Advances of Chemical and Biosensors in China

A topical collection in Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This collection belongs to the section "(Bio)chemical Sensing".

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Editors


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Collection Editor
State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, China
Interests: biosensors; fluorescent molecular probes; nanosensors and functional DNA-based sensors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Collection Editor
State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, China
Interests: optical sensing and imaging; functional dye chemistry and molecular probes

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, China
Interests: fluorescent sensing; DNA nanotechnology

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chemsensors are a device that transforms chemical information, ranging from the concentration of a specific sample component to total composition analysis, into an analytically useful signal. The development of efficient chemsensors and biosensors is highly important in various aspects of biomedical science and analytical and environmental science. This Topical Collection will provide an overview of the frontiers and progress of chemsensors and biosensors in China.

Topics include but are not limited to:

  • Electrochemical sensors
  • Optical chemical sensors
  • Mass-sensitive sensors
  • Field-effect transistor sensors
  • Catalytic sensors
  • Acoustic and thermal sensors
  • Sensor array
  • Innovative materials and their sensing application
  • Other sensors

Prof. Dr. Xiaobing Zhang
Prof. Dr. Lin Yuan
Prof. Dr. Guoliang Ke
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Chemosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Published Papers (11 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022

14 pages, 5509 KiB  
Article
Illuminating Histidine-Deficient Intracellular Environments: A Novel Whole-Cell Microbial Fluorescence Sensor
by Xinyi Li, Zezhou Li and Meiping Zhao
Chemosensors 2023, 11(10), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11100515 - 30 Sep 2023
Viewed by 969
Abstract
Histidine is an essential amino acid with significant implications for human growth and neuromodulation. Its intracellular concentration, whether increased or decreased, can indicate different diseases. While various methods exist for measuring elevated histidine levels, there remains a significant lack of sensors capable of [...] Read more.
Histidine is an essential amino acid with significant implications for human growth and neuromodulation. Its intracellular concentration, whether increased or decreased, can indicate different diseases. While various methods exist for measuring elevated histidine levels, there remains a significant lack of sensors capable of actively responding to histidine deficiency within cells and releasing strong signals. In this study, we exploited the high induction levels of the his operon in S. Typhimurium SL1344, a histidine auxotroph, within a histidine-deficient environment, to develop a specific bacterial sensor with sensitivity towards low histidine concentrations. By employing plasmid vectors with differing copy numbers, we developed two distinct bacterial fluorescence sensors, both capable of actively responding to histidine deficiency and emitting detectable fluorescence signals within either culture mediums or live cells. The SL1344-pGEX sensor, with a high copy number, exhibited remarkable sensitivity and selectivity to histidine in the range of 0 to 50 μM. Notably, even a minimal addition of histidine (approximately 2.5 μM) to the M9 medium led to observable fluorescence reduction, rendering it highly suitable for monitoring histidine-deficient cellular environments. In contrast, the low-copy-number SL1344-pSB3313 sensor exhibits a broader response range, capable of tracking more extensive shifts in histidine concentrations. These sensors allow for sensitive in situ detection of intracellular histidine concentrations in various live cells, particularly responding to real-time changes in cellular histidine levels. This provides a powerful tool for investigating histidine deficiency-related biological processes, the mechanisms of associated diseases, and the assessment and optimization of therapeutic strategies. Full article
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13 pages, 4189 KiB  
Article
Sensitive Evanescence-Field Waveguide Interferometer for Aqueous Nitro-Explosive Sensing
by Wen Wang, Guowei Deng, Zhanwei Hu, Kaixin Chen and Jieyun Wu
Chemosensors 2023, 11(4), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11040246 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1296
Abstract
The development of novel chemical nitro-explosive sensors with high sensitivity, low cost and a compact size is essential for homeland security, environmental protection and addressing military challenges. Polymeric optical waveguides based on refractive index sensing are widely used in biochemical detection due to [...] Read more.
The development of novel chemical nitro-explosive sensors with high sensitivity, low cost and a compact size is essential for homeland security, environmental protection and addressing military challenges. Polymeric optical waveguides based on refractive index sensing are widely used in biochemical detection due to their advantages of large-scale integration, low cost, high sensitivity and anti-electromagnetic interference. In this study, we designed and fabricated a polymer waveguide Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) sensor to detect 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) in water. One phase shifter of the MZI waveguide was functionalized by coating a thin cladding layer of polycarbonate with dipolar chromophores and used as the sensing arm; the other arm was coated with passive epoxy resin cladding and used as the reference arm. The phase difference between the two arms of the MZI was modulated using the refractive index (RI) change in the polycarbonate cladding when dipolar chromophores interacted with electro-deficient DNT. The theoretical sensitivity of the designed MZI can reach up to 24,696 nm/RIU. When used for explosive detection, our fabricated sensor had a maximum wavelength shift of 4.465 nm and good linear relation, with an R2 of 0.96 between the wavelength shift and a concentration ranging from 3.5 × 10−5 to 6.3 × 10−4 mol/L. The sensitivity of our device was 6821.6 nm/(mol/L). The design of an unbalanced MZI sensor, together with the sensing material, provides a new approach to using low-cost, compact and highly sensitive devices for in-field explosive detection. Full article
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23 pages, 7223 KiB  
Review
Trimethyl Lock Quinone-Based Organic Molecular Probes for NQO1 Sensing and Imaging
by Kun Chen, Shuai Xu, Zhiling Song and Ke Li
Chemosensors 2023, 11(4), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11040221 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1617
Abstract
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase isozyme 1 (NQO1) is a flavoenzyme and involved in protection against oxidative stress and the regulation of metabolic functions, which is strongly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and carcinogenic processes. Furthermore, NQO1 is also involved in the modes of action of [...] Read more.
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase isozyme 1 (NQO1) is a flavoenzyme and involved in protection against oxidative stress and the regulation of metabolic functions, which is strongly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and carcinogenic processes. Furthermore, NQO1 is also involved in the modes of action of redox-active drugs (e.g., antimalarials). Determining the activity and localization of NQO1 in living organisms is of great importance for early disease diagnosis and therapy. As a promising and convenient biosensing technique, trimethyl lock quinone-based organic molecular probes have been well established for the specific detection and imaging of NQO1 in living cells and in vivo. In this review, the recent progress of NQO1 probes based on organic small molecules is summarized from the perspectives of molecular design strategies, sensing mechanisms and bioimaging applications. We also elucidate the potential limitations and prospects of current NQO1 probes to further promote the development of versatile imaging tools for NQO1-related biomedical investigation. Full article
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15 pages, 6151 KiB  
Article
Highly Selective and Sensitive Sensor Based IL and CMC-MWCNTs Nanocomposite for Rutin Determination
by Xin Meng, Bao-Lin Xiao, Xin-Yan Song, Xin-Xin Ma, Yang-Yang Li, Lin-Lin Ma, Yu-Jie Chen, Yu-Ying Li, Ke-Xin Xu, Jian-She Wei, Tao Hong, Ali Akbar Moosavi-Movahedi and Jun Hong
Chemosensors 2023, 11(3), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11030171 - 02 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1455
Abstract
Rutin is a natural antioxidant flavonoid compound with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral effects that is used to prepare drugs with wide application in clinical treatment. Therefore, the quantitative detection of rutin has important practical significance. In this work, a novel electrochemical sensor based [...] Read more.
Rutin is a natural antioxidant flavonoid compound with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral effects that is used to prepare drugs with wide application in clinical treatment. Therefore, the quantitative detection of rutin has important practical significance. In this work, a novel electrochemical sensor based on glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) modified with sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and 1-butyl-3-methylimid (ionic liquid, IL) was developed for the super-sensitive detection of the flavonoid rutin. The properties of these modified materials were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM), cyclic voltammograms (CVs), and electrochemical-impedance spectroscopy (EIS). CMC was used to disperse MWCNTs to further enhance their hydrophilicity and biocompatibility. The modified MWCNTs improved the sensitivity of rutin detection. The square-wave voltammetry (SWV) technique showed that the linear range of rutin concentration determination was 0.01 μM to 1 µM and 1 µM to 10 µM. The minimum concentration detection of rutin was 0.83 nM and 6.6 nM, respectively. The proposed sensor presented good selectivity for rutin and successfully analyzed rutin content in the pharmaceutical rutin tablets. These results are consistent with those measured by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Therefore, this sensor has latent application value in the analysis of rutin in food and drug tablets and nutraceutical samples. Full article
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12 pages, 2202 KiB  
Article
Discovering a Dihydrofluorescein Analogue as a Promising Fluorescence Substrate to HRP
by Jiayan Zhu, Ting Li, Shihui Zhang, Xiaomei Zou, Yingchun Zhou, Weiguo Lu, Zhihui Liu, Tao Deng and Fang Liu
Chemosensors 2023, 11(2), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11020152 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) combined with its fluorescence substrates is attracting increasing attention for biochemical analysis. Amplex red is the most widely used fluorescence substrate to HRP; however, it suffers from some drawbacks, such as nonspecific responsiveness toward carboxylesterases. Discovering a new small molecular [...] Read more.
Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) combined with its fluorescence substrates is attracting increasing attention for biochemical analysis. Amplex red is the most widely used fluorescence substrate to HRP; however, it suffers from some drawbacks, such as nonspecific responsiveness toward carboxylesterases. Discovering a new small molecular fluorescence substrate with improved sensitivity and selectivity for HRP is thus desired. Herein, three dihydrofluorescein derivatives (DCFHs) are presented to serve as HRP substrates through fluorescence turn-on methods. The most promising one, 2,7-dichloro-9-(2-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl)-9H-xanthene-3,6-diol (DCFH-1), exhibited excellent sensitivity in the detection of HRP. Moreover, DCFH-1 does not respond to carboxylesterase, thus holding advantages over Amplex red. In the further study, the detection reagent in the commercial ELISA kits was replaced with DCFH-1 to establish a new fluorescence ELISA, which works very well in the quantification of inflammatory cytokine biomarkers from in vitro models. Full article
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11 pages, 2579 KiB  
Article
Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Hypoxic Environments Based on Water Splitting-Assisted Electrocatalysis
by Lanjie Lei, Chengtao Xu, Xing Dong, Biao Ma, Yichen Chen, Qing Hao, Chao Zhao and Hong Liu
Chemosensors 2023, 11(2), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11020149 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2308
Abstract
Conventional enzyme-based continuous glucose sensors in interstitial fluid usually rely on dissolved oxygen as the electron-transfer mediator to bring electrons from oxidase to electrode while generating hydrogen peroxide. This may lead to several problems. First, the sensor may provide biased detection results owing [...] Read more.
Conventional enzyme-based continuous glucose sensors in interstitial fluid usually rely on dissolved oxygen as the electron-transfer mediator to bring electrons from oxidase to electrode while generating hydrogen peroxide. This may lead to several problems. First, the sensor may provide biased detection results owing to fluctuation of oxygen in interstitial fluid. Second, the polymer coatings that regulate the glucose/oxygen ratio can affect the dynamic response of the sensor. Third, the glucose oxidation reaction continuously produces corrosive hydrogen peroxide, which may compromise the long-term stability of the sensor. Here, we introduce an oxygen-independent nonenzymatic glucose sensor based on water splitting-assisted electrocatalysis for continuous glucose monitoring. For the water splitting reaction (i.e., hydrogen evolution reaction), a negative pretreatment potential is applied to produce a localized alkaline condition at the surface of the working electrode for subsequent nonenzymatic electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. The reaction process does not require the participation of oxygen; therefore, the problems caused by oxygen can be avoided. The nonenzymatic sensor exhibits acceptable sensitivity, reliability, and biocompatibility for continuous glucose monitoring in hypoxic environments, as shown by the in vitro and in vivo measurements. Therefore, we believe that it is a promising technique for continuous glucose monitoring, especially for clinically hypoxic patients. Full article
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23 pages, 4368 KiB  
Review
Engineering Rational SERS Nanotags for Parallel Detection of Multiple Cancer Circulating Biomarkers
by Zhipeng Zhang, Rui Guan, Junrong Li and Yao Sun
Chemosensors 2023, 11(2), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11020110 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2488
Abstract
Precision cancer medicine necessitates a personalized treatment plan for each individual patient. Given cancer’s heterogeneity and dynamic nature, the plot of patient-specific signatures composed of multiple cancer circulating biomarkers is useful to reveal the complete tumor landscape for guiding precision medicine. As an [...] Read more.
Precision cancer medicine necessitates a personalized treatment plan for each individual patient. Given cancer’s heterogeneity and dynamic nature, the plot of patient-specific signatures composed of multiple cancer circulating biomarkers is useful to reveal the complete tumor landscape for guiding precision medicine. As an emerging new technology, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) shows the intrinsic advantage of performing multiplexed detection with the extremely narrow Raman spectral line widths. In this review, we first discuss the design principle of SERS nanotags to enable the detection of multiple circulating biomarkers, highlighting the important roles of plasmonic nanostructures and triple bond-modulated Raman reporters. Following this, we detail the use of isotropic and anisotropic nanostructures as SERS enhancement substrates for amplifying Raman signals in multi-biomarker detection. Furthermore, we present the triple bond-modulated molecules as Raman reporters in SERS nanotags to expand the multiplexing capability for biomarker measurements. Finally, we offer critical insights into the challenges and perspectives of SERS nanotags for cancer diagnosis, particularly from the aspect of future clinical transition. It is expected that this review can facilitate the design of more functional SERS nanotags with high sensitivity and multiplexing capability to assist early and accurate cancer screening. We also believe our review will be of interest in the fields of molecular imaging, biomedicine, and analytical chemistry. Full article
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12 pages, 3572 KiB  
Article
WO3-Nanocrystal-Modified Electrodes for Ultra-Sensitive and Selective Detection of Cadmium (Cd2+) Ions
by Ruiqin Gu, Yunong Zhao, Huibing Fu, Qing Huang, Long Li, Zhixiang Hu, Licheng Zhou, Bingbing Chen and Huan Liu
Chemosensors 2023, 11(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11010054 - 07 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1247
Abstract
The detection of heavy metal ions is becoming increasingly important for environmental monitoring and personal safety protection. Owing to their large surface area and suitable conductivity, metal oxide semiconductor nanocrystals have been utilized in chemically modified electrodes for the rapid and low-cost detection [...] Read more.
The detection of heavy metal ions is becoming increasingly important for environmental monitoring and personal safety protection. Owing to their large surface area and suitable conductivity, metal oxide semiconductor nanocrystals have been utilized in chemically modified electrodes for the rapid and low-cost detection of heavy metal ions. However, their sensitivity and selectivity for cadmium ion (Cd2+) detection still remains a challenge. Here, a method of ultra-sensitive and selective Cd2+ detection based on WO3-nanocrystal-modified electrodes is proposed and demonstrated. Colloidal WO3 nanocrystals were synthesized via a solvothermal route and then deposited onto a carbon electrode using a spin-coating method, forming the modification layer at room temperature. The WO3-nanocrystal-modified electrodes exhibit a remarkable signal transduction capability that converts Cd2+ adsorption into current output signals. The peak current was linear to the logarithm of the Cd2+ concentration from 1 nM to 10,000 nM when measured using the anodic stripping voltammetry method. The selectivity mechanism was studied and attributed to the high adsorption energy of cadmium on WO3 compared to other heavy metal ions. Employment of WO3 for a high-performance Cd2+-selective electrode opens many opportunities in portable ion-detection applications. Full article
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11 pages, 2803 KiB  
Article
Influences of Impurity Gases in Air on Room-Temperature Hydrogen-Sensitive Pt–SnO2 Composite Nanoceramics: A Case Study of H2S
by Xilai Lu, Menghan Wu, Yong Huang, Jiannan Song, Yong Liu, Zhiqiao Yan, Feng Chen, Jieting Zhao and Wanping Chen
Chemosensors 2023, 11(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11010031 - 01 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1715
Abstract
The slight but cumulative influence of impurity gases in air poses a great threat to the long-term stability of room-temperature gas sensors. Room-temperature hydrogen-sensitive Pt–SnO2 composite nanoceramics of 5 wt% Pt were prepared through pressing and sintering. The response of a sample [...] Read more.
The slight but cumulative influence of impurity gases in air poses a great threat to the long-term stability of room-temperature gas sensors. Room-temperature hydrogen-sensitive Pt–SnO2 composite nanoceramics of 5 wt% Pt were prepared through pressing and sintering. The response of a sample was over 10,000 after being exposed to 500 ppm H2S–20% O2–N2 at room temperature, and the room-temperature hydrogen sensing capacity was seriously degraded even for samples that had aged dozens of days since H2S exposure. Mild heat treatments such as 160 °C for 10 min were found able to fully activate those H2S-exposed samples. As the peak of S 2p electron was clearly detected in H2S-exposed samples, it was proposed that for room-temperature hydrogen-sensitive Pt–SnO2 composite nanoceramics, H2S exposure induced degradation results from the poisoning of Pt by H2S deposited on it, which can be removed through a mild heat treatment. Periodic mild heat treatment should be a convenient and effective measure for room-temperature metal oxide gas sensors to achieve long-term stability through preventing the accumulation of impurity gases in air deposited on them. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023

27 pages, 26420 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Molecular Fluorescent Probes for CYP450 Sensing and Imaging
by Haiyan Li, Yang Sheng, Wei Li and Lin Yuan
Chemosensors 2022, 10(8), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10080304 - 02 Aug 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3467
Abstract
Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is a major drug-metabolizing enzyme system mainly distributed in liver microsomes and involved in the metabolism of many endogenous substances (such as fatty acids and arachidonic acids), and exogenous compounds (such as drugs, toxicants, carcinogens, and procarcinogens). Due to the [...] Read more.
Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is a major drug-metabolizing enzyme system mainly distributed in liver microsomes and involved in the metabolism of many endogenous substances (such as fatty acids and arachidonic acids), and exogenous compounds (such as drugs, toxicants, carcinogens, and procarcinogens). Due to the similarity in structures and catalytic functions between CYP450 isoforms, the lack of effective selective detection tools greatly limits the understanding and the research of their respective physiological roles in living organisms. Until now, several small-molecular fluorescent probes have been employed for selective detection and monitoring of CYP450s (Cytochrome P450 enzymes) in vitro or in vivo owing to the tailored properties, biodegradability, and high temporal and spatial resolution imaging in situ. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in fluorescent probes for CYP450s (including CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 families), and we discuss and focus on their identification mechanisms, general probe design strategies, and bioimaging applications. We also highlight the potential challenges and prospects of designing new generations of fluorescent probes in CYP450 studies, which will further enhance the diversity, practicality, and clinical feasibility of research into CYP450. Full article
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19 pages, 40598 KiB  
Review
Aptamer-Based Sensors for Thrombin Detection Application
by Hongzhi Sun, Nannan Wang, Lin Zhang, Hongmin Meng and Zhaohui Li
Chemosensors 2022, 10(7), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10070255 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3210
Abstract
Thrombin facilitates the aggregation of platelet in hemostatic processes and participates in the regulation of cell signaling. Therefore, the development of thrombin sensors is conducive to comprehending the role of thrombin in the course of a disease. Biosensors based on aptamers screened by [...] Read more.
Thrombin facilitates the aggregation of platelet in hemostatic processes and participates in the regulation of cell signaling. Therefore, the development of thrombin sensors is conducive to comprehending the role of thrombin in the course of a disease. Biosensors based on aptamers screened by SELEX have exhibited superiority for thrombin detection. In this review, we summarized the aptamer-based sensors for thrombin detection which rely on the specific recognitions between thrombin and aptamer. Meanwhile, the unique advantages of different sensors including optical and electrochemical sensors were also highlighted. Especially, these sensors based on electrochemistry have the potential to be miniaturized, and thus have gained comprehensive attention. Furthermore, concerns about aptamer-based sensors for thrombin detection, prospects of the future and promising avenues in this field were also presented. Full article
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