Chemosensors in Biological Challenges

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 24483

Special Issue Editors


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1. Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O 56 (Viikinkaari 5 E), 00014 Helsinki, Finland
2. School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
Interests: mass spectrometry; medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry; organic chemistry; synthetic chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
Interests: organic chemistry; medicinal chemistry; bisphosphonates; atp analogues; high performance counter current chromatography (HPCCC); green chemistry; synthesis methods
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue comprises selected papers related to topics in chemosensors in biological challenges. The Special Issue is based on the conference Chemical Sciences in Biological Challenges. The Chemical Sciences in Biological Challenges combines life and health sciences with bio- and natural sciences. In this Special Issue, chemosensors meet the challenges of biological environments from the perspective of drug development, environmental sciences as well as the circular economy. The topics may concern any techniques or fields of science covered by the topics of Chemosensors.

Authors of conference papers falling within the scope of Chemosensors at this symposium are invited to submit an extended version to this Special Issue for publication. Moreover, new papers strictly related to the conference themes are also welcome.

The use of the chemical method and applications in biological questions, including but not limited to:

Bioanalytical chemistry;

Electrochemical devices and sensors;

Optical chemical sensors;

Imaging;

Spectroscopy;

Analytical apparatus;

Quantitative analysis;

microfluidic devices; lab-on-a-chip, single molecule sensing;

nanosensors; medical analyzers;

gas sensors; electronic nose; electronic tongue;

pH sensors; humidity sensor

Dr. Juri M. Timonen
Dr. Petri A Turhanen
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2921 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Detection of the Influenza a Virus by an EGOFET-Based Portable Device
by Elena Y. Poimanova, Elena G. Zavyalova, Elena A. Kretova, Anton A. Abramov, Askold A. Trul, Oleg V. Borshchev, Anna K. Keshek, Sergey A. Ponomarenko and Elena V. Agina
Chemosensors 2023, 11(8), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11080464 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Elaboration of biosensors on the base of organic transistors with embedded biomolecules which can operate in an aqueous environment is of paramount importance. Electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors demonstrate high sensitivity in detection of various analytes. In this paper, we demonstrated the possibility of [...] Read more.
Elaboration of biosensors on the base of organic transistors with embedded biomolecules which can operate in an aqueous environment is of paramount importance. Electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors demonstrate high sensitivity in detection of various analytes. In this paper, we demonstrated the possibility of quantitative fast specific determination of virus particles by an aptasensor based on EGOFET. The sensitivity and selectivity of the devices were examined with the influenza A virus as well as with control bioliquids like influenza B, Newcastle disease viruses or allantoic fluid with different dilutions. The influence of the semiconducting layer thickness on EGOFETs sensory properties is discussed. The fabrication of a multi-flow cell that simultaneously registers the responses from several devices on the same substrate and the creation of a multi-sensor flow device are reported. The responses of the elaborated bioelectronic platform to the influenza A virus obtained with application of the portable multi-flow mode are well correlated with the responses obtained in the laboratory stationary mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemosensors in Biological Challenges)
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16 pages, 4155 KiB  
Article
Design of a Portable and Reliable Fluorimeter with High Sensitivity for Molecule Trace Analysis
by Germán López-Pérez, Domingo González-Arjona, Emilio Roldán González and Cristina Román-Hidalgo
Chemosensors 2023, 11(7), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11070389 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
There is a growing need for portable, highly sensitive measuring equipment to analyze samples in situ and in real time. For these reasons, it is becoming increasingly important to research new experimental equipment to carry out this work with advanced, robust and low-cost [...] Read more.
There is a growing need for portable, highly sensitive measuring equipment to analyze samples in situ and in real time. For these reasons, it is becoming increasingly important to research new experimental equipment to carry out this work with advanced, robust and low-cost devices. In this framework, a flexible, portable and low-cost fluorimeter (under EUR 500), based on a C12880 MA MEMS micro-spectrometer with an Arduino compatible breakout board, has been developed for the trace analysis of biological substances. The proposed system can employ two selectable excitation sources for flexibility, one in the visible region at 405 nm (incorporated in the board) and an external LED at 365 nm in the UV region. This additional excitation source can be easily interchanged, varying the LED type for investigating any fluorophore compound of interest. The measurement process is micro-controlled, which allows the precise control of the spectrometer sensitivity by adjusting the integration time of each experiment separately. Data acquisition is easy, reliable and interfaced with a spreadsheet for fast spectra visualization and calculations. For testing the performance of the new device in fluorescence measurements, different fluorophore molecules which can be commonly found in biological samples, such as Fluorescein, Riboflavin, Quinine, Rhodamine b and Ru (II)-bipyridyl, have been employed. A high sensitivity and low quantitation limits (in the ppb range) have been found in all cases for the investigated chemicals. The portable device is also suitable for the study of other interesting phenomena, such as fluorescence quenching induced by chemical agents (such as halide anions or even auto-quenching). In this sense, an application for the quantification of chloride anions in aqueous solutions has been performed obtaining a LOD value of 18 ppm. The obtained results for all chemicals investigated with the proposed fluorimeter are always very similar in quantification figures, or even better than the data reported in literature, when using commercial laboratory equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemosensors in Biological Challenges)
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13 pages, 3181 KiB  
Article
Passive Solid Chemosensor as Saliva Point of Need Analysis for Ammonium Determination by Using a Smartphone
by Belén Monforte-Gómez, Lusine Hakobyan, Carmen Molins-Legua and Pilar Campíns-Falcó
Chemosensors 2023, 11(7), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11070387 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
Point-of-need analysis is of great interest nowadays. It refers to the timely analysis or detection of a specific parameter or substance at the location or moment it is needed, often with the aim of providing rapid and on-site results for informed decision-making or [...] Read more.
Point-of-need analysis is of great interest nowadays. It refers to the timely analysis or detection of a specific parameter or substance at the location or moment it is needed, often with the aim of providing rapid and on-site results for informed decision-making or immediate interventions. This approach has gained interest in various fields but has not been extensively explored in bioanalytical chemistry. In order to contribute in this way, the analysis of ammonium in saliva as a biological fluid is proposed here. For that purpose, a passive solid sensor of 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid sodium salt (NQS) embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with silica nanoparticles and an ionic liquid was proposed. The assay was developed by delivering ammonia from saliva in a confined atmosphere containing the sensor for 20 to 45 min. Measurements were carried out by absorbance from a benchtop diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer and a fiber optic miniaturized portable spectrometer coupled to a smartphone for point-of-need analysis. Another option for this kind of analysis was the use of the color intensity from digitalized images obtained by a smartphone by isolating the intensity in the color planes R (red), G (green), and B (blue). Good figures of merit were obtained for all three types of instruments, bearing in mind the ammonium content in saliva. Results for 30 samples of male and female volunteers (n = 30) demonstrated the usefulness of the assay, values of mg NH4+/mL saliva between 0.02 and 0.27 were found, and no matrix effect was present. Recoveries for spiked samples were around 100% for all methodologies. Selectivity was demonstrated from spectra obtained from benchtop instruments and the fiber optic mini spectrometer. Two applications were applied for directly determining the ammonium concentration in saliva. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemosensors in Biological Challenges)
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10 pages, 1684 KiB  
Communication
Synthesis and Spectrophotometric Studies of Heterocyclic Bay-Substituted Naphthalenediimide Colorimetric pH Indicators
by Filippa Magro, Luke Camenzuli and David C. Magri
Chemosensors 2023, 11(7), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11070360 - 25 Jun 2023
Viewed by 902
Abstract
Four naphthalenediimide colorimetric pH indicators were synthesized with N,N-dimethylethyleneamine at the imide positions and with 5- to 7-membered heterocyclic rings at the bay positions, namely pyrrolidine, morpholine, piperidine and azepane. The pH indicators are constructed in a modular receptor–spacer–fluorophore–spacer–receptor format [...] Read more.
Four naphthalenediimide colorimetric pH indicators were synthesized with N,N-dimethylethyleneamine at the imide positions and with 5- to 7-membered heterocyclic rings at the bay positions, namely pyrrolidine, morpholine, piperidine and azepane. The pH indicators are constructed in a modular receptor–spacer–fluorophore–spacer–receptor format based on a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) design. The compounds were studied by UV–visible absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy in 1:1 (v/v) methanol/water. Brilliant colour changes are observed between pH 2 and 4 due to an internal charge transfer (ICT) mechanism. Fluorescence turn-on enhancements range from 10–37 fold; however, the maximum fluorescence quantum yield in the presence of acid is <0.004, which is below naked eye detection. Hence, from the viewpoint of a human observer, these chemosensors function as colorimetric YES logic gates, and fluorimetric PASS 0 logic gates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemosensors in Biological Challenges)
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11 pages, 5240 KiB  
Article
A Simple Method to Fabricate the Highly Sensitive SERS Substrate by Femtosecond Laser-Based 3D Printer
by Woong Kim, Woochang Kim, Doyeon Bang, Jinsung Park and Wonseok Lee
Chemosensors 2023, 11(6), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11060340 - 08 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a potent technique for analyzing and detecting various targets, including toxic ions, pesticides, and biomarkers, at the single-molecule level. The efficiency of SERS techniques relies heavily on the underlying SERS substrate, which is primarily responsible for the strong [...] Read more.
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a potent technique for analyzing and detecting various targets, including toxic ions, pesticides, and biomarkers, at the single-molecule level. The efficiency of SERS techniques relies heavily on the underlying SERS substrate, which is primarily responsible for the strong induction of localized plasmon resonance on nanostructures. Noble metals such as gold and silver were commonly used to fabricate SERS substrates, leveraging the electromagnetic mechanism (EM) to enhance the Raman signal. However, chemically synthesized nanoparticle-based SERS substrates suffer from low uniformity and reproducibility. Furthermore, the high cost associated with noble metals makes most SERS substrates expensive to produce. In this study, we present a straightforward method for fabricating a highly uniform and reproducible SERS substrate using a femtosecond laser-based 3D printer. Notably, our method offers good cost competitiveness since it requires only a minimal amount of gold coating for the SERS signal. Moreover, the proposed method exhibits exceptional versatility in SERS analysis and detection, catering to numerous targets in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemosensors in Biological Challenges)
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15 pages, 8192 KiB  
Article
Transparent and High-Performance Extended Gate Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors Using Electrospun Indium Tin Oxide Nanofibers
by Yeong-Ung Kim and Won-Ju Cho
Chemosensors 2023, 11(6), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11060319 - 25 May 2023
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Herein, we propose a transparent high-performance extended-gate ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (EG-ISFET) using an electrospun indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanofiber sensing membrane with a high specific surface area. Electrospinning is a simple and effective technique for forming nanofibers. Nevertheless, one-step calcination, such as conventional thermal annealing [...] Read more.
