological profile of people with FASD in terms of severity of presentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD))
13 pages, 1499 KiB  
Article
Development and Evaluation of a Virtual Model for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Assessment and Diagnosis in Children: A Pilot Study
by Seema King, Colleen Burns, Brent Symes, ShawnaLee Jessiman, Amber Bell and Hasu Rajani
Children 2023, 10(2), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020196 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
The diagnostic process for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) involves a multi-disciplinary team and includes neurodevelopmental, physical, and facial assessments and evidence of prenatal alcohol exposure during the index pregnancy. With the increased use of virtual care in health care due to the [...] Read more.
The diagnostic process for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) involves a multi-disciplinary team and includes neurodevelopmental, physical, and facial assessments and evidence of prenatal alcohol exposure during the index pregnancy. With the increased use of virtual care in health care due to the pandemic, and desire of clinics to be more efficient when providing timely services, there was a need to develop a virtual diagnostic model for FASD. This study develops a virtual model for the entire FASD assessment and diagnostic process, including individual neurodevelopmental assessments. It proposes a virtual model for assessment and diagnosis of FASD in children and evaluates the functionality of this model with other national and international FASD diagnostic teams and caregivers of children being assessed for FASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD))
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

11 pages, 1314 KiB  
Review
Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Sensory Processing Disorder in Children
by Lorel Breuer, Jacob R. Greenmyer and Ted Wilson
Children 2024, 11(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11010108 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1538
Abstract
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is commonly misdiagnosed because of the complexity of presentation and multiple diagnostic criteria. FASD includes four categorical entities (fetal alcohol syndrome, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder, and alcohol related birth defects). The four FASD diagnostic [...] Read more.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is commonly misdiagnosed because of the complexity of presentation and multiple diagnostic criteria. FASD includes four categorical entities (fetal alcohol syndrome, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder, and alcohol related birth defects). The four FASD diagnostic criteria are facial dysmorphology, growth deficiency, central nervous system dysfunction, and prenatal alcohol exposure. Sensory processing disorders (SPDs) are common in FASD and are observed as inappropriate behavioral responses to environmental stimuli. These can be either a sensory-based motor disorder, sensory discrimination disorder, or sensory modulation disorder. A child with SPD may experience challenges with their fine motor coordination, gross motor coordination, organizational challenges, or behavioral regulation impairments. FASD requires a multidimensional approach to intervention. Although FASD cannot be cured, symptoms can be managed with sleep-based therapies, sensory integration, and cognitive therapies. This paper reviews SPDs in FASD and the interventions that can be used by practitioners to help improve their therapeutic management, although it is unlikely that any single intervention will be the right choice for all patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD))
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 328 KiB  
Review
Birth Defects Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure—A Review
by Katarzyna Anna Dyląg, Florencia Anunziata, Gretchen Bandoli and Christina Chambers
Children 2023, 10(5), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10050811 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3433
Abstract
Since the recognition of fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol has been accepted as a human teratogen. However, little is known about the relation between prenatal alcohol exposure and the spectrum of associated major birth defects. The objective of this review was to summarize data [...] Read more.
Since the recognition of fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol has been accepted as a human teratogen. However, little is known about the relation between prenatal alcohol exposure and the spectrum of associated major birth defects. The objective of this review was to summarize data on the association of major congenital abnormalities and prenatal alcohol exposure. We included all major birth defects according to ICD-10 classification. We found that the strongest evidence to date lies in the research examining herniation (gastroschisis and omphalocele), oral clefts (cleft lip with or without palate and cleft palate) and cardiac defects. There is less consistent evidence supporting the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and anomalies of gastrointestinal system, diaphragmatic hernia, genitourinary system and neural tube defects. We found no material support for PAE and choanal atresia, biliary atresia or clubfoot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD))
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop