Advance Research in Pediatric Dental Disease

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Pediatric Dentistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2022) | Viewed by 31965

Special Issue Editors

Director, Post-Graduated School in Pediatric Dentistry, Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, University of Milan, 20142 Milan, Italy
Interests: pediatric dentistry; community dentistry; caries prevention; oral health promotion; caries epidemiology; oral health of special needs children
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pediatric dentistry is taking on an increasingly important role in the dental scenario. Today, advanced pediatric dental research has a very wide spectrum, offering, on one hand, evidence on the efficacy of innovative technologies and, on the other, data on how traditional therapies are still extremely relevant. This is true for different topics within pediatric dentistry, such as children’s growth and development, behavior management in the dental environment, oral disease diagnosis, prevention and treatment, and all issues related to special needs children. However, many areas of research on pediatric dentistry still remain to be explored.

Some of the areas that need to be further investigated in the scientific world include:

  • New re-mineralizing agents for non-invasive treatment of early and advanced caries lesions, especially in young and children with special needs;
  • Bioactive materials and their application in endodontic and restorative therapies;
  • The role of functional foods and nutraceuticals to maintain and promote child oral health;
  • Preventive orthodontic treatments and advanced behavioral management and painless cares.

Another field of pediatric dentistry that should be explored with more attention is adolescence. Adolescence is a period of life in which the child begins to detach from the parental sphere with a consequent change in habits and/or lifestyles that could represent a risk to oral health. Teenagers should therefore be studied in order to promote a healthy lifestyle, important to help an adolescent to develop into a healthy adult subject.

Papers addressing these topics are invited to be submitted for this Special Issue, including systematic reviews, protocol papers, clinical trials, and observational studies.

Prof. Dr. Maria Grazia Cagetti
Prof. Dr. Guglielmo Campus
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • oral health promotion and prevention in children
  • caries prevention and management
  • re-mineralizing agents
  • special needs children
  • adolescents
  • bioactive materials

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 190 KiB  
Editorial
The Future of Pediatric Dentistry Is Now
Children 2023, 10(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10010097 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2207
Abstract
For decades, pediatric dentistry was considered the Cinderella of all dental disciplines [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Research in Pediatric Dental Disease)

Research

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12 pages, 1835 KiB  
Article
Morphologic Mandibular Bone Changes on Panoramic Radiographs of Children and Adolescents with Congenital Heart Disease
Children 2023, 10(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020227 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1307
Abstract
Congenital heart disease (CHD) has effects on growth and development. However, information on how the structure of the mandibular bone is affected is limited. In the present study, we aim to compare mandibular bone structures of children affected with CHD and healthy ones [...] Read more.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) has effects on growth and development. However, information on how the structure of the mandibular bone is affected is limited. In the present study, we aim to compare mandibular bone structures of children affected with CHD and healthy ones through the fractal analysis method and radiomorphometric indices based on panoramic radiographs. The study consisted of 80 children (20 with cyanotic CHD, 20 with acyanotic CHD, 40 control) who were diagnosed with CHD and were treated through interventional therapy or followed up through medical therapy. Fractal dimension (FD) was performed in three different areas (angulus, corpus, and interdental bone) on 80 panoramic radiographs. Additionally, we assessed various radiomorphometric indices: mandibular cortical width (MCW), panoramic mandibular index (PMI), mandibular cortical index (MCI), and simple visual estimation (SVE). p < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant in the analysis. Values of mean MCW, PMI, MCI, SVE, and FD measurements in children affected with CHD were found to be similar to the control group, regardless of whether they were cyanotic or acyanotic (p > 0.05). In this study, fractal analysis and radiomorphometric indices revealed no trabecular structure and mineral density changes in mandibular bone of children and adolescents with CHD compared to healthy subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Research in Pediatric Dental Disease)
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11 pages, 588 KiB  
Article
Dental and Dental Hygiene Students’ Knowledge and Capacity to Discriminate the Developmental Defects of Enamel: A Self-Submitted Questionnaire Survey
Children 2022, 9(11), 1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111759 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1507
Abstract
Background: A prompt and accurate diagnosis of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) is mandatory for proper treatment management. This cross-sectional survey, designed and carried out using anonymous self-administered questionnaires, aimed to assess dental and dental hygiene students’ knowledge and their capability to [...] Read more.
Background: A prompt and accurate diagnosis of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) is mandatory for proper treatment management. This cross-sectional survey, designed and carried out using anonymous self-administered questionnaires, aimed to assess dental and dental hygiene students’ knowledge and their capability to identify different enamel development defects. Methods: The questionnaire consisted of twenty-eight closed-ended questions. Two different samples of undergraduate students were selected and enrolled: a group of dental hygiene (GDH) students and a group of dental (GD) students. A multivariate logistic regression was performed by adopting the correct answers as explanatory variables to assess the difference between the two groups. Results: Overall, 301 completed questionnaires were analyzed: 157 from the GDH and 144 from the GD. The dental student group showed better knowledge than the GDH of enamel hypomineralization and hypoplasia (p = 0.03 for both). A quarter (25.25%) of the total sample correctly identified the period of development of dental fluorosis with a statistically significant difference between the groups (p < 0.01). Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) was identified as a genetic disease by 64.45% of the sample, with a better performance from the GD (p = 0.01), while no statistical differences were found between the groups regarding molar incisor hypomineralization. Multivariate analysis showed that AI (OR = 0.40, [0.23;0.69], p < 0.01) and caries lesion (OR = 0.58, [0.34;0.94], p = 0.03) were better recognized by the GD. Conclusions: Disparities exist in the knowledge and management of DDE among dental and dental hygiene students in Italy; however, significant knowledge gaps were found in both groups. Education on the diagnosis and treatment of DDE during the training for dental and dental hygiene students needs to be strongly implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Research in Pediatric Dental Disease)
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12 pages, 652 KiB  
Article
Correlation between BMI and Oral Health Status (DMFT, PI, mSBI, and Salivary 1,5-AG) among the Pediatric Population in Saudi Arabia: A Clinico-Biochemical Study
Children 2022, 9(7), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9071017 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2293
Abstract
The study aimed to investigate the association of varying body mass index (BMI) with oral health status among children aged 5–14 years and correlate the concentration of salivary levels of 1,5-AG with varying BMI, dental caries, and periodontal disease. This cross-sectional study was [...] Read more.
The study aimed to investigate the association of varying body mass index (BMI) with oral health status among children aged 5–14 years and correlate the concentration of salivary levels of 1,5-AG with varying BMI, dental caries, and periodontal disease. This cross-sectional study was conducted on subjects aged 5 to 14 years. The children were recruited from the Pediatric Dental Clinic, College of Dentistry, Majmaah University, by convenient sampling method. Sociodemographic details and clinical parameters, including body mass index (BMI), DMFT/def (deciduous decayed tooth (d), deciduous extracted tooth (e), deciduous filled tooth (f), permanent tooth decayed (D), permanent missing tooth (M), and permanent filled tooth (F)), plaque index (PI), and modified sulcular bleeding index (mSBI), were evaluated. Salivary 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for all the subjects. Statistical analyses performed using SPSS v. 27 (IBM Statistics, Chicago, IL, USA) and the Kruskal–Wallis and chi-square tests were used for comparisons. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to examine the association between the study subjects’ independent variables, BMI, and caries activity. The mean def score, PI, and mSBI scores were higher in obese children. PI score, mSBI score, and salivary concentrations of 1,5-AG between the BMI categories were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The study emphasizes promoting preventive oral health regimes, health awareness campaigns, and nutritional educational programs among the pediatric population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Research in Pediatric Dental Disease)
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11 pages, 487 KiB  
Article
Use of Visual Pedagogy to Help Children with ASDs Facing the First Dental Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Children 2022, 9(5), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9050729 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders that don’t have a direct effect on oral health, but severe difficulties in oral hygiene and dental procedures expose people with ASDs to an increased risk of oral diseases. This RCT aimed to evaluate which pedagogical [...] Read more.
