Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 November 2022) | Viewed by 28317

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Interests: molecular biology of inherited retinal diseases and complex eye diseases; mechanisms and prevention of children eye diseases; experimental rodent models of eye diseases; ophthalmic effects of herbal and small molecules;

E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Interests: genetics, molecular genomics, diagnosis, management and treatment of genetic eye diseases; vitreo-retinal diseases; children eye diseases and traits

E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Interests: genetics, prevention, detection, and treatment of children eye diseases; mechanisms of myopia and retinoblastoma; pediatric ophthalmology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Background and history of this topic:

If not detected and properly treated, many pediatric eye diseases can lead to irreversible vision impairment, and even blindness. As a result, the life of the affected individual will be miserably disrupted. Early detection and prompt treatment are both medical and social issues, involving effort from eye care providers, especially ophthalmologists and health care providers, as well as parents.

Aim and scope of the Special Issue:

To update the current quality of screening, as well as the understanding of the causes of and treatment for specific pediatric eye diseases, with perspectives of improvements in different living environments, with specific regional challenges in the provision of ophthalmic care to children.

Cutting-edge research:

Advanced and effective methods of screening, early detection and treatment. The utilization of upfront technologies in molecular genomics and gene sequencing for gene mapping. Mechanistic studies on gene functions.

What kind of papers we are soliciting:

Research articles, reviews and perspectives.

Prof. Dr. Calvin C. P. Pang
Dr. Guy L. J. Chen
Dr. Jason C. S. Yam
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • children eye diseases
  • molecular genomics
  • eye disease genes
  • screening
  • early detection
  • management
  • novel treatment
  • prevention
  • health issues

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

2 pages, 165 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment”
by Guy L. J. Chen, Jason C. S. Yam and Calvin C. P. Pang
Children 2023, 10(4), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10040654 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
Clinical manifestations and courses of eye diseases in children are profoundly variable, from minor irritations, pain, infections, inflammations, ocular misalignment, refractive errors and visual impairment, to permanent blindness [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment)