Herein, we propose a transparent high-performance extended-gate ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (EG-ISFET) using an electrospun indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanofiber sensing membrane with a high specific surface area. Electrospinning is a simple and effective technique for forming nanofibers. Nevertheless, one-step calcination, such as conventional thermal annealing or microwave annealing, cannot sufficiently eliminate the inherent defects of nanofibers. In this study, we efficiently removed residual polymers and internal impurities from nanofibers via a two-step calcination process involving combustion and microwave annealing. Moreover, Ar plasma treatment was performed to improve the electrical characteristics of ITO nanofibers. Conformally coated thin-film sensing membranes were prepared as a comparative group and subjected to the same calcination conditions to verify the effect of the nanofiber sensing membrane. The characteristics of the ITO nanofiber and ITO thin-film sensing membranes were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical transmittance, and conductivity. Moreover, the sensor operation of the EG-ISFETs is evaluated in terms of sensitivity and non-ideal behaviors. The optimized process improves the sensor characteristics and sensing membrane quality. Therefore, the ITO nanofiber sensing membrane improves the sensitivity and stability of the EG-ISFET, suggesting its applicability as a high-performance biochemical sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemosensors in Biological Challenges)
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15 pages, 2199 KiB  
Article
Precise Integration of Polymeric Sensing Functional Materials within 3D Printed Microfluidic Devices
by Jaione Etxebarria-Elezgarai, Maite Garcia-Hernando, Lourdes Basabe-Desmonts and Fernando Benito-Lopez
Chemosensors 2023, 11(4), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11040253 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
This work presents a new architecture concept for microfluidic devices, which combines the conventional 3D printing fabrication process with the stable and precise integration of polymeric functional materials in small footprints within the microchannels in well-defined locations. The approach solves the assembly errors [...] Read more.
This work presents a new architecture concept for microfluidic devices, which combines the conventional 3D printing fabrication process with the stable and precise integration of polymeric functional materials in small footprints within the microchannels in well-defined locations. The approach solves the assembly errors that normally occur during the integration of functional and/or sensing materials in hybrid microfluidic devices. The method was demonstrated by embedding four pH-sensitive ionogel microstructures along the main microfluidic channel of a complex 3D printed microfluidic device. The results showed that this microfluidic architecture, comprising the internal integration of sensing microstructures of diverse chemical compositions, highly enhanced the adhesion force between the microstructures and the 3D printed microfluidic device that contains them. In addition, the performance of this novel 3D printed pH sensor device was investigated using image analysis of the pH colour variations obtained from photos taken with a conventional camera. The device presented accurate and repetitive pH responses in the 2 to 12 pH range without showing any type of device deterioration or lack of performance over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemosensors in Biological Challenges)
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14 pages, 4438 KiB  
Article
Inhibitors of the RBD-ACE-2 Found among a Wide Range of Dyes by the Immunoassay Method
by Ekaterina D. Mordvinova, Polina A. Nikitina, Olga I. Yarovaya, Ekaterina A. Volosnikova, Denis E. Murashkin, Anastasiya A. Isaeva, Tatiana Y. Koldaeva, Valery P. Perevalov, Nariman F. Salakhutdinov and Dmitriy N. Shcherbakov
Chemosensors 2023, 11(2), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11020135 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1498
Abstract
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the functional receptor of SARS-CoV-2, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. ACE2 targeting holds the promise for preventing and inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this work, we describe the development and use of a test system based [...] Read more.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the functional receptor of SARS-CoV-2, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. ACE2 targeting holds the promise for preventing and inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this work, we describe the development and use of a test system based on competitive ELISA for the primary screening of potential antiviral compounds. We studied the activity of the library of dyes of different groups. Several dyes (ortho-cresolphthalein, eosin (free acid), eosin (Na salt)) that inhibited the interaction of ACE2 with the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 have been identified among the candidates. A potential antiviral drug, methylene blue, did not show activity in our study. We believe that our results can help in the further search for inhibitors of interaction between the coronavirus spike protein and ACE2 receptor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemosensors in Biological Challenges)
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18 pages, 1474 KiB  
Article
Evaluation by a GC Electronic Nose of the Differences in Volatile Profile Induced by Stopping Fermentation with Octanoic and Decanoic Acid to Produce Sweet Wines
by Cornel Baniţă, Oana Arina Antoce and George Adrian Cojocaru
Chemosensors 2023, 11(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11020098 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Due to their inhibitory effect on the growth and fermentation of yeasts, medium-chain fatty acids can be used for the production of naturally sweet wines. Addition of octanoic acid, decanoic acid or their combinations is able to stop the alcoholic fermentation, reducing at [...] Read more.