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders that don’t have a direct effect on oral health, but severe difficulties in oral hygiene and dental procedures expose people with ASDs to an increased risk of oral diseases. This RCT aimed to evaluate which pedagogical tool was the best to prepare children with ASDs for their first dental examination, either video or photo aids. Two different criteria were used to evaluate their efficacy: the achieved steps into which the procedure was divided (n = 8), and the level of cooperation according to the Frankl Behavioral Scale. One hundred-thirteen subjects were randomly assigned to the two groups and 84 subjects completed the trial (Video group n = 41; Photo group n = 43). A predictive model for the achievement of the Preliminary (1–4) or Dental (4–8) steps was performed using a multivariate logistic regression procedure. Children in the Video group achieved more steps, but the comparison between groups was statistically significant only for the Preliminary steps (p = 0.04). The percentage of subjects judged as cooperating was similar in the two groups. The results of this study underline that behavioural intervention should be used as an effective strategy to prepare subjects with ASDs for a dental examination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Research in Pediatric Dental Disease)
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9 pages, 601 KiB  
Article
Comparative Assessment of Retention and Caries Protective Effectiveness of a Hydrophilic and a Conventional Sealant—A Clinical Trial
Children 2022, 9(5), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9050646 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
Sealants are highly efficient and the most secure method for the prevention of caries lesions from pits and fissures in recently erupted permanent teeth. The aim of this study is to clinically assess and compare the retention and evolution of caries of a [...] Read more.
Sealants are highly efficient and the most secure method for the prevention of caries lesions from pits and fissures in recently erupted permanent teeth. The aim of this study is to clinically assess and compare the retention and evolution of caries of a moisture-tolerant resin-based sealant with a conventional hydrophobic resin-based sealant. Material and method: We have included in the study 28 children with between 6 and 8 years old. For each child we sealed 4 permanent molars (a total of 112 teeth). The study group was divided into two subgroups: the Embrace Group—consisting of 56 first permanent molars that underwent dental sealing with moisture-tolerant resin-based fissure sealant (Embrace™ WetBond™ Pulpdent, Watertown, MA, USA) and the Helioseal Group—represented by the same number of 56 first permanent molars that were sealed with conventional hydrophobic resin-based sealant (Helioseal F™, Ivoclar Vivadent Schaan, Liechtenstein). The retention and the incidence of new carious lesions of each sealant were assessed clinically at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Results: The 12-month follow-up assessment showed perfect integrity in 50 molars (89.28%) sealed with moisture-tolerant resin-based material (Embrace Group), and in 51 molars (91.07%) with conventional resin-based sealant (Helioseal Group). At the 24-month recall, the retention was maintained in 44 molars (78.57%) in the Embrace Group and in 45 molars (80.35%) in the Helioseal Group, respectively. The follow-up assessments showed no statistically significant differences (p > 0.5) between the two materials regarding sealant retention. First evidence of new carious lesions was present at 12 months on two molars sealed with Embrace WetBond and on one molar sealed with Helioseal. At the 24-month evaluation, the prevalence of caries in the Embrace Group was 7.14% (four caries) and 3.56% (two caries) in the Helioseal Group. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two materials regarding new caries development at any of the follow-up assessments. Conclusions: Moisture-tolerant resin-based sealant was effective in terms of retention and caries prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Research in Pediatric Dental Disease)
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15 pages, 865 KiB  
Article
Hypnosis and Sedation for Anxious Children Undergoing Dental Treatment: A Retrospective Practice-Based Longitudinal Study
Children 2022, 9(5), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9050611 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2459
Abstract
To assess whether the treatment of children with oral midazolam and pediatric hypnosis techniques can improve the compliance in consecutive sessions, a retrospective longitudinal practice-based observational study was designed and carried out. A total of 311 children between 3 and 12 years of [...] Read more.
To assess whether the treatment of children with oral midazolam and pediatric hypnosis techniques can improve the compliance in consecutive sessions, a retrospective longitudinal practice-based observational study was designed and carried out. A total of 311 children between 3 and 12 years of age were treated under hypnosis and sedation with midazolam (0.40 mg/kg body weight). Treatments were performed in one to a maximum of three sessions. A total of 183 children received one, 103 received two and 25 children received three treatment sessions. The behavior of the children during the sessions was examined by means of the Venham score. The self-evaluation of the children was based on the Wong–Baker Scale. Child behavior using midazolam and hypnosis techniques showed little difference and good compliance between the sessions. Venham scores did not increase significantly regarding total treatment from the first (0.99 ± 1.41) to the second (1.17 ± 1.39) and to the third session (1.27 ± 1.20) (p > 0.05). However, considering the highest Venham scores that occurred in each case, the behavior of the children worsened significantly (p < 0.01) during the three treatment sessions, from 1.37 ± 1.31 (first) to 1.87 ± 1.74 (second) to 2.32 ± 1.33 (third). In 6.11% of the children, treatment was discontinued in the first session (n = 19), 0.96% in the second (n = 3) and 0% in the third. Treatment with low-dose midazolam, combined with hypnosis techniques, showed to be an effective option for dental treatment in children. Within the limitations of the current study, and with consideration of highest possible compliance, no more than two treatment sessions for pediatric dental treatment should be performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Research in Pediatric Dental Disease)
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14 pages, 649 KiB  
Article
One-Year Clinical Performance of Activa™ Bioactive-Restorative Composite in Primary Molars
Children 2022, 9(3), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9030433 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 4074
Abstract
Restorative procedures for caries affecting primary molars are a daily challenge for pediatric dentistry, and one of the main factors influencing the results of these restorative procedures is the choice of dental material used: bioactive materials were recently introduced, combining the strength of [...] Read more.
Restorative procedures for caries affecting primary molars are a daily challenge for pediatric dentistry, and one of the main factors influencing the results of these restorative procedures is the choice of dental material used: bioactive materials were recently introduced, combining the strength of composites and the benefits of glass ionomers. The present study’s objective is to clinically evaluate the aesthetic, functional and biological properties of Activa™ Bioactive composite in approximal and occlusal carious lesions for 1 year using the FDI criteria for evaluating direct dental restorations. Forty-five children with occlusal or approximal caries in first or second primary molars were included in the study: the cavities were then randomized to be restored with either Activa BioActive or SDR Bulk-fill and evaluated over time according to Federation Dentaire Internationale (FDI) criteria. Results showed that Activa BioActive composite has similar performance over time compared to Bulk-fill composite, for both functional and aesthetic properties. Thus, within the limitations of this study, including the short follow-up period, it can be concluded that bioactive materials might be the material of choice to restore primary molars. A longer follow-up period is desirable to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Research in Pediatric Dental Disease)