Research

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14 pages, 1007 KiB  
Article
Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity in Preterm and Full-Term Children Using a Novel Digital Test
by María Teresa Pérez Roche, Jason C. Yam, Hu Liu, Diego Gutierrez, Chau Pham, Victoria Balasanyan, Gerardo García, Mauricio Cedillo Ley, Sandra de Fernando, Marta Ortín, Victoria Pueyo and on behalf of the TrackAI Research Consortium
Children 2023, 10(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10010087 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1963
Abstract
Visual assessment in preverbal children mostly relies on the preferential looking paradigm. It requires an experienced observer to interpret the child’s responses to a stimulus. DIVE (Device for an Integral Visual Examination) is a digital tool with an integrated eye tracker (ET) that [...] Read more.
Visual assessment in preverbal children mostly relies on the preferential looking paradigm. It requires an experienced observer to interpret the child’s responses to a stimulus. DIVE (Device for an Integral Visual Examination) is a digital tool with an integrated eye tracker (ET) that lifts this requirement and automatizes this process. The aim of our study was to assess the development of two visual functions, visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS), with DIVE, in a large sample of children from 6 months to 14 years (y) of age, and to compare the results of preterm and full-term children. Participants were recruited in clinical settings from five countries. There were 2208 children tested, 609 of them were born preterm. Both VA and CS improved throughout childhood, with the maximum increase during the first 5 years of age. Gestational age, refractive error and age had an impact on VA results, while CS values were only influenced by age. With this study we report normative reference outcomes for VA and CS throughout childhood and validate the DIVE tests as a useful tool to measure basic visual functions in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment)
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11 pages, 1952 KiB  
Article
Molecular Genetic Analysis of Ukrainian Families with Congenital Cataracts
by Xiaodong Jiao, Mariia Viswanathan, Nadiia Fedorivna Bobrova, Tatiana Viktorivna Romanova and J. Fielding Hejtmancik
Children 2023, 10(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10010051 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1422
Abstract
This study was designed to identify the pathogenic variants in five Ukrainian families with autosomal dominant congenital cataracts. Cataracts can be defined broadly as any opacity of the crystalline lens. Lens development is orchestrated by transcription factors. Disease-causing variants in transcription factors and [...] Read more.
This study was designed to identify the pathogenic variants in five Ukrainian families with autosomal dominant congenital cataracts. Cataracts can be defined broadly as any opacity of the crystalline lens. Lens development is orchestrated by transcription factors. Disease-causing variants in transcription factors and their developmental target genes, including the lens crystallins, are associated with congenital cataracts and other eye diseases. Whole-exome sequencing identified heterozygous disease-causing variants in five Ukrainian families with autosomal dominant congenital cataracts and cosegregation with cataracts was confirmed using Sanger sequencing. Family 97001 showed a missense variant (c.341T>A: p.L114Q) in HSF4; family 97003 showed a missense variant (c.53A>T: p.N18I) in CRYGA; family 97004 showed a missense variant (c. 82G>A: p.V28M) in GJA3; family 97006 showed a missense variant (c.83C>T: p. P28L) in CRYGC; and family 97008 showed a single-base insertion resulting in a frameshift (c.443_444insA: p. Met148IfsTer51) in PAX6. All five families are associated with congenital cataracts. Overall, we report four novel mutations in HSF4, CRYGA, CRYGC and PAX6, and one previously reported mutation in GJA3 that cause autosomal dominant congenital cataracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment)
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14 pages, 1471 KiB  
Article
Clinical Congenital Anophthalmos and Microphthalmos—Experiences of Patients and Their Parents after More than 10 Years of Treatment
by Stefanie Frech, Markus Schulze Schwering, Michael P. Schittkowski and Rudolf F. Guthoff
Children 2023, 10(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10010034 - 24 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1266
Abstract
Congenital clinical anophthalmos and blind microphthalmos describe the absence of an eye or the presence of a small eye in the orbit. Between 1999 and 2013, 97 children with anophthalmos or microphthalmos were treated with self-inflating, hydrophilic gel expanders at the Rostock Eye [...] Read more.
