The Management and Use of Pediatric Antimicrobials

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Pediatric Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2024) | Viewed by 2546

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Departamento de Materno Infantil (MMI), Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Interests: antimicrobial stewardship; Gram-negative infections; paediatric COVID-19; infection control in paediatrics; multirresistant infections; infection in paediatric intensive care units

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antimicrobials, particularly antibiotics, are commonly prescribed to children around the world. In recent years, antibiotic resistance has increased in several countries due to a lack of new therapeutic options and indiscriminate/incorrect use. Several aspects could influence the better antimicrobials to use such as: the insertion of matter in the medical course, using attractive methodologies of teaching; antimicrobial stewardship programs with audit and feedback, pre-authorization forms, lists of restricts antibiotics prescribed only after discussion with infectious disease specialists, automatized programs for interruption of treatments and formal guidelines; dissemination of successful experiences to reduce incorrect use; involvement of public authorities and society at all. In this Special Issue, we discuss the main aspects of management and use of pediatric antimicrobials with an aim to understand why is so important to improve rational use in this population.

Dr. André Ricardo Araujo Da Silva
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • children
  • antimicrobials
  • antibiotics
  • antimicrobial stewardship
  • antibiotic resistance
  • guidelines

Published Papers (2 papers)

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10 pages, 416 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Adherence to Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Guidelines for Gentamicin in Neonatal Care: A Retrospective Study at the Maternity and Children’s Hospital in Makkah
by Abdullah Najeh Bajaber, Mahmoud Elrggal, Wajdi F. Organji, Mohammad Adil Sulaimani, Raed Mohammed Refai, Ashraf Alsaedi, Salwa Hashim Alzamzami, Fatimah Bakor Hawsawi, Saud Tanadhub Alnefaie, Azhar Ali Alsulaimani, Adnan Alharbi, Mohammed Alnuhait, Abdullah S. Alshammari, Abdu Aldarhami and Sharaf E. Sharaf
Children 2024, 11(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11010100 - 15 Jan 2024
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Abstract
In this study, we assess healthcare providers’ adherence to therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) guidelines for gentamicin in neonates. Conducted at the Maternity and Children’s Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, from July 2020 to July 2022, it retrospectively analyzed the compliance of healthcare workers [...] Read more.
In this study, we assess healthcare providers’ adherence to therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) guidelines for gentamicin in neonates. Conducted at the Maternity and Children’s Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, from July 2020 to July 2022, it retrospectively analyzed the compliance of healthcare workers in managing neonates treated with gentamicin. Covering 410 neonates, primarily diagnosed with respiratory distress (56%) and sepsis (32%), the study revealed that while a majority of trough and peak levels conformed to guidelines, substantial deviations were noted in cases of respiratory distress. This underlines the necessity for targeted TDM strategies, particularly in managing respiratory distress in neonates, to ensure optimal treatment efficacy and safety. The findings urge stringent compliance with TDM guidelines, emphasizing personalized approaches in neonatal gentamicin therapy for improved healthcare outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Management and Use of Pediatric Antimicrobials)
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10 pages, 547 KiB  
Brief Report
Multiplex PCR and Antibiotic Use in Children with Community-Acquired Pneumonia
by Teresa del Rosal, Patricia Bote-Gascón, Iker Falces-Romero, Talía Sainz, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, Paula Rodríguez-Molino, Ana Méndez-Echevarría, Blanca Bravo-Queipo-de-Llano, Luis A. Alonso and Cristina Calvo
Children 2024, 11(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11020245 - 15 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Antibiotics are frequently prescribed to children with pneumonia, although viruses are responsible for most cases. We aimed to evaluate the impact of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) on antibiotic use. We conducted a prospective study of children under 14 years of age admitted [...] Read more.
Antibiotics are frequently prescribed to children with pneumonia, although viruses are responsible for most cases. We aimed to evaluate the impact of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) on antibiotic use. We conducted a prospective study of children under 14 years of age admitted for suspected viral pneumonia, from October 2019 to June 2022 (except March–November 2020). A mPCR respiratory panel (FilmArray® 2plus, bioMérieux, Marcy-l’Étoile, France) was performed within 72 h of admission. Patients with positive reverse transcription PCR for respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, or SARS-CoV-2 were excluded. We compared the patients with historical controls (2017–2018) who had suspected viral pneumonia but did not undergo an aetiological study. We included 64 patients and 50 controls, with a median age of 26 months. The respiratory panel detected viral pathogens in 55 patients (88%), including 17 (31%) with co-infections. Rhinovirus/enterovirus (n = 26) and human metapneumovirus (n = 22) were the most common pathogens, followed by adenovirus and parainfluenza (n = 10). There were no statistically significant differences in the total antibiotic consumption (83% of cases and 86% of controls) or antibiotics given for ≥72 h (58% vs. 66%). Antibiotics were prescribed in 41% of the cases and 72% of the controls at discharge (p = 0.001). Ampicillin was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic among the patients (44% vs. 18% for controls, p = 0.004), while azithromycin was the most commonly prescribed among the controls (19% vs. 48% for patients and controls, respectively; p = 0.001). Our findings underscore the need for additional interventions alongside molecular diagnosis to reduce antibiotic usage in paediatric community-acquired pneumonia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Management and Use of Pediatric Antimicrobials)
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