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7 pages, 558 KiB  
Article
Sensory-Adapted Dental Environment for the Treatment of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Children 2022, 9(3), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9030393 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3100
Abstract
Purpose: The importance of dental care and oral hygiene is often underestimated in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Comorbidity with dental anxiety is greater in ASD subjects who also show unusual reactions to sensory stimuli. The aim of our study was to [...] Read more.
Purpose: The importance of dental care and oral hygiene is often underestimated in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Comorbidity with dental anxiety is greater in ASD subjects who also show unusual reactions to sensory stimuli. The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy for a sensory-adapted environment and targeted methods in reducing anxiety and positively influencing cooperation in children with ASD during a dental examination or specific treatments. Material and methods: The sample consisted of 50 Italian children with a diagnosis of ASD (36 males and 14 females; aged 9–10 years) presenting with mild intellectual disability (ID) and verbal language skills. The subjects enrolled in the study had at least two decayed teeth and all were treated in two different dental environments: regular dental environment (RDE) and sensory-adapted dental environment (SADE). Results: 20% of the sample was successfully treated in RDE, while 68% of subjects were successfully treated in SADE. Conclusions: Results suggest that a sensory-adapted environment positively affects the therapeutic dental treatment in patients with ASD and reaffirm that sensory dysregulation in children with ASD is a crucial factor influencing the successful outcome of oral care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Research in Pediatric Dental Disease)
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10 pages, 3757 KiB  
Article
Structural Changes in Primary Teeth of Diabetic Children: Composition and Ultrastructure Analysis
Children 2022, 9(3), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9030317 - 26 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2487
Abstract
Diabetes affects the developing enamel by altering the mineralization process, which can have a detrimental effect on oral health. The objectives of this study were to examine the ultrastructure and composition of surface enamel in primary teeth of diabetic children and its clinical [...] Read more.
Diabetes affects the developing enamel by altering the mineralization process, which can have a detrimental effect on oral health. The objectives of this study were to examine the ultrastructure and composition of surface enamel in primary teeth of diabetic children and its clinical implications. Hundred extracted primary teeth from diabetic children (Test group: n = 50) and healthy children (Control group: n = 50), between 6 and 12 years of age, were subjected to scanning electron microscopy to qualitatively examine the enamel surface. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis was performed to investigate the mass percentage of calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) in the surface enamel. Ultrastructural aberrations of surface enamel were observed in the test group teeth. Additionally, prism perforations were seen at the junction of rod and inter-rod enamel and the prisms were loosely packed. An even aprismatic layer of surface enamel was evident in the control group teeth. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) of Ca and P mass percentage between the test and control group teeth. The mean mass percentage rates of Ca and P were 33.75% and 16.76%, respectively. A poor surface characteristic and elemental composition of the enamel surface of primary teeth is observed in diabetic children. Therefore, appropriate caries preventive measures are mandatory to maintain the structural integrity of the tooth in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Research in Pediatric Dental Disease)
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7 pages, 4309 KiB  
Article
Fracture Resistance of Primary Zirconia Crowns: An In Vitro Study
Children 2022, 9(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9010077 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the fracture resistance of three commercially available prefabricated primary zirconia crowns and their correlation with dimensional variance. Methods: a total of 42 zirconia crowns were selected from three companies, (1) NuSmile primary zirconia crowns, (2) Cheng Crowns zirconia, [...] Read more.
In this study, we evaluated the fracture resistance of three commercially available prefabricated primary zirconia crowns and their correlation with dimensional variance. Methods: a total of 42 zirconia crowns were selected from three companies, (1) NuSmile primary zirconia crowns, (2) Cheng Crowns zirconia, and (3) Sprig EZ crowns. The crowns were divided into two groups based on their location in the oral cavity and further divided into subgroups based on the brand. All of the samples were subjected to fracture tests using a universal testing machine. Results: the mean load observed was highest with Cheng Crowns zirconia anterior crowns (1355 ± 484) and the least load was seen with Sprig EZ anterior crowns with a mean load of 339 ± 94. The mean load observed was highest with Cheng Crowns zirconia posterior crowns (1990 ± 485) followed by NuSmile posterior crowns and the least load was seen with Sprig EZ posterior crowns with a mean load of 661 ± 184. Conclusion: the Cheng crowns showed the highest fracture resistance amongst all three groups. Overall, the zirconia crowns (anterior and posterior) tested showed optimum mechanical properties to withstand the masticatory forces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Research in Pediatric Dental Disease)
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10 pages, 1809 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Impact of Oral Health on Adolescent Quality of Life Using Standard Statistical Methods and Artificial Intelligence Algorithms
Children 2021, 8(12), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8121156 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of oral health on adolescent quality of life and to compare the results obtained using standard statistical methods and artificial intelligence algorithms. In order to measure the impact of oral health on adolescent [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of oral health on adolescent quality of life and to compare the results obtained using standard statistical methods and artificial intelligence algorithms. In order to measure the impact of oral health on adolescent quality of life, a validated Serbian version of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) scale was used. The total sample comprised 374 respondents. The obtained results were processed using standard statistical methods and machine learning, i.e., artificial intelligence algorithms—singular value decomposition. OIDP score was dichotomized into two categories depending on whether the respondents had or did not have oral or teeth problems affecting their life quality. Human intuition and machine algorithms came to the same conclusion on how the respondents should be divided. As such, method quality and the need to perform analyses of this type in dentistry studies were demonstrated. Using artificial intelligence algorithms, the respondents can be clustered into characteristic groups that allow the discovery of details not possible with the intuitive division of respondents by gender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Research in Pediatric Dental Disease)
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Review

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9 pages, 929 KiB  
Review
Oral Facial Manifestations of Sanjad–Sakati Syndrome: A Literature Review
Children 2022, 9(4), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9040448 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2761
Abstract
Aim: To perform a comprehensive review of orofacial manifestations of Sanjad–Sakati syndrome (SSS). Methods: A comprehensive electronic literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane library databases. The search keywords included were “Sanjad–Sakati syndrome (SSS)”, “dental manifestations”, “dental management”, “oral health”, “dental [...] Read more.
Aim: To perform a comprehensive review of orofacial manifestations of Sanjad–Sakati syndrome (SSS). Methods: A comprehensive electronic literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane library databases. The search keywords included were “Sanjad–Sakati syndrome (SSS)”, “dental manifestations”, “dental management”, “oral health”, “dental care for patients with SSS”, “dental health of people with SSS”, “caries”, and “oral hygiene”. The inclusion criteria were papers published only in English, papers published by August 2021, and papers discussing orofacial manifestations of SSS and language. Results: The search of the databases retrieved eleven case reports and three case series studies. Overall, 56 cases (11 case reports and 3 case series studies) were reported on Sanjad–Sakati syndrome in the published literature. The majority of the reports are from the Middle Eastern region. Conclusions: The reported orofacial manifestations of SSS include beaked nose, depressed nasal bridge, enamel hypoplasia, hypodontia, low-set ears, posteriorly rotated ears, deep-set eyes, microcephaly, microdontia, micrognathia, prominent forehead, retrognathia, and thin lips. The review paper also establishes the importance of the dental under general anesthesia in SSS individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Research in Pediatric Dental Disease)
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