Due to their inhibitory effect on the growth and fermentation of yeasts, medium-chain fatty acids can be used for the production of naturally sweet wines. Addition of octanoic acid, decanoic acid or their combinations is able to stop the alcoholic fermentation, reducing at the same time the doses of sulphur dioxide addition needed for the same goal in the classical technologies. Doses in the range of 10–30 mg L−1 of these acids were used, and their effect on the aroma profile of the sweet wines obtained was evaluated by using a chromatographic electronic nose with two columns. Based on the chromatographic peaks, which are considered the sensors of this e-nose, differentiation of the wines treated with octanoic or decanoic acids is easily achieved. The acid doses, the type of acid and also the yeast used for fermentations have all detectable influences on the volatile profiles of the wines. Discriminant factor analysis was applied on the e-nose data to separate the wines obtained with different treatments. Several differences in the content of the volatile compounds were identified and discussed in view of their sensory influences and the impact of treatment and yeast, respectively. Special attention was given to the formation of ethyl octanoate and ethyl decanoate which, at acid additions over 10 mg L−1, are formed in quantities which have a detectable influence on the aromatic profile. Ethyl octanoate and decanoate are produced in direct relation to the dose of the corresponding acids, but the yeast named ST leads to higher amounts of ethyl decanoate while the one named ERSA leads to higher amounts of ethyl octanoate. In accordance with the e-nose results, the aromatic profile obtained by stopping the fermentation with decanoic acid and using the ERSA yeast is more complex, the wines thus produced preserving more of the varietal and fermentation aroma. This research will be continued at an industrial scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemosensors in Biological Challenges)
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21 pages, 1363 KiB  
Article
Kullback–Leibler Importance Estimation Procedure to Improve Gas Quantification in an Electronic Nose
by Daniel Alejandro Piracoca Gordillo, Maria Camila Cardenas Castellanos, David Nicolás Torres Barrera, Jaime Alberto Escobar Gomez, Juan Felipe Nieto Sanchez and Jersson X. Leon-Medina
Chemosensors 2022, 10(12), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10120538 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1779
Abstract
An electronic nose sensor array can classify and quantify different types of gases; however, the sensor can alter its measurement capability over time. The main problem presented during the measurements of the sensors is related to the variation of the data acquired for [...] Read more.
An electronic nose sensor array can classify and quantify different types of gases; however, the sensor can alter its measurement capability over time. The main problem presented during the measurements of the sensors is related to the variation of the data acquired for long periods due to changes in the chemosensory response, thus affecting the correct functioning of the implemented measuring system. This research presents an approach to improve gas quantification through the implementation of machine learning regression techniques in an array of nose-type electronic sensors. The implemented methodology uses a domain adaptation approach with the Kullback–Leibler importance estimation procedure (KLIEP) to improve the performance of the gas quantification electronic nose array. This approach is validated using a three-year dataset measured by a 16-electronic-nose-sensor array. The R2 regression error obtained for each of the gases fits the resulting dataset’s measured values with good precision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemosensors in Biological Challenges)
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14 pages, 4327 KiB  
Article
Development and Field Validation of Low-Cost Metal Oxide Nanosensors for Tropospheric Ozone Monitoring in Rural Areas
by Jaime Gómez-Suárez, Patricia Arroyo, María Cerrato-Álvarez, Esther Hontañón, Sergio Masa, Philippe Menini, Lionel Presmanes, Raimundo Alfonso, Eduardo Pinilla-Gil and Jesús Lozano
Chemosensors 2022, 10(11), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10110478 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
This work describes the technical features and the performance of two different types of metal-oxide semiconductor sensors, based on ZnO:Ga thin films and SnO2-G nanofibrous layers, for tropospheric ozone monitoring in ambient air. These nanostructures were tested and compared with commercial [...] Read more.
This work describes the technical features and the performance of two different types of metal-oxide semiconductor sensors, based on ZnO:Ga thin films and SnO2-G nanofibrous layers, for tropospheric ozone monitoring in ambient air. These nanostructures were tested and compared with commercial metal-oxide semiconductor sensors under controlled laboratory conditions and in a field campaign during summer 2021 in Monfragüe National Park (western Spain). The paper also details the design of the electronic device developed for this purpose. A machine learning algorithm based on Support Vector Regression (SVR) allowed the conversion of the resistive values into ozone concentration, which was evaluated afterward. The results showed that the manufactured sensors performed similarly to the commercial sensors in terms of R2 (0.94 and 0.95) and RMSE (5.21 and 4.83 μg∙m−3). Moreover, a novel uncertainty calculation based on European guides for air quality sensor testing was conducted, in which the manufactured sensors outperformed the commercial ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemosensors in Biological Challenges)
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Review