Congenital clinical anophthalmos and blind microphthalmos describe the absence of an eye or the presence of a small eye in the orbit. Between 1999 and 2013, 97 children with anophthalmos or microphthalmos were treated with self-inflating, hydrophilic gel expanders at the Rostock Eye Clinic. More than a decade later, this study investigated the perspective of patients and parents regarding the treatment, the surgical outcome, and the emotional and social well-being of the patients. A total of 22 families with 16 patients sighted in the other eye and six patients blind in both eyes participated. Questionnaires were developed, including items on physical, emotional, social, and medical aspects. The patients felt emotionally stable and integrated into their social environment, with no major limitations reported by the majority. These statements were confirmed by most of the parents. Parents (67%) indicated that the success of the operation was already apparent after the first intervention and that the current situation did not play a role in the patients’ social environment. The study provided new insights into the therapy results, the postoperative care, and the social and emotional stability of the prosthesis-wearing patients, indicating the chosen expander methods as promising in terms of positive postoperative care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment)
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12 pages, 1220 KiB  
Article
Social, Educational and Medical Aspects after Cataract Surgery of Bilaterally Blind Children in Kinshasa—Perception of Parents and Children
by Stefanie Frech, Adrian Hopkins, Astrid Moanda, Janvier Kilangalanga and Rudolf F. Guthoff
Children 2022, 9(11), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111683 - 02 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
The study investigated the influence of bilateral cataract surgery on the social and educational development of previously bilaterally blind children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where the prevalence of blindness due to cataract is higher than in high-income countries. The views of both, parents [...] Read more.
The study investigated the influence of bilateral cataract surgery on the social and educational development of previously bilaterally blind children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where the prevalence of blindness due to cataract is higher than in high-income countries. The views of both, parents and children, were evaluated with structured interviews based on a newly developed questionnaire related to surgery, follow-up, and family life after surgery. The mean age of the children at interview was 14.4 ± 8.1 years, with 27 females and 26 males. Satisfaction with the outcome of the surgery was reported by 91% of parents. Parents would recommend surgery, because of the children being happy and able to act more independently, with personal, educational and familial factors essentially contributing to the reported satisfaction. The results also showed that 85.0% of children did not wear eyeglasses. Reasons given were mainly cost-related, but also included limited communication between families and health institutions. Providing and maintaining a high-quality and accessible pediatric cataract surgery and healthcare service for follow-up is a major requisite to reduce childhood blindness in SSA. Our study proved the necessity and effectiveness of a community-based rehabilitation program that cares about each individual child, whatever his or her social background. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment)
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11 pages, 1316 KiB  
Article
Reliability of Smart Phone Photographs for School Eye Screening
by Rajat M. Srivastava, Suchi Verma, Shubham Gupta, Apjit Kaur, Shally Awasthi and Siddharth Agrawal
Children 2022, 9(10), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9101519 - 04 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1802
Abstract
Smartphone photographs capturing Bruckner’s reflex have demonstrated reliability in identifying amblyogenic conditions in children. Assessing visual acuity for screening has been the traditional method since the inception of school screening. The present study aims to assess the reliability of smartphone photographs in detecting [...] Read more.
Smartphone photographs capturing Bruckner’s reflex have demonstrated reliability in identifying amblyogenic conditions in children. Assessing visual acuity for screening has been the traditional method since the inception of school screening. The present study aims to assess the reliability of smartphone photographs in detecting ocular morbidities in school children and to compare it with traditional vision screening. Two thousand five hundred and twenty school children underwent vision screening and smartphone cameraphotography by a trained research assistant followed by a comprehensive eye examination of all children by an ophthalmologist. Children with unaided visual acuity less than 6/12 in either of the eyes were graded as abnormal. Based upon the characteristics of the Bruckner’s reflex, the photographs were graded as normal or abnormal by two investigators blinded to the clinical findings. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of traditional vision screening and photograph based screening, considering comprehensive eye examination as the gold standard. The sensitivity and specificity of vision screening was 81.88% and 97.35% whereas for photographs it was 94.69% and 98.85% respectively. When the two methods were compared, the p value was <0.05. We conclude that smartphone photography is better than traditional vision screening for detecting ocular morbidities in school children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment)
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13 pages, 870 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Efficacy of the Combination of Active Vision Therapy and Occlusion in Children with Strabismic and Anisometropic Amblyopia
by Myriam Milla, Ainhoa Molina-Martín and David P. Piñero
Children 2022, 9(7), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9071012 - 07 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2636
Abstract
This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the combined treatment of occlusion and active vision therapy in a total of 27 amblyopic children, including 14 strabismic and 13 anisometropic cases. For such purpose, changes in distance and near visual acuity [...] Read more.
This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the combined treatment of occlusion and active vision therapy in a total of 27 amblyopic children, including 14 strabismic and 13 anisometropic cases. For such purpose, changes in distance and near visual acuity as well as in the binocular function was evaluated during a two-year follow-up. In both amblyopia groups, significant improvements were found in distance and near visual acuity in the non-dominant eye (p < 0.001). In the strabismic amblyopia group, the percentage of patients with binocular function score (BF) > 3.3 decreased significantly from a baseline value of 64.3% to a two-year follow-up value of 7.1% (p < 0.001). In the anisometropic amblyopia group, this percentage also decreased significantly from a baseline value of 15.4% to a two-year follow-up value of 0.0% (p < 0.001). No recurrences were observed in the anisometropic amblyopia group, whereas recurrence occurred in two cases of the strabismic amblyopia group after finishing the vision rehabilitation process. In conclusion, the combined approach of the treatment evaluated is efficacious for providing an improvement in visual acuity and binocular function in both anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia, which was maintained over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment)
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9 pages, 217 KiB  
Article
Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity in Twins: The Small Twin without High Birth Weight Discordant Is Not at Increased Risk
by Enzhong Jin, Zongyi Wang, Lu Yao, Hong Yin and Mingwei Zhao
Children 2022, 9(6), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9060891 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Purpose: As common retinopathy is observed in low-birth infants, the characteristics of ROP in twins are worth exploring. The present study tried to demonstrate the risk factors of treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in twins both diagnosed with ROP. Methods: A retrospective, [...] Read more.
Purpose: As common retinopathy is observed in low-birth infants, the characteristics of ROP in twins are worth exploring. The present study tried to demonstrate the risk factors of treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in twins both diagnosed with ROP. Methods: A retrospective, institution-based cohort study of 62 premature ROP twin pairs with a mean gestational age (GA) younger than 35 weeks and a birth weight (BW) lower than 2500 g. Only infants with a follow-up period longer than 6 months and complete treatment records were included. The demographic data, treatment requirements and further rescue treatments were all collected and analyzed for all infants according to whether they accepted treatments. Moreover, all twin infants were divided into small and large twin groups according to birth weight, and they were also categorized as three groups according to the treatment requirement including both twins receiving treatment (BT group), one of the twins receiving treatment (ST group) and none of the twins receiving treatment (NT group). Comparisons of demographic data, treatment requirements and further rescue treatments were all conducted according to the different grouping methods. Results: The mean GA of the enrolled infants was (29.29 ± 2.45) weeks with a mean BW of (1335.77 ± 390.36) grams. Among them, 110 infants were mechanically ventilated. Fifty-one of the infants did not receive any treatment and 73 infants received laser or intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF agents. In total, 64 infants only underwent intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF agents or laser treatment, while the other nine infants received scleral buckling or vitrectomy as a necessary treatment when the retinal detachment was observed. No significantly different mechanical ventilation or treatment requirements could be observed between the small twin group and the large twin group (p = 0.73, 0.94). The twins in the BT groups showed the lowest BW, while the NT group infants had the highest BW. The GA for the BT, ST and NT groups were (27.86 ± 1.87) weeks, (29.60 ± 1.52) weeks and (31.33 ± 2.39) weeks, respectively, and showed significant differences as well (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Being a small twin in twin-paired ROP without a high BW discordant will not increase the risk for treatment requirement or additional surgery necessity with a much more severe stage of ROP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment)

Review

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17 pages, 1779 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Genetic Landscape of Childhood Glaucoma
by Yang Pan and Takeshi Iwata
Children 2024, 11(4), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11040454 - 09 Apr 2024
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Childhood glaucoma, a significant cause of global blindness, represents a heterogeneous group of disorders categorized into primary or secondary forms. Primary childhood glaucoma stands as the most prevalent subtype, comprising primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) and juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG). Presently, multiple genes are [...] Read more.
Childhood glaucoma, a significant cause of global blindness, represents a heterogeneous group of disorders categorized into primary or secondary forms. Primary childhood glaucoma stands as the most prevalent subtype, comprising primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) and juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG). Presently, multiple genes are implicated in inherited forms of primary childhood glaucoma. This comprehensive review delves into genetic investigations into primary childhood glaucoma, with a focus on identifying causative genes, understanding their inheritance patterns, exploring essential biological pathways in disease pathogenesis, and utilizing animal models to study these mechanisms. Specifically, attention is directed towards genes such as CYP1B1 (cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily B member 1), LTBP2 (latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 2), TEK (TEK receptor tyrosine kinase), ANGPT1 (angiopoietin 1), and FOXC1 (forkhead box C1), all associated with PCG; and MYOC (myocilin), associated with JOAG. Through exploring these genetic factors, this review aims to deepen our understanding of the intricate pathogenesis of primary childhood glaucoma, thereby facilitating the development of enhanced diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment)
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22 pages, 1070 KiB  
Review
Pediatric Glaucoma—From Screening, Early Detection to Management
by Ruyue Shen, Venice S. W. Li, Mandy O. M. Wong and Poemen P. M. Chan
Children 2023, 10(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020181 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3015
Abstract
Pediatric glaucoma (PG) covers a rare and heterogeneous group of diseases with variable causes and presentations. Delayed diagnosis of PG could lead to blindness, bringing emotional and psychological burdens to patients’ caregivers. Recent genetic studies identified novel causative genes, which may provide new [...] Read more.
Pediatric glaucoma (PG) covers a rare and heterogeneous group of diseases with variable causes and presentations. Delayed diagnosis of PG could lead to blindness, bringing emotional and psychological burdens to patients’ caregivers. Recent genetic studies identified novel causative genes, which may provide new insight into the etiology of PG. More effective screening strategies could be beneficial for timely diagnosis and treatment. New findings on clinical characteristics and the latest examination instruments have provided additional evidence for diagnosing PG. In addition to IOP-lowering therapy, managing concomitant amblyopia and other associated ocular pathologies is essential to achieve a better visual outcome. Surgical treatment is usually required although medication is often used before surgery. These include angle surgeries, filtering surgeries, minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries, cyclophotocoagulation, and deep sclerectomy. Several advanced surgical therapies have been developed to increase success rates and decrease postoperative complications. Here, we review the classification and diagnosis, etiology, screening, clinical characteristics, examinations, and management of PG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment)
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11 pages, 1160 KiB  
Review
Diagnosis and Management of Keratoconus—A Narrative Review of Clinicians’ Perspectives
by Minji Song, Tanya Chen, Adam Moktar, Elsie Chan, Elaine W Chong, Mark Daniell and Srujana Sahebjada
Children 2022, 9(12), 1973; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9121973 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
This review discusses the current practices, attitudes, and trends in diagnosing and managing keratoconus (KC) in adults and children by optometrists and ophthalmologists in order to highlight the differences on a global scale. Two independent reviewers searched the electronic databases and grey literature [...] Read more.
This review discusses the current practices, attitudes, and trends in diagnosing and managing keratoconus (KC) in adults and children by optometrists and ophthalmologists in order to highlight the differences on a global scale. Two independent reviewers searched the electronic databases and grey literature for all potential articles published from 1 January 2000 to 1 June 2022 on management of KC. Keywords used in searches included “keratoconus”, “diagnosis”, “management”, “treatment”, “attitude”, “practices”, “opinion”, “optometrist”, “ophthalmologist”, “consensus”, and “protocol”. A total of 19 articles was included in this review—12 from the database search and seven from the grey literature. Although a common stepwise approach of non-surgical management was noted, there were differences in the rates of prescribing rigid gas permeable lenses. Furthermore, while clinicians agreed on the need for early diagnosis, the timeline and type of referral varied significantly. A similar discordance was found in the milestones for surgical intervention and preferred surgical techniques. Practice patterns in keratoconus diagnosis and management vary throughout the world. Multiple recommendations and suggestions to minimise the differences have been provided in the literature, with the main themes being improvement in education, interdisciplinary patient care, and further research to reach consensus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment)
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17 pages, 347 KiB  
Review
Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Pediatric Ocular Diseases
by Matthew Lam and Donny Suh
Children 2022, 9(12), 1939; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9121939 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2707
Abstract
Vision is an important aspect of a child’s quality of life and intellectual, social, and emotional development. Disruptions to vision during infancy and early childhood can cause lifelong vision impairment or blindness. However, early identification and treatment of eye disease can prevent loss [...] Read more.
Vision is an important aspect of a child’s quality of life and intellectual, social, and emotional development. Disruptions to vision during infancy and early childhood can cause lifelong vision impairment or blindness. However, early identification and treatment of eye disease can prevent loss of sight and its consequent long-term effects. Therefore, screening guidelines exist to guide physicians in detecting the most common threats to sight in the different stages of infancy and childhood. This review describes common causes of pediatric vision impairment, the recommended screening guidelines for diagnosing them, and current treatment modalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment)
13 pages, 2226 KiB  
Review
Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles: An Overview from Genetics to Management
by Weiyi Xia, Yan Wei, Lianqun Wu and Chen Zhao
Children 2022, 9(11), 1605; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111605 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2485
Abstract
Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) is a genetic disorder belonging to the congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders and is characterized by nonprogressive restrictive ophthalmoplegia. It is phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous. At least seven causative genes and one locus are responsible for the [...] Read more.
Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) is a genetic disorder belonging to the congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders and is characterized by nonprogressive restrictive ophthalmoplegia. It is phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous. At least seven causative genes and one locus are responsible for the five subtypes, named CFEOM-1 to CFEOM-5. This review summarizes the currently available molecular genetic findings and genotype–phenotype correlations, as well as the advances in the management of CFEOM. We propose that the classification of the disorder could be optimized to provide better guidance for clinical interventions. Finally, we discuss the future of genetic-diagnosis-directed studies to better understand such axon guidance disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment)
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7 pages, 227 KiB  
Review
Let Us Avoid a ‘Myopic View’ in Times of COVID-19
by Lai Yien, Katherine Lun and Cheryl Ngo
Children 2022, 9(8), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9081125 - 28 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1459
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected people from almost all facets of life and it’s impact is extremely palpable among students. In this review paper, we discuss about the risk factors for myopia progression that were exacerbated by the pandemic, which are supported by [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected people from almost all facets of life and it’s impact is extremely palpable among students. In this review paper, we discuss about the risk factors for myopia progression that were exacerbated by the pandemic, which are supported by evidence from studies published recently. It is imperative that measures are put in place to address the rising incidence of myopia so as to prevent the impending myopia pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment)

Other

10 pages, 937 KiB  
Data Descriptor
Prevalence of Computer Vision Syndrome among School-Age Children during the COVID-19 Pandemic, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Survey
by Ismail Abuallut, Reham E. Ajeebi, Alanoud Y. Bahari, Manal A. Abudeyah, Atheer A. Alyamani, Atyaf J. Zurayyir, Abdulkareem H. Alharbi, Abdullah A. Al Faqih, Abdullatif Z. Suwaydi, Maram I. Alqasemi, Bushra A. Alnami and Khaled Jamaan Al Zahrani
Children 2022, 9(11), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111718 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3000
Abstract
Background: Computer vision syndrome (CVS) can be described as ocular-related symptoms that result from prolonged exposure and use of computers, smartphones, tablets, and other devices with digital displays. The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CVS among school-age [...] Read more.
Background: Computer vision syndrome (CVS) can be described as ocular-related symptoms that result from prolonged exposure and use of computers, smartphones, tablets, and other devices with digital displays. The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CVS among school-age children, the associated signs, risk factors, and the association between the disease before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional research design. The targeted population was school-going children aged 6 to 18 in the Jazan region in the Southwest of Saudi Arabia. A sample of 440 participants was selected to represent the population under study. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Sociodemographic characteristics were recorded, such as age, gender, education level, parents’ education, occupation, frequency, and intensity of eye symptoms if present. Results: Most of the participants were adolescents between 16 and 18 and at a high-school education level. According to the total symptoms score, the CVS prevalence was 35.4%. Prevalence of CVS significantly affects age, gender, and school level (p < 0.05 for all). A similar significant association was reported between the symptoms experienced before and during COVID-19 and the CVS (p < 0.05). Conclusion: A total of 407 adolescents aged 16–18 responded to the questionnaire (response rate of 92.5%; 407 out of 440). The study estimated the prevalence of CVS among school-going children in Jazan to be low. The main signs associated with CVS included headache, tearing, itchiness, blurred vision, eye redness, eye pain, and dryness. The attitude of children toward their health condition during the COVID-19 pandemic and the prevalence of CVS have a significant relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Eye Disease: Screening, Causes and Treatment)
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