Risk of Metabolic, Endocrine and Cardiovascular Disorders in Children with Overnutrition and Undernutrition

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2022) | Viewed by 5373

Special Issue Editor

1. Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
2. Department of Pediatrics, Buzzi Children’s Hospital, 20157 Milano, Italy
Interests: pediatrics; pediatric endocrinology; obesity; metabolic syndrome; telemedicine; digital health; exercise; disability; preventive medicine; translational research
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As reported by the World Health Organization, child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. There is a growing body of evidence that nutritional status can both positively and negatively modulate the organ systems involved in the homeostasis of the body. Both undernutrition and overnutrition are associated with endocrinometabolic and cardiovascular derangement and pro-inflammatory processes, increasing the risk of age-related morbidity and premature mortality.  

In particular, childhood obesity, prenatal malnutrition, undernutrition, and overnutrition in children with disability and/or other chronic diseases are associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and endocrine disorders.

Healthy nutrition and physically active lifestyles are key elements to preserving health and well‐being and reducing endometabolic and cardiovascular disease risks. The early detection of comorbid conditions related to malnutrition is useful for developing personalized interventions and preserving cardiometabolic health into adulthood.

This Special Issue aims to review the risk of metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular disorders in children with overnutrition and undernutrition and the pathogenic mechanisms related to cardio-metabolic derangement. Novel therapeutic strategies and preventive interventions may ameliorate the future burden of malnutrition-related diseases in children and adolescents.

Clinicians and researchers are invited to submit relevant original articles on both clinical and research fields, narrative and systemic reviews, editorials, and case reports, to this Special Issue on the “Risk of Metabolic, Endocrine and Cardiovascular Disorders in Children with Overnutrition and Undernutrition”.

Dr. Valeria Calcaterra
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • malnutrition
  • undernutrition
  • overnutrition
  • metabolic syndrome
  • metabolic diseases
  • endocrine disorders
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • diet
  • physical activity
  • exercise
  • children
  • pediatrics
  • adolescents

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 172 KiB  
Editorial
Metabolic, Endocrine, and Cardiovascular Risks in Children with Overnutrition and Undernutrition
Children 2022, 9(7), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9070926 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1153
Abstract
Malnutrition is a severe public health issue for both children and adults [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

23 pages, 800 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Arterial Stiffness as a Useful Tool in the Management of Obese Children
Children 2023, 10(2), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020183 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1410
Abstract
Childhood obesity speeds up the development of arterial stiffness and progressively increases the values of arterial pressure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the value of using pulse wave analysis (PWA) to measure arterial stiffness as a sign of vascular wall [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity speeds up the development of arterial stiffness and progressively increases the values of arterial pressure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the value of using pulse wave analysis (PWA) to measure arterial stiffness as a sign of vascular wall impairment in obese children. The research was focused on 60 subjects: 33 obese and 27 normal-weight. Ages ranged from 6 to 18 years old. PWA includes parameters such as pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), peripheral and central blood pressure (SBP, DBP, cSBP, cDBP), heart rate, and central pulse pressure (cPP). The device used was a Mobil-O-Graph. Blood parameters were taken from the subject’s medical history, not older than 6 months. A high BMI and a large waist circumference are linked to a high PWV. The levels of LDL-c, triglycerides (TG), non-HDL-c, TG/HDL-c ratio, and total cholesterol-HDL-c ratio significantly correlate to PWV, SBP, and cSBP. Alanine aminotransferase is a reliable predictor of PWV, AIx, SBP, DBP, and cDBP, while aspartate aminotransferase is a significant predictor of AIx, mean arterial pressure (MAP), cSBP, and cPP. 25-OH-Vitamin D negatively correlates with PWV, SBP, and MAP and significantly predicts the MAP. Cortisol and TSH levels are not significant to arterial stiffness in obese children without specific comorbidities and neither is fasting glucose in obese children without impaired glucose tolerance. We conclude that PWA contributes valuable data regarding patients’ vascular health and should be considered a reliable tool in the management of obese children. Full article
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30 pages, 1398 KiB  
Article
Does a Gluten-Free Diet Affect BMI and Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes and Asymptomatic Celiac Disease? A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review
Children 2022, 9(8), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9081247 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
Background: Children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are more prone to having celiac disease (CD) than the normal population. Moreover, patients with this dual diagnosis who are also on a diabetic and gluten-free diet (GFD) risk faltering growth and uncontrolled blood [...] Read more.
Background: Children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are more prone to having celiac disease (CD) than the normal population. Moreover, patients with this dual diagnosis who are also on a diabetic and gluten-free diet (GFD) risk faltering growth and uncontrolled blood glucose levels. This review aims to assess the efficacy and effectiveness of managing patients with T1DM screened for CD with GFD to prevent complications associated with these chronic pathologies in childhood and adulthood. Materials and Methods: We abided by the PRISMA guidelines in this meta-analysis and used multiple databases and search engines. We included case–control studies. The primary outcomes were changes in the standard deviation score, body mass index (SDS BMI), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HA1C) after being on a GFD for at least twelve months. Results: The pooled data from the six studies included showed that there was neither a statistically significant difference in the mean SDS BMI (−0.28 (95% CI −0.75, 0.42)) (p = 0.24) nor in the mean of HA1C (mean −0.07 (95% CI −0.44, 0.30)) (p = 0.36) for the same group. HDL cholesterol improved significantly in patients on a strict GFD (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In children with T1DM and asymptomatic CD, being on a GFD had no significant effect on BMI or HA1C. However, it can have a protective effect on the other complications found in both chronic pathologies. Full article
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