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46 pages, 11055 KiB  
Review
Sensing of Digestive Enzymes—Diagnosis and Monitoring of Pancreatitis
by Jiaju Yin, Tianrui Cui, Yi Yang and Tian-Ling Ren
Chemosensors 2023, 11(9), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11090469 - 22 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1459
Abstract
This paper is a comprehensive review of the techniques for the detection of pancreatic enzymes, which are common biochemical indicators of pancreatitis, including amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and lipase. Pancreatitis is a disease with self-digestion due to the abnormal activation of digestive enzymes [...] Read more.
This paper is a comprehensive review of the techniques for the detection of pancreatic enzymes, which are common biochemical indicators of pancreatitis, including amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and lipase. Pancreatitis is a disease with self-digestion due to the abnormal activation of digestive enzymes in the pancreas. Hospitalization is often required due to the lack of convenient therapeutic agents. The main recent results are reported in this review, especially the techniques that enable portability and Point-of-Care testing (POCT). This is because timely diagnosis at the early stage and avoiding recurrence after recovery are the keys to treatment. It is also important to reduce the rate of misdiagnosis and to avoid overtreatment. Various detection methods are discussed, with particular attention given to the implementation of chemical sensing and probe design. The new sensing technology for digestive enzymes makes it possible to perform early screening for pancreatitis in remote areas or in one’s own home. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemosensors in Biological Challenges)
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26 pages, 47860 KiB  
Review
Toward Dynamic Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells Exploiting Specific Molecular Recognition Elements
by Rong Ding, Mengxue Ye, Yijie Zhu, Yingyan Zhao, Qi Liu, Ya Cao and Jingjing Xu
Chemosensors 2023, 11(2), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11020099 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2105
Abstract
Dynamic detection, as one of the core tenets in tumor diagnosis, relies on specific recognition, rapid reaction, and significant signal output. Circulating tumor cells that carry the most complete information of neoplastic lesions are analytes of interest for sensor designer. To overcome the [...] Read more.
Dynamic detection, as one of the core tenets in tumor diagnosis, relies on specific recognition, rapid reaction, and significant signal output. Circulating tumor cells that carry the most complete information of neoplastic lesions are analytes of interest for sensor designer. To overcome the deficiencies in the use of antibodies, some antibody-like structures were used to integrate chemosensors, such as molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and aptamer conjugates that may perform specific detection of analytes. The sensors inherited from such structurally stable molecular recognition materials have the advantage of being cost-effective, rapid-to-fabricate and easy-to-use, whilst exhibiting specificity comparable to antibody-based kits. Moreover, the fabricated sensors may automatically perform quantitative analysis via digital and microfluidic devices, facilitating advances in wearable sensors, meanwhile bringing new opportunities and challenges. Although most MIPs-based sensors for tumor diagnosis to date have not been practically used in hospitals, with no doubt, material innovation and artificial intelligence development are the driving forces to push the process forward. At the same time, the challenges and opportunities of these sensors moving forward to intelligent and implantable devices are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemosensors in Biological Challenges)
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31 pages, 4798 KiB  
Review
Laser-Scribed Graphene-Based Electrochemical Sensors: A Review
by Wilson A. Ameku, Masoud Negahdary, Irlan S. Lima, Berlane G. Santos, Thawan G. Oliveira, Thiago R. L. C. Paixão and Lúcio Angnes
Chemosensors 2022, 10(12), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10120505 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3587
Abstract
Laser scribing is a technique that converts carbon-rich precursors into 3D-graphene nanomaterial via direct, single-step, and maskless laser writing in environmental conditions and using a scalable approach. It allows simple, fast, and reagentless production of a promising material with outstanding physicochemical features to [...] Read more.
Laser scribing is a technique that converts carbon-rich precursors into 3D-graphene nanomaterial via direct, single-step, and maskless laser writing in environmental conditions and using a scalable approach. It allows simple, fast, and reagentless production of a promising material with outstanding physicochemical features to create novel electrochemical sensors and biosensors. This review addresses different strategies for fabricating laser-scribed graphene (LSG) devices and their association with nanomaterials, polymers, and biological molecules. We provide an overview of their applications in environmental and health monitoring, food safety, and clinical diagnosis. The advantages of their integration with machine learning models to achieve low bias and enhance accuracy for data analysis is also addressed. Finally, in this review our insights into current challenges and perspectives for LSG electrochemical sensors are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemosensors in Biological Challenges